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Hello I have to reply to two peers in each of the discussions so it would be a total of four replies it is attached
Hello I have to reply to two peers in each of the discussions so it would be a total of four replies it is attached
First discussion Building a cohesive team is an art. Different people come together with the same purpose and form a team and their feeling towards the team along with motivation are what make them part of the team and to remain a team member. Team cohesion leads to successful performance. This is because when team members work with the same interest and goals then there are higher chances of getting good performance.The Model of Cohesion, developed by Carron in 1982, has been used to research cohesiveness in a sports team. Cohesion can be defined as the factors influencing a group to keep the group members together so that they achieve the goals they have set. Carron’s model of cohesiveness has 4 major factors that influence cohesiveness.• Environment – The groups that have lesser members increases the amount of communication within the members of the group which strengthen the social bond. • Personal – The characteristics of an individual are also an important factor that influences cohesiveness. If all members of the group are motivated to achieve the same goal, are from similar backgrounds, have the same attitudes and have the same levels of commitment to the group is more likely to be cohesive.• Leadership – leadership styles are very important in order to have a cohesion group. It all depends on the leadership style that the leader chooses to adopt. The three most common leadership styles are autocratic (major decisions are made by the leader), democratic (the group discusses before making a decision) and Laissez-faire (leader expects others to solve major issues without being directly involved.)• Team – the group members form a team. A team needs to stay together for them to function as a group. This allows the members to spend more time with each other and build a strong relationship. It is typically seen that a team that has seen successes and failures together over a period of time show a greater level of cohesion.Questions to ask whether a team is suffering from too much cohesion would be:• Are group members may make irrational decisions? Moral/ethical consequences that may occur due to decisions are usually ignored. Decisions are made for the harmony and conformity among the group members without critical evaluation, which can lead to loss of individual creativity and independence of thinking as outside influences and perspectives are suppressed.• Are members of the group “group-thinking”? The group will stop coming up with the original ideas. This allows the group to support each other’s view, rather coming up with the best idea to work upon.• Is the member size too small or too large?It is the duty if a leader to build them together so that each individual contributes towards the bigger goal(s). Team members must perform at their best skill level to meet the expectations of fellow team members so as to equally contribute towards the organizational goal(s). It is the responsibility of a team leader to make each individual understand what the impact of his performance is, so even if one single person doesn’t give his/her best level what impact it shall have on the team. As the leader you must motivate each individual. A motivated person tries hard to deliver and meet his expectations while a demotivated person doesn’t show interest or enthusiasm to work. Such people not only do not contribute in team building but also spread negativity in the team. It is the duty of the team leader to identify such people and understand their needs. It is clear that they are not getting motivated with methods used for others hence their specific needs need to be understood at a granular level.Other role of a leader is to clearly define the roles and responsibilities of each team member. They should be clear of their duties and roles.Conflict management is one key role of the team leader. Every team has conflicts as people in a team may have different ideologies and ways of working. Some conflicts are healthy as they bring out different and better ways of doing a particular job, but they get ugly when they happen at personal levels. Like one person not liking another. Conflict management is a test for the leader where he needs to prove that he can resolve such things and make all the team members work together in a cordial manner.Different techniques can be employed for team building like doing some activities on and off where people interact with each other and form personal bonds. Taking the team out for picnics or parties makes them know each other personally and in turn strengthening their bonding. All this is very essential because without trust or enough bonding no team can succeed. ReferencesNeck, C. P., Houghton, J. D., & Murray, E. L. (2016). Organizational Behavior: A Critical Thinking Approach. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. Example of student reply Hey Candice, I completely agree with you, building a cohesive team is an art form. There are many characteristics and steps that a team must go through in order to be a well-functioning team according to Tuckman’s model (Neck et al, 2020). I want to connect this topic to the Nature vs Nurture topic we discussed in previous chapters and how our environment greatly impacts us as individuals. Would you say that the environment in which a team works is most likely the key factor in how well that team functions? In real life, we know that not all team members have a close relationship with each other or are very personal yet many teams still function greatly due to the presence of great leadership and work environment (Neck et al., 2020). What do you think makes a great team? References Neck, C. P., Houghton, J. D., & Murray, E. L. (2020). Organizational behavior: A skill-building approach. Sage. Psychologist Bruce Tuckman developed group development model in 1965. Tuckman’s model has five stages; (i) forming, (ii) storming, (iii) norming, (iv) performing and (v) adjourning. When I was in college, one of the course’s final was a team project. The professor randomly selected the team members and we met altogether in the class. We discussed about our team’s goal, individual’s responsibilities, assigned the tasks and we learned about each other. It was the forming stage. During our meetings tension between the team members arose because there were disagreements during the discussions between the team members. In storming stage, there were conflicts but all members focused on the topic and worked hard. Norming stage is the process by which team members resolve the conflict and begin to work well together and become more cohesive (1). Our team passed the norming stage very well. We did work on our project after the classes and some of the team members did not attend the meeting physically but attended via video call instead. All group members were comfortable in asking questions and providing feedbacks during the meeting. At this stage we understood each other much better and we were getting closer to reach our goals. Overall, our team was ready for class presentation and discussion with strong arguments. We achieved our goal and completed performing stage successfully. We all got excellent grade in that course. Discussion day was the last day of the semester and the adjourning stage. After that day, I did not have any connection with the team. We worked as a group for approximately two months and had good synergy to accomplish our project. I think the 5 stages of Tuckman’s model could help increase the productivity and motivation of the group for a project. Example of student reply Fatma, I enjoyed reading your post. I feel Tuckman’s model represents a solid foundation for teams to follow in order for efficient results and balanced work. The text states in chapter 5, “Content theories explain why people have different needs at different times and how these needs motivate behavior. In other words, what are the types of factors that motivate people? … process theories describe the cognitive processes through which needs are translated into behavior. Simply put, process theories look at how our needs drive, influence, and sustain our behavior” (Neck, Houghton, and Murray, 1965). I feel this relates to your response because it is true, people prioritize different needs they may have occurring in their lives. Whether it be personal or business related, it is important that individuals and businesses understand and communicate how these needs we all have in our daily lives affect motivational behaviors in the workplace, especially regarding team efforts. You had mentioned, “The professor randomly selected the team members and we met altogether in the class. We discussed about our team’s goal, individual’s responsibilities, assigned the tasks and we learned about each other. It was the forming stage. During our meetings tension between the team members arose because there were disagreements during the discussions between the team members.” School as you stated, will sometimes pair us together anonymously and randomly for group projects. While it allows nerves to arise and creates apprehensiveness amongst all the members, it allows preparation as these types of things can happen in the professional business world. Do you believe that individuals nervousness, and personal priorities can alter not only their motivational levels but also the other team members? Yes, communication and introduction occurs when first joining together as a team, but so does disagreement. What are some things you learned in this experience that helped solve those disagreements? Neck, C. P., Houghton, J. D., & Murray, E. L. (1965). Organizational Behavior: A Skill-Building Approach (2nd ed.). Sage Publications, Inc. Second Discussion Think of a job that you have done in your life that you really enjoyed. Now also think of a job that you did that you hated going to work. Now with both the job you loved and the one you hated, what were the levels of competence, self-determination, impact, and meaningfulness that you felt in each job? Compare the two lists. What do you see? In comparing a that I really hated versus one I really loved, the differences in the psychological empowerment of competence, self-determination, impact, and meaningfulness were at the opposite ends. For the job I loved, I see that the psychological empowerments were high for all. I felt very competent in my ability to perform the work tasks successfully. I felt I had a great understanding of making and initiating work tasks for high self-determination. Because I was very competent and had high self-determination, I made a significant impact on work-related outcomes. With all those high degrees of empowerments previously mentioned, I felt there was a lot of value in my work and therefore had a lot of meaningfulness. The job that I hated was the complete opposite as it was on the other side of the spectrum. Further results from being at the lower end of the spectrum made me feel less motivated to go to work. I also had no desire to go above and beyond as I did just enough not to get fired. This ultimately resulted in me leaving my job in search of something better. Do certain types of jobs automatically lead to lower motivation over time? Why, or why not? Yes, certain types of jobs can lead to lower motivation over time. The text, in Chapter 6, mentions how seniority-based pay can lead to demotivation as employees know what their pay scale will be regardless of how they perform (Neck et al., 2020). Seniority-based pay is a guaranteed wage and salary increase based on the length of time of employment with the organizatixampleon (Neck et al., 2020). Jobs requiring high levels of fluid intelligence could also impact motivation and other things as the worker gets older. A study on US air controllers showed that experienced controllers over the age of 53 took the same time to reroute planes compared to the younger inexperienced controllers (Neck et al., 2020). However, the younger and experienced controllers took just half the time. These findings are why the US Federal Aviation Authority requires air traffic controllers to retire by age 56 (Neck et al., 2020). With not being able to perform at a continuously high level and with lives at stake motivation is sure to take a hit in jobs like this or similar. References Neck, C. P., Houghton, J. D., & Murray, E. L. (2020). Organizational behavior: A skill-building approach. Sage Example of reply Michael, nice post this week. You had mentioned, “For the job I loved, I see that the psychological empowerments were high for all. I felt very competent in my ability to perform the work tasks successfully. I felt I had a great understanding of making and initiating work tasks for high self-determination…Further results from being at the lower end of the spectrum made me feel less motivated to go to work. I also had no desire to go above and beyond as I did just enough not to get fired.” It is clear to me that you truly work your best and push your limits when you are in a field that makes you better as a person but also assists in knowledge growth for your interests. I have been in a similar situation where I hated a job so much it was honestly okay with me that I wasn’t showing my best efforts and potentially could get fired. I wonder, why didn’t you just leave the place you were fired at ahead of time if it was that bad? No one should feel like work is not a safe place or a dreadful experience. At least now you know these emotions and can prevent them from happening again in the future. In chapter 6 the text states, “Need for self-determination describes the feeling of motivation and control we get from making efforts that do not rely on any external influences” (Neck, Houghton, and Murray, 1965). I feel this term relates to your situation and concerns because like you said, certain types of jobs can lead to lower motivation over time. While it is up to the business itself to create an environment that is comfortable and upbeat so it radiates throughout their employees, it is also important that employees are self driven rather then bribed. Do you feel external influences are a lot of the reason why people stay at places they don’t necessarily like? Is that what happened with you at your job you did not like? Great post overall. Neck, C. P., Houghton, J. D., & Murray, E. L. (1965). Organizational Behavior: A Skill-Building Approach (2nd ed.). Sage Publications, Inc. Think of a job that you have done in your life that you really enjoyed. Now also think of a job that you did that you hated going to work. Now with both the job you loved and the one you hated, what were the levels of competence, self-determination, impact, and meaningfulness that you felt in each job? Compare the two lists. What do you see? In my current job, which I love, my level of competence, self-determination, impact, and meaningfulness are high. Here I have the ability to put my knowledge and experience to use in the way that allows me to feel satisfied and appreciated. That in turn adds to my self-determination to want to work harder because the impact of my hard work and experience has made a difference to the facility and its mission and core values of “bringing hope, healing and hospitality in a life giving care center” to all. “Disney employees involved in orchestrating the park to open on more days were rewarded with shares of Disney stock and a large paycheck. This validated their feelings of competence and self-determination, encouraging them to work even harder for the company.” (Neck, page 155) A previous job that I did not like did not afford me the above satisfaction and my level in these areas was low. I was not able to put my knowledge and experience to use. I was prevented from the doing the job I was hired to do, and many of my ideas and suggestions were listened to with half ears and basically discarded. It was very dissatisfying to go to work and not be able to put my skills to use. Do certain types of jobs automatically lead to lower motivation over time? Why, or why not? I don’t believe that certain types of jobs automatically lead to lower motivation over time because if the job is one that provides employees with “a level of autonomy and freedom to choose how to carry out their tasks and duties” (Neck, page 165) they will be more likely to enjoy their job and have better job performance than employees that don’t have the same freedoms. Motivation comes from being satisfied with your work and feeling appreciated for it and when employees see the impact their performance has on an organization and its customers or their fellow staff members it gives them the feeling of making a difference. Reference: Neck, Organizational Behavior, 2nd Ed., Sage Publishing, 2020 Neck, C. P., Houghton, J. D., & Murray, E. L. (2016). Organizational Behavior: A Critical Thinking Approach. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. Hi Catherine, I think you are one of the few people to disagree that jobs do not automatically lead to lower motivation. I believe it depends entirely on the person and the job. For example, some people are content with doing a 9-5 desk job from Monday-Friday. Whereas others, could never do it or do it as a career for the rest of their lives. Some people are okay with a “boring job” as long as it pays well. But with that desk job, sometimes you do not need as much effort put into your work. When interacting with people and having to travel to different clients, sites, and businesses it can be more challenging and require more effort. Not every job had the potential to automatically lead to lower motivation… but certain jobs do.