Case Study Signature assignment (1250-1750 words) and power point presentation (5-8 slides)

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This assignment has two parts. It contains a paper and power point presentation. you MUST follow the rubric and complete the requirements of the rubric. See word doc for instructions. BE SURE TO ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS. IT IS BEST TO BOLD THE QUESTION SO IT IS EASILY IDENTIFIED IN YOUR PAPER. 

Week Four:. Signature Assignment Case Study

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Instructions

“Decisions, Decisions” .

Suppose University Memorial Hospital is deciding whether or not to build and operate its own day-care center. As you write your Signature Assignment paper, please 
consider the following:

***PLEASE FOLLOW THE RUBRIC LISTED BELOW FOR PAPER***

PAPER INCLUDES: Executive Summery, Introduction, content, answer all the question below, conclusion, APA Format.

1. Who are the possible stakeholders and what would their respective expectations be of the new center?

2. What data would/could you gather and how would you gather it to support or contradict your decision. Using a strategic planning process, describe the steps in the process that would best support this project.

3. Prepare a SWOT analysis to guide your decision to build and operate the center, or not.

4. What teams would need to be formed and what might the roles be?

5. What positions would need to be in place?6.

6. How would the manager of the Day Care Center control and motivate associates so they can reach the highest level of performance

7. What would be the determinants of success?

8. What should be done to create a successful culture? (Motivation theories, leadership behaviors, etc.)

9. What should the communication plan look like?

10. What decision making process would you utilize to check your decision to build and operate the Day Care Center or not.

· Your written assignment must be formatted in APA using a cover letter, page numbers, running head, and reference page. Sources must be cited in text per APA guidelines.

· No errors in grammar, punctuation, spelling, sentence structure or writing mechanics should be evident.

· A minimum of three references are required.

· Required word count is 1250-1750.

Create a 1–2minute (5-8 slides) power point presenting your Executive Summary to the CEO of University Memorial Hospital.

USE THE SIGNATURE ASSIGNMENT RUBRIC PROVIDED TO ENSURE MAXIMUM POINTS. (see below)

Rubric Name: Week Four Signature Assignment Rubric “Decisions, Decisions”

Print Rubric

Criteria

Highly Developed

18.75 points

Developed

15 points

Basic

12 points

Needs Improvement

10 points

Not Present

5 points

Criterion Score

Executive Summary

The ES presents a succinct, 120 words, single- paragraph overview that clearly states the paper’s intent, with proper formatting and placement in the paper. Addresses all components of an Executive Summary

The ES presents a succinct, 120 words, single- paragraph overview that states the paper’s intent, but could be more concise and clearer with proper formatting and placement in the paper.

The ES presenting a 120-word paragraph was not present or may not be formatted or placed properly in the paper.

An ES is attempted but is not properly formatted and is not close to the needed word count.

The ES is not present or does not reflect the necessary requirements.

Score of Executive Summary,

/ 18.75

Introduction

The introduction is engaging, states the main topic and previews the structure of the paper

The introduction states the main topic and previews the structure of the paper.

The introduction states the main topic but does not adequately preview the structure of the paper.

The introduction unclearly states the topic and does not adequately preview the structure of the paper.

The introduction is not present or does not reflect the necessary requirements

Score of Introduction,

/ 18.75

Content

Each paragraph has thoughtful, supporting, detail sentences that develop the main idea.

Each paragraph has sufficient, supporting, detail sentences that develop the main idea.

Some paragraphs lack supporting detail sentences that develop the main idea.

Most paragraphs lack supporting detail sentences. The main idea is not clearly conveyed.

The content is not present or does not reflect the necessary requirements.

Score of Content,

/ 18.75

Requirements of the Paper

All questions posed in the assignment were answered in a clear and concise way that contributed to the main content of the paper and word count met. (750-1250 MIN). This includes the 1 minute video presenting the ES.

All questions posed in the assignment were answered that contributed to the main content of the paper and word count met. Some ideas are slightly unclear. (750-1250 MIN) The 1 minute video was slightly unclear.

Most questions posed in the assignment were answered that contributed to the main content of the paper and word count met. Many ideas are unclear. The ES video was unclear.

Some questions posed in the assignment were answered but were not clear and concise or word count was not met nor were the requirements for the video.

Many questions were left unanswered or do not reflect the necessary requirements, including the 1 minute video.

Score of Requirements of the Paper,

/ 18.75

Conclusion

The conclusion is engaging, succinctly addressed the main points, and restates the thesis.

The conclusion restates the main points and the thesis

The conclusion restates the thesis but misses some main points

The conclusion misses many main points, partially restates the thesis, or includes new ideas.

The conclusion is not present or does not reflect the necessary requirements.

Score of Conclusion,

/ 18.75

Mechanics

No errors in grammar, punctuation, capitalization, or spelling. Paper clearly conveys position and thoughtful reflection.

No errors in grammar, punctuation, capitalization, or spelling.

Almost no errors in grammar, punctuation, capitalization, or spelling.

Many errors in grammar, punctuation, capitalization, or spelling.

Substantial errors in grammar, punctuation, capitalization, or spelling

Score of Mechanics,

/ 18.75

APA In-text Citations and References

All In-text cited works, both text and visual, are done in a correct format with no errors. All cited references are done in a correct format with no errors.

Many In-text cited works, both text and visual, are done in a correct format. Minor inconsistencies are evident. Many cited references are done in a correct format. Minor inconsistencies are evident.

Some In-text cited works, both text and visual, are done in a correct format. Inconsistencies evident. Some cited references are done in a correct format. Inconsistencies evident.

Few In-text cited works, both text and visual, are done in a correct format. Few cited references are done in a correct format.

The APA in-text citations and references are not present or do not reflect the necessary requirements.

Score of APA In-text Citations and References,

/ 18.7

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HCA 620

Health Organization Management

Welcome to the Week Four lecture for HCA 620 Health Organization Management.

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Week Four

Motivation

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This week we will start with Motivation. Click on the continue button to begin.

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Motivation Theories

Motivation is the “set of forces that leads people to behave in particular ways.”

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Motivation is the “set of forces that leads people to behave in particular ways.” Reading this definition carefully, we realize that motivation is not the act of doing something; it is the forces that lead people to do something. When managers motivate employees, they apply forces to create workers’ desire and willingness to behave a certain way.

However, managers must realize that motivation is not enough to ensure a worker actually behaves as desired. For example, Matt may be motivated to shampoo the waiting room carpet at a medical group practice in Albany. But if the carpet-cleaning equipment is broken, Matt will be unable to do that task despite his motivation. The same would happen if his boss reassigned him to some other task that was more urgent.

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Motivation Theories

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory (based on physiological survival, safety and security, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization).

Herzberg’s two-factor theory (based on hygiene factors and motivators).

Vroom’s expectancy theory (based on effort, performance, outcome).

Skinner’s reinforcement theory (based on rewards and punishments).

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This chapter examines motivation theories (sometimes referred to as motivation approaches or motivation perspectives).

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory (based on physiological survival, safety and security, belongingness, esteem, self-actualization).

Herzberg’s two-factor theory (based on hygiene factors and motivators).

Vroom’s expectancy theory (based on effort, performance, outcome).

Skinner’s reinforcement theory (based on rewards and punishments).

Use of human needs theories is challenging because workers belong to four or even five generations that have different values, motivators, interests, and feelings about work. So which of these theories or approaches should a leader use? Like many other aspects of management, it depends. We know that in HCOs today, workers are very diverse regarding their generations, ethnicities, and other characteristics.

These differences cause differences in values, preferences about work, and motivators. For example, the American culture values achievement, and Eastern cultures value harmony. Further, a person’s motivators may change over time. When Adrianna graduates from college with loans to repay, she will be motivated by money. After she repays her loans, she may be more motivated by opportunities for professional growth. When it comes to motivation, one size does not fit all.

4

Motivation Theories

So as a manager, what should you do?

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So as a manager, what should you do?

First, assess the situation and people. Second, choose appropriate motivation methods to fit the situation and people. Figure out what brings pleasure to each of your employees. If you can provide that through their work, it may help motivate them to work. If an employee gains pleasure from being with other people and forming friendships, then be sure the job provides opportunities for social interaction. Think about this advice as you study each motivation theory.

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory

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Abraham Maslow theorized in the 1950s that human motivation comes from five basic human needs that have a hierarchical order—from the lowest, most basic need for physiological survival to the highest need for self-fulfillment. He thought people had to fulfill their lowest unsatisfied need before they would be motivated by higher needs. Thus, they would have to fulfill their physiological survival need before the safety need would motivate them.

View the diagram for a better understanding of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Examples

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View the table for a better understanding of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Examples.

7

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Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory

To motivate workers, first reduce dissatisfaction, then increase satisfaction

Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are mostly caused by different factors… though some factors can affect both

Satisfaction associated with intrinsic motivator factors Dissatisfaction associated with extrinsic hygiene factors
Achievement Company policies
Growth Pay
Recognition Supervision
Responsibility Working conditions

In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Frederick Herzberg studied workers and concluded that they are motivated by things that increase feelings of satisfaction. Herzberg’s research led him to conclude that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are caused by different factors. One group of factors, which he labeled hygiene, is associated with dissatisfaction. Hygiene (maintenance) factors are extrinsic—external to the work itself—and would generally fit with Maslow’s three lower needs. Hygiene factors include company policies, pay, supervision, coworkers, and other work conditions. If these are adequate, they prevent workers from feeling dissatisfied. If workers are dissatisfied, improving the hygiene factors reduces their dissatisfaction. Herzberg argued that better hygiene factors would make workers feel less dissatisfied but would not make them feel more satisfied.

So what would satisfy workers? A second group of factors, which Herzberg labeled motivators, come from the work itself and include achievement, growth, recognition, challenge, autonomy, and responsibility. Herzberg believed motivators are intrinsic—internal to the work—and arise from the content of the work itself and how it makes a worker feel. Motivators could be viewed as equivalent to Maslow’s two higher needs. For example, feeling achievement and fulfillment after completing a new, challenging project comes from the work itself. Herzberg argued that workers are motivated to do work that includes more motivators, which would enable the workers to realize more satisfaction. These motivators would not reduce or affect dissatisfaction, however.

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Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory

Managers should ensure adequate pay, supervision, policies, and coworker relationships and provide safe, secure jobs and working conditions.

Limitations arise when culturally diverse workers grow up with different feelings about hygiene factors (e.g., following rules, interacting with supervisors, accepting a job’s working conditions) and about motivators (e.g., desire for achievement, challenge, autonomy).

Herzberg advised managers to first use hygiene factors to reduce workers’ dissatisfaction. Managers should ensure adequate pay, supervision, policies, and coworker relationships and provide safe, secure jobs and working conditions. When workers do not feel dissatisfied, managers should then design jobs and work to enable workers to experience motivators and satisfaction. Managers should organize their employees’ work for achievement, recognition, autonomy, responsibility, fulfillment, growth, and respect.

This two-factor theory became popular, but it has weaknesses. For example, some hygiene factors can affect both dissatisfaction and satisfaction. Sometimes both hygiene and motivator factors can motivate workers to higher levels of performance. Workers may perform better because a hygiene factor (e.g., a big pay raise) also provides a form of recognition and thus is a motivator. Limitations arise when culturally diverse workers grow up with different feelings about hygiene factors (e.g., following rules, interacting with supervisors, accepting a job’s working conditions) and about motivators (e.g., desire for achievement, challenge, autonomy). Research findings are mixed and seem to depend on other factors, such as an employee’s organization level and age.

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Herzberg’s Two Factors Theory

Increase workers’ work variety with different activities and skills.

Increase workers’ work identity with responsibility to complete a whole piece of work.

Increase workers’ work significance with awareness of how work affects other people.

Increase workers’ work autonomy with freedom and choice regarding work decisions.

Increase workers’ work feedback with clear information about job performance.

Despite its limitations, managers often use the two-factor theory. As a manager, pay attention to both dissatisfaction and satisfaction and realize that different factors might be needed to reduce dissatisfaction and to increase satisfaction. When applying the two-factor motivation theory, you might first have to improve hygiene factors such as working conditions and rules so that workers do not feel dissatisfied. Then, you can increase motivators to increase job satisfaction—and work motivation. This step may require redesigning jobs to give workers more opportunities for achievement, recognition, growth, responsibility, and self-accountability. To do so, you can follow Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model:

Increase workers’ work variety with different activities and skills.

Increase workers’ work identity with responsibility to complete a whole piece of work.

Increase workers’ work significance with awareness of how work affects other people.

Increase workers’ work autonomy with freedom and choice regarding work decisions.

Increase workers’ work feedback with clear information about job performance.

Based on: work effort, performance, outcomes.

– Outcomes must be valued by worker.

Will worker’s work effort produce performance needed to obtain valued outcome ?

– If worker expects answer is “yes,” worker is motivated to give the effort to produce the performance to obtain the outcome.

Workers are not motivated if they:

– Expect performance and outcomes not within their control.

– Do not value the outcome.

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

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The expectancy theory of motivation was developed by Victor Vroom and others, also in the 1960s. Work effort, performance, and outcomes are the main components of this theory. It “suggests that people are motivated by how much they want something and the likelihood they perceive of getting it. Let’s imagine Latasha is an associate in a healthcare consulting company in St. Louis. She could improve her work to earn a year-end pay bonus.

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

Latasha considers whether her improved work effort would be likely to produce good enough job performance.

Does she expect that her better effort will be enough to create the necessary level of performance?

Or will other factors (e.g., lazy coworkers, broken equipment) interfere with her improved work effort and prevent achieving sufficiently improved performance?

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Latasha considers whether her improved work effort would be likely to produce good enough job performance. Does she expect that her better effort will be enough to create the necessary level of performance? Or will other factors (e.g., lazy coworkers, broken equipment) interfere with her improved work effort and prevent achieving sufficiently improved performance?

Latasha considers to what extent improved work performance would obtain the desired outcome. Is the outcome tightly connected to her job performance? If she improves her work and produces better job performance, will she really get that pay bonus? Or will the bonus depend on other factors, such as the company’s overall financial situation?

Latasha considers how strongly she wants the outcome. How much does she really want the bonus pay? The extra money would be great, but how about the added stress and having to work late some days? Would it all really be worth it?

Taken together, this approach argues that Latasha will wonder if her effort will produce the performance needed to obtain a valued outcome. The more she really wants the pay bonus—and expects that her improved work effort will produce the performance needed to obtain that bonus—then the more motivated she will be to improve her work effort.

Research generally supports this theory, although it has weaknesses. Expectancy theory assumes that workers (e.g., Latasha) rationally and logically do the mental calculations, yet in reality they might not. Also, even if workers try to rationally calculate the value of rewards, they might easily misjudge the connection between effort and performance or between performance and outcome. Finally, some workers feel outcomes are not within their control and instead are mostly influenced by other forces and events, so why bother? If workers perceive favoritism or a biased boss, applying expectancy theory will be less effective. Expectancy theory, like others, is culturally biased and thus works better in some countries and cultures (e.g., the United States) than in others (e.g., Brazil, China) depending on the extent to which workers feel they can control their work, performance, and outcomes.

Consider a student who attended college on a scholarship and had to maintain a B average (performance level) to keep her scholarship (valued outcome).

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

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As a manager, you can use this approach to motivate workers as long as you realize its limitations. Workers may put forth the effort you want if they expect their work will lead to the performance level that will earn them the rewards they desire. Realize that the value of rewards (outcomes) varies according to people’s unique needs. Suppose two workers—Ricardo and Ahmad—work in a hospital’s information systems department in Northridge. Ricardo wants personal growth and new experiences, whereas Ahmad prefers more vacation days. As an incentive to improve job performance, the hospital offers to send one worker to the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society conference. Ricardo would value (and be motivated by) that reward more than Ahmad would.

Students sometimes are motivated to study based on expectancy theory. Consider a student who attended college on a scholarship and had to maintain a B average (performance level) to keep her scholarship (valued outcome). She wondered how much she had to study for a final exam. After thinking about it, she expected that if she studied five hours (effort), that would be enough to earn at least a B on the exam (performance), which would be enough to maintain her scholarship (valued outcome).

Uses stimulus, response, consequence (reinforcement).

Manager stimulates worker (e.g., goal, instruction)

Worker responds (e.g., behavior, action)

Consequence follows (e.g., reward, punishment)

Workers motivated by consequences (reinforcements) of their behaviors and actions.

Reinforcement works best when:

Workers know how it relates to their behavior

Consequence is big, yet small consequences can reinforce

It promptly follows behavior

Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory

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The final motivation theory discussed here comes from B. F. Skinner’s work in the mid-1900s. Skinner thought that people learn from and become motivated by the consequences of their behavior. More recently, social learning theory has shown that people also learn from and become motivated by observing other people’s behavior and consequences.) Let’s examine reinforcement theory and how a leader can use it:

The theory begins with a stimulus—a leader’s policy, instruction, or goal that informs a worker what should be done. This stimulates the employee to behave (or not behave) a certain way. The leader can also state which consequences will occur if the employee does (or does not) behave the desired way.

The stimulus is followed by a response, which is the worker’s behavior or action.

That response is followed by a consequence, which is one of four kinds of reinforcement by the leader (described later). Depending on what the consequence (reinforcement) is, it might increase or decrease the frequency of that response (behavior) in the future. The consequence motivates the employee to respond a certain way.

Leaders must think carefully about which behaviors are reinforced or not reinforced, intentionally or unintentionally.

Sometimes a leader unintentionally gives something positive to a worker and thereby reinforces unwanted behavior.

Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory

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Sports coaches often use this method with players and teams. Duke University men’s basketball coach Mike Krzyzewski has won five National Collegiate Athletic Association championships and more than one thousand games. Coach K (as he is known) is a master motivator who uses reinforcement theory with players. Parents also use this method with children and teenagers. Can you recall examples from your life? Managers use reinforcement theory with employees in HCOs. Managers can increase or decrease the frequency of a specific work behavior by using positive or negative consequences.

A leader gives something positive (e.g., verbal praise) as a consequence of behavior. This action reinforces desired behavior and makes it more likely to reoccur.

A leader removes something negative (e.g., having to work every third weekend) as a consequence of behavior. This action reinforces desired behavior and makes it more likely to reoccur.

A leader gives something negative (e.g., a verbal warning) as a consequence of behavior. This action makes unwanted behavior less likely to reoccur.

A leader removes something positive (e.g., catered lunch each Friday) as a consequence of behavior. This action makes unwanted behavior less likely to reoccur.

Leaders must think carefully about which behaviors are reinforced or not reinforced, intentionally or unintentionally. Sometimes a leader unintentionally gives something positive to a worker and thereby reinforces unwanted behavior. For example, in a meeting the leader gives time and attention to a disruptive person, which reinforces disruptive behavior. The leader should avoid the positive reinforcement—time and attention—so that the undesired behavior decreases and stops. Further, in the meeting the leader might forget to commend a helpful person who contributes good ideas. Because he does not positively reinforce that desired behavior, that person might not contribute as much in the future. During the meeting, the leader should thank someone who contributes good ideas—then that behavior will more likely be repeated.

Managers should be cautious about removing a positive consequence that employees have become used to because, after a while, employees assume it is permanent.

Managers should also be cautious about punishments as consequences and clearly explain the reason for them.

Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory

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Reinforcement theory works best when there is a clear relationship between someone’s response to a stimulus and the consequence of that response. Although big consequences are more noticeable than small consequences, even small, symbolic consequences may be effective. Prompt consequences to behavior are more effective than delayed consequences. However, the consequence does not have to occur for every response. The relationship may vary, such as an immediate reward for every response initially and then, after some improvement, a reward for every third or fourth response. What really matters is that employees know how consequences relate to their behaviors.

Managers should be cautious about removing a positive consequence that employees have become used to because, after a while, employees assume it is permanent. Managers should also be cautious about punishments as consequences and clearly explain the reason for them. If employees perceive those consequences as unfair or undeserved, they will feel resentment, anger, and hostility that can jeopardize future working relationships or make the worker try to secretly “get back at” the boss. Managers should strive to reinforce good behavior, ensure they do not reinforce bad behavior, and avoid punishing bad behavior too often. Finally, managers must know their employees as individuals to properly apply motivational theory.

Power: The ability to influence others to achieve outcomes

Power

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The use of power is important for leading, influencing, directing, and motivating. For example, although not stated explicitly, reinforcement theory involves the use of power to create consequences (e.g., rewards and punishments). In management, we can think of power as “the ability of one person or department in an organization to influence other people to bring about desired outcomes”. To be more concise, power is the ability to influence others to achieve outcomes. Some people think power and authority are the same, but authority is just one type of power. What are other types of power?

View the table for a better understanding of Power: The ability to influence others to achieve outcomes.

Power

A person in an HCO can have certain personal powers based on her character, behavior, abilities, values, and so forth. A person can develop a range of personal powers, and these can change over time.

A position in an HCO—such as quality manager in a hospice—can have certain positional powers based on the position itself: its responsibilities, authority, place in the organization structure, and so forth.

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People and managers use multiple sources and types of power. Some are tied to a specific person, and others are tied to a specific position in an organization. A person in an HCO can have certain personal powers based on her character, behavior, abilities, values, and so forth. A person can develop a range of personal powers, and these can change over time. A position in an HCO—such as quality manager in a hospice—can have certain positional powers based on the position itself: its responsibilities, authority, place in the organization structure, and so forth. Whoever is appointed to the position is granted and may use the position’s powers. When that person leaves the position, she no longer can use that position’s powers. In an organization’s vertical hierarchy, higher-level managers establish and may change positional powers of lower-level positions, such as by decentralizing more authority to a lower position.

The early work of John French and Bertram Raven in the mid-1900s identified five types of power: legitimate, reward, coercive, expert, and referent. Further study of power in organizations has identified others . Exhibit 10.4 defines various personal powers and positional powers and gives examples of each. Note that types of power may overlap and are not entirely independent of each other.

Returning to the Here’s What Happened at the beginning of this chapter, which types of power do you think people used at Partners HealthCare?

Managers use politics to lead and influence others.

– Normal and common in organizations.

– Arises from conflicts and decisions.

Intensity and manner varies based on:

– Organization culture.

– Behavior considered acceptable.

Politics may help organization.

– When used to resolve conflict and make decisions.

Politics may harm organization.

– When used in self-serving ways.

– When used contrary to official goals, policies, values, rules.

Organizational Politics

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Managers and others who have power may use it by engaging in politics to influence decisions and resolve conflicts. Politics enables their organization to move forward to achieve its goals. Politics is “the use of power to influence decisions” to achieve desired outcomes. Politics involves using force other than one’s job performance and professional competence to increase one’s stature, gain advantage, and influence others. Politics is a normal part of organization life and can be helpful or harmful to an organization.

Politics and political behavior arise from conflicts and disagreement about goals, scarce resources, task interdependence, and other aspects of organizations. However, the intensity and manner of politics may vary depending on each organization’s culture and the behavior it considers acceptable. Managers may use politics as an appropriate positive force to resolve disagreements and reach decisions so the organization can proceed with a course of action. Sometimes stubborn conflict paralyzes an organization for months or longer until someone uses power and politics to influence enough stakeholders to reach a decision.

Appeal—ask for a favor or support “because we are friends”

Coalition—build a group of supporters and loyal followers

Consultation—consult others for advice or about decisions and goals

Exchange—give others something they want in return for a favor

Ingratiation—flatter and praise others

Inspiration—appeal to others’ ideals, hopes, values, and aspirations

Legitimacy—refer to authority, official documents, formal rules, and precedents

Pressure—coerce, harass, or persistently remind

Reason—persuade using facts, logic, and rational thinking

Organizational Politics

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When managers use power in self-serving ways that are contrary to the organization’s goals, policies, values, and rules, then politics is negative. A manager who wants the big office that became available may engage in politics by spreading false rumors to discredit someone else vying for the office. In these situations, people feel “playing politics” is bad—or nasty, dishonest, manipulative, unfair, deceptive, unethical, and self-serving. This is a common view of organization politics, and it hurts employee morale, satisfaction, and job performance.

The following list contains political tactics managers, groups, and other people use to influence others and gain their support:

Appeal—ask for a favor or support “because we are friends”

Coalition—build a group of supporters and loyal followers

Consultation—consult others for advice or about decisions and goals

Exchange—give others something they want in return for a favor

Ingratiation—flatter and praise others

Inspiration—appeal to others’ ideals, hopes, values, and aspirations

Legitimacy—refer to authority, official documents, formal rules, and precedents

Pressure—coerce, harass, or persistently remind

Reason—persuade using facts, logic, and rational thinking

Scarcity of resources (e.g., budgets, staff, promotions, space, opportunities).

Unclear or unknown organization goals.

Many layers of management in the vertical hierarchy.

No information or fuzzy, unclear information; rumors and gossip rather than clear, hard data.

Power consolidated in one person or only a few people.

Unequal dependencies among people.

Complacent organization culture that does not care.

Organizational Politics

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Other methods involve controlling who has access to which information, which conflicts, and decisions get attention, who provides input on decisions, and how one looks in the organization. Unprofessional tactics include starting deceptive rumors and sabotaging a rival’s work. A person engages in politics to influence other people. Those people may respond to political tactics by actively supporting the person and her requests, actively opposing the person and her requests, or offering passive support or passive resistance. Multiple political tactics might be used over an extended period of time to try to influence people—perhaps succeeding and perhaps not. The effectiveness of politics varies depending on the people and situation. asserts that effective managers use “soft power” (personal traits and relationships) more often than “hard power” (based on job authority).

Unfortunately, managers and others who have power sometimes abuse it. Power is more likely to be abused in the following situations. Managers should try to prevent abuse of power by minimizing these situations in their HCOs

Scarcity of resources (e.g., budgets, staff, promotions, space, opportunities)

Unclear or unknown organization goals

Many layers of management in the vertical hierarchy

No information or fuzzy, unclear information; rumors and gossip rather than clear, hard data

Power consolidated in one person or only a few people

Unequal dependencies among people

Complacent organization culture that does not care

Note that new managers often focus on the technical parts of their job while overlooking the political aspects. They focus on tasks to complete a project without realizing the politics of the project. New managers can benefit by understanding organization politics in their HCO. As a manager, you should watch how people practice politics and develop your ability to use it appropriately.

One More Time

Leading involves motivating (influencing).

Managers motivate others at all levels of an HCO.

Various theories and methods deal with motivation.

Effectiveness depends on people and situation.

Managers must choose motivation methods that fit the people and situation.

Power and politics are used to influence others.

Make decisions, resolve conflict, achieve goals.

Managers should develop understanding and use of types of power and political tactics.

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Leading involves motivating (influencing).

– Managers motivate others at all levels of an HCO.

– Various theories and methods deal with motivation.

Effectiveness depends on people and situation.

– Managers must choose motivation methods that fit the people and situation.

– Power and politics are used to influence others.

Make decisions, resolve conflict, achieve goals.

– Managers should develop understanding and use of types of power and political tactics.

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Week Four

Culture

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Next, we will discuss about Culture.

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Organization culture:

Is shared

Is learned

Evolves slowly

Is mostly invisible

Guides behavior

Is powerful

What Is Culture?

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Culture: Values, norms, guiding beliefs, and understandings shared by members of an organization and taught to new members as correct.

Enacted (actual) culture may differ from espoused (proclaimed) culture.

Organization culture:

Is shared

Is learned

Evolves slowly

Is mostly invisible

Guides behavior

Is powerful

Forces & Factors That Influence HCO Culture

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

View the diagram for a better understanding of Forces and Factors That Influence HCO Culture.

25

Organizational culture can. . .

Help workers understand the HCO.

Help employees figure out what to do in situations not covered by rules, standards, and policies.

Strongly influence employees to work, act, think, feel, and behave a certain way.

Purpose & Benefits of Culture

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26

Culture of a distinct part of organization (e.g., team or department).

Subculture exists within organization culture.

Subculture differs somewhat from organization culture.

Different departments (e.g., housekeeping, accounting, surgery, marketing) may have different subcultures.

Due to departments’ different goals, values, technology, size.

Conflict may arise if subcultures are too different from main organizational culture.

Subcultures

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Q: How can managers shape and create a desired culture for their organization?

A: Manage forces and factors that influence culture (see exhibit 11.1)

Use forces and factors to socialize employees

Organizational socialization: Process by which employees learn (and share with others) their organization’s culture

Managers must work persistently

Shape culture

Socialize workers

Short-term “quick fixes” will not last

Shaping & Managing Culture

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Values and moral principles about what is right and wrong

Part of culture

Four ethical principles that guide healthcare:

– Autonomy includes individual privacy, freedom of choice, self-control.

– Beneficence includes doing good, acting for the benefit of others.

– Justice includes fairness and equality.

– Nonmaleficence includes doing no harm, or at least avoiding unnecessary harm.

What Is Ethics?

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Types of Ethics in HCOs

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

View the table for a better understanding of Types of Ethics in HCOs.

Ethics come from:

Organization’s external environment

The organization

People in the organization

Sources of Ethics

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Top managers of HCO responsible for creating and maintaining ethics of the HCO.

– Should not make all ethics decisions in HCO.

Managers create organization structures, processes, and cultures that enable others to make ethics decisions in their areas of responsibility.

– Organizing principles, tools, methods.

e.g., mission statement, policies, procedures, jobs, committees, codes, hotlines.

Human resources principles, tools, methods

e.g., performance evaluations, compensation, training, job design, employee protection.

Leadership principles, tools, methods

e.g., goal setting, role modeling, motivating

Creating & Maintaining Ethics in an HCO

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

32

One More Time

Culture in an organization is shared values, norms, guiding beliefs, understandings taught to new members as correct.

Subculture is culture of a distinct part of an organization (e.g., a team) that exists within organization’s culture.

Culture evolves from forces inside and outside organization.

Leaders shape and manage organization’s culture.

Culture includes ethics (values about right and wrong).

Ethics in HCOs include managerial ethics, medical ethics, professional ethics, and social responsibility ethics.

Managers create structures, processes, and methods to enable people throughout HCO to make ethical decisions in their areas of responsibility.

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Culture in an organization is shared values, norms, guiding beliefs, understandings taught to new members as correct.

Subculture is culture of a distinct part of an organization (e.g., a team) that exists within organization’s culture.

Culture evolves from forces inside and outside organization.

Leaders shape and manage organization’s culture.

Culture includes ethics (values about right and wrong).

Ethics in HCOs include managerial ethics, medical ethics, professional ethics, and social responsibility ethics.

Managers create structures, processes, and methods to enable people throughout HCO to make ethical decisions in their areas of responsibility.

33

Week Four

Professionalism

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Next, we will discuss about Professionalism.

34

Ability to align personal and organizational conduct with ethical and professional standards.

Responsibility to the patient and community

Service orientation

Commitment to lifelong learning and improvement

Personal and professional accountability

Professional development

Contributions to community and profession

Honesty, integrity, respect, fairness   

Professionalism

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

35

Ability to recognize and understand emotions in yourself and others, and ability to use this awareness to manage your behavior and relationships.

An essential employability skill at any level.

Recall definition of management: the process of getting things done through and with people.

– Managers must understand their own emotions and emotions of other people in order to manage.

Emotional Intelligence

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Ability to recognize and understand emotions in yourself and others, and ability to use this awareness to manage your behavior and relationships

An essential employability skill at any level

Recall definition of management: the process of getting things done through and with people

– Managers must understand their own emotions and emotions of other people in order to manage

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Self-awareness: Ability to perceive your emotions accurately as they happen.

Self-management: Ability to use emotional awareness for self-control.

Social awareness: Ability to understand people’s emotions and how people react to you.

Relationship management: Ability to use social skills to relate to others to influence them.

Emotional Intelligence: Four Skills

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Self-awareness: Ability to perceive your emotions accurately as they happen.

Self-management: Ability to use emotional awareness for self-control.

Social awareness: Ability to understand people’s emotions and how people react to you.

Relationship management: Ability to use social skills to relate to others to influence them.

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Ability to interact effectively with people of different cultures.

People are diverse in many aspects of culture and identity.

Diversity leads to differences in values, languages, behaviors, beliefs, appearances, many aspects of life and work.

Managers of HCOs need cultural competence to:

Manage diverse workforce

Ensure cultural competence and inclusion throughout HCO

Cultural Competence

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38

Communication

Transmitting a message to someone else to develop shared understanding.

Primary purpose is to create understanding between and among people.

Managers frequently use communication to perform all management functions.

Various kinds of communication:

– One-to-one, one-to-group, group-to-group

– Intentional, unintentional

– Formal, informal

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

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Directions of Communication

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View the table for a better understanding of Directions of Communication.

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Barriers

Environmental barriers

Television in background

Blocked cell phone signal

Vertical hierarchy

Ambulance siren

Weak lighting

Closed door

Others

Barriers can distort or block communications at all stages of encoding, sending, receiving, and decoding

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Personal barriers

Personality

Limited hearing

Emotions

Multitasking

Beliefs

Medication

Others

Barriers can distort or block communications at all stages of encoding, sending, receiving, and decoding

Environmental barriers:

Television in background

Blocked cell phone signal

Vertical hierarchy

Ambulance siren

Weak lighting

Closed door

Others

Personal barriers:

Personality

Limited hearing

Emotions

Multitasking

Beliefs

Medication

Others

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One More Time

Professionalism is the ability to align personal and organizational conduct with ethical and professional standards.

Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize and understand emotions in yourself and others, and the ability to use this awareness to manage your behavior and relationships.

Cultural competence is the ability to interact effectively with people of different cultures.

Communication involves transmitting a message to someone else to develop shared understanding.

Managers use professionalism, emotional intelligence,

cultural competence, and communication

to perform management jobs.

Copyright © 2019 Foundation of the American College of Healthcare Executives. Not for sale.

Professionalism is the ability to align personal and organizational conduct with ethical and professional standards.

Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize and understand emotions in yourself and others, and the ability to use this awareness to manage your behavior and relationships.

Cultural competence is the ability to interact effectively with people of different cultures.

Communication involves transmitting a message to someone else to develop shared understanding.

You have concluded with the Week Four Interactive Presentation. Please proceed back to Week Four in Blackboard to continue the curriculum for Week Four.

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