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Cancer is a disease in which some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into the surrounding tissue. Ovarian cancer has been a disease affecting the current women’s generation. provide a brief essay about ovarian cancer
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Is whats ovarian cancer?
What are the common symptoms of ovarian cancer?
How can the disease be diagnosed and detected?
What are the current researchers and studies on ovarian cancer?
Describe palliative care that is associated with ovarian cancer?
Is there a prognosis for the disease?
Give the possible therapy and treatment methods for the condition?
Please review all required guidelines and instructions, paper must be at least 300 words with at least 2 requiredsources. Please no plagirism.
Cancer is a disease in which some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into the surrounding tissue. Ovarian cancer has been a disease affecting the current women’s generatio
11 Ovarian Cancer Name Professors Name Course Date Abstract While ovarian cancer is no longer the leading cause of mortality in most women, it is still the most common gynecological malignancy (Sung et al., 2021). A woman’s ovaries are affected by ovarian cancer. Women who have had a few ovulation cycles are more susceptible to the sickness. It is complicated to detect ovarian cancer in its early stages unless screening and diagnostic methods are used. A global increase in the incidence of ovarian cancer is occurring daily (Sakhuja et al., 2017). As a result, more effective preclinical analyses and initial phase-clinical testing are needed in the early phases to select active drugs. Approximately 95 percent of patients diagnosed early are saved, but those screened at a later stage are only protected by about 5 percent. After a woman is diagnosed with ovarian cancer, she may have surgery and chemotherapy, among other therapies (Sakhuja et al., 2017). Introduction Ovarian cancer is a disease that affects women’s reproductive organs, namely the ovaries. The condition is usually only discovered when the tumors grow in a specific abdomen area, and the cancer cells target the reproductive organs (Chien & Poole, 2017). Ovarian cancer begins in the abdomen before spreading to other body regions. There may be no vague symptoms in the early stages of the disease. Those who have ovulated for a lengthy period are more likely to suffer from this illness (Modugno & Edwards, 2012). The ovulation factor would include women who have never had children, those who experience ovulation in their early life stages, or those who may reach menopause at an older age (Modugno & Edwards, 2012). There is a possibility that ovarian cancer may be passed on from one generation to the next. Women who have mutations in their BRCA1 or BRCA1 genes are responsible for up to 50% of the disease’s genetic inheritance. Ovarian carcinoma is the most frequent kind of ovarian cancer in the tumor. The signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer are diverse. Signs and Symptoms This malignancy often presents with just vague or nonexistent symptoms in its early stages. Aside from ovarian torsion, the early stages of ovarian cancer seem to be relatively painless. In the early stages of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), stomach and pelvic discomfort, pelvic and back pain, frequent or urgent urination, vaginal and menstrual bleeding, bleeding before or after copulation and early satiety are possible symptoms. Ovarian cancer should be recognized if these symptoms begin to occur more often than previously, especially if there is no prior history of similar signs (Gajjar et al., 2012). The peritoneum may be irritated in adolescents and children, causing significant stomach discomfort or bleeding; for example, fluid might accumulate in the abdomen as the tumor progresses. Intestinal masses, pleural effusions, and lymph node masses are all possible side effects of cancer progression. An annual pelvic exam is the only recommended screening for all females. This can’t be used to detect the earliest stages of ovarian cancer since it’s usually found in the future. An ovarian cancer diagnosis should be a greater priority for women since early detection may lead to successful treatment. According to a study done in the United States, 95 percent of patients in the early stages are treated. Screening of any sort must be accurate and reliable to appropriately identify the condition and avoid false-positive results that do not have cancer (Gajjar et al., 2012). Prevention The surgical removal of the ovaries may be an option for women who have a high hereditary risk of developing cancer. After the birth of a kid, this is a common practice. This reduces the likelihood of breast cancer and tumor cancer spreading simultaneously. Those who have BRCA gene mutations should have their oviducts surgically removed. This procedure is necessary because these women may also have cancer of the fallopian tubes. However, the statistics may overestimate or underestimate the danger, depending on how they are analyzed (TEMKIN et al., 2017). Whether a family or generation has a history of tumor cancer, genetic counselors are commonly consulted to see if the individual should be tested for BRCA mutations. Management and Treatment Chemotherapy and surgery are common treatments for ovarian cancer. Regardless of the subtype of ovarian cancer, radiation may be used. Advanced treatment would be necessary if any more aggressive cancers in the ovary (TEMKIN et al., 2017). Surgery and chemotherapy may be used to treat patients with advanced stages of the illness. Borderline tumors that might extend to the ovary’s exterior portions are ineffective with surgery and chemotherapy; thus, more study is needed to find a better solution (TEMKIN et al., 2017).. Surgery Surgery is chosen because it is necessary to get tissue samples for histological analysis, which is essential for a precise diagnosis. The sort of surgery is determined by the speed of spreading, stage, and the type and rate of cancer under-diagnosis. Most of the time, both ovaries are removed, although this isn’t always the case (Llueca et al., 2020). The uterus and omentum may be released under certain circumstances. Only the oviduct is removed in low-level, stage-IA cancers. This is most common among young women who may want to avoid having children in the future (Llueca et al., 2020). It is possible to do this kind of procedure on women who have already given birth or reached menopausal age. A second operation is necessary to remove the ovary and uterine when metastasis has been established. Before the procedure, tranexamic acid would be administered to reduce the need for a blood transfusion due to blood loss (Llueca et al., 2020). Chemotherapy After surgery, chemotherapy is often used to treat any remaining illness. Chemotherapy may be used in conjunction with surgery in some instances. Adjuvant chemotherapy may be necessary if this procedure fails to help the patient (Lheureux et al., 2019). Radiation Therapy Radiation is the most effective treatment for dysgerminomas, even resulting in infertility. In the early stages of cancer symptoms, radiation therapy is indicated for cancer patients. After surgery, radiation treatment is used to treat cancer that has progressed to an advanced phase (Lheureux et al., 2019). Palliative Care This treatment tries to alleviate a patient’s symptoms and improve her quality of life. Any female with advanced ovarian cancer or substantial symptoms should get palliative care as part of their treatment plan; Controlling cancer’s symptoms and challenges is part of palliative care. The possible side effects are nausea, constipation, discomfort, intestinal blockage, mucositis, pleural effusion, and edema (Lheureux et al., 2019). When cancer has progressed to the point that it is incurable, management is the primary goal of treatment. For example, palliative care may help the patient decide whether hospice care is appropriate (Lheureux et al., 2019). It is possible to use radiation treatment as part of palliative care for ovarian cancer since it reduces the tumors that cause symptoms (Lheureux et al., 2019). Prognosis It is common for ovarian cancer to have a relatively poor prognosis. Diagnoses are often made later since there is no apparent earlier detection or screening evaluation. Tumour cancer typically spreads to other parts of the body before a diagnosis is made; tumor malignancy might lead to complications such as ascites, loss of multiple organs, intestine, and blockage that could be fatal. Ovarian cancer patients die most often from an intestinal blockage in various body parts. A tumor in the ovary might clog the digestive tract, resulting in a backup of the intestinal lumen. Additionally, pseudo-obstruction may impede peristalsis (Chien & Poole, 2017). Research Researchers are testing ovarian cancer screening methods. The CA-125 marker and transvaginal ultrasound are two screening procedures that may be used alone or in combination for daily screening. If a woman’s CA-125 protein levels are high, this might indicate ovarian cancer; however, this isn’t always the case, and not all women with ovarian cancer have high CA-125 values (Dochez et al., 2019). A transvaginal ultrasound uses an ultrasound probe inserted into one’s vagina rather than scanning the abdomen (Charkhchi et al., 2020). Conclusion Ovarian cancer is a disease that may harm any woman in the world. As a result, females should be screened sooner rather than later. Cancer mortality reduction is possible if women are screened at least twice a year. To avoid ovarian cancer, women should use all preventative measures they can. References Charkhchi, P., Cybulski, C., Gronwald, J., Wong, F., Narod, S., & Akbari, M. (2020). CA125 and Ovarian Cancer: A Comprehensive Review. Cancers, 12(12), 3730. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12123730 Chien, J., & Poole, E. (2017). Ovarian Cancer Prevention, Screening, and Early Detection. International Journal Of Gynecological Cancer, 27, S20-S22. https://doi.org/10.1097/igc.0000000000001118 Dochez, V., Caillon, H., Vaucel, E., Dimet, J., Winer, N., & Ducarme, G. (2019). Biomarkers and algorithms for diagnosing ovarian cancer: CA125, HE4, RMI and ROMA, a review. Journal Of Ovarian Research, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13048-019-0503-7 Gajjar, K., Ogden, G., Mujahid, M., & Razvi, K. (2012). Symptoms and Risk Factors of Ovarian Cancer: A Survey in Primary Care. ISRN Obstetrics And Gynecology, 2012, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/754197 Lheureux, S., Braunstein, M., & Oza, A. (2019). Epithelial ovarian cancer: Evolution of management in the era of precision medicine. CA: A Cancer Journal For Clinicians. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21559 Llueca, A., Serra, A., Climent, M., Segarra, B., Maazouzi, Y., Soriano, M., & Escrig, J. (2020). Outcome quality standards in advanced ovarian cancer surgery. World Journal Of Surgical Oncology, 18(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12957-020-02064-7 Modugno, F., & Edwards, R. (2012). Ovarian Cancer: Prevention, Detection, and Treatment of the Disease and its Recurrence. Molecular Mechanisms and Personalized Medicine Meeting Report. International Journal Of Gynecologic Cancer, 22(Supp 2), S45-S57. https://doi.org/10.1097/igc.0b013e31826bd1f2 Sakhuja, S., Yun, H., Pisu, M., & Akinyemiju, T. (2017). Availability of healthcare resources and epithelial ovarian cancer stage of diagnosis and mortality among Blacks and Whites. Journal Of Ovarian Research, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13048-017-0352-1 Sung, H., Ferlay, J., Siegel, R., Laversanne, M., Soerjomataram, I., Jemal, A., & Bray, F. (2021). Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries. CA: A Cancer Journal For Clinicians, 71(3), 209-249. https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21660 TEMKIN, S., BERGSTROM, J., SAMIMI, G., & MINASIAN, L. (2017). Ovarian Cancer Prevention in High-risk Women. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology, 60(4), 738-757. https://doi.org/10.1097/grf.0000000000000318