MULTIPLE CHOICE STUDY GUIDE WITH 70 QUESTION

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MULTIPLE CHOICE STUDY GUIDE WITH 70 QUESTION

MULTIPLE CHOICE STUDY GUIDE WITH 70 QUESTION
PA 310 Management of Urban Governments Exam # 3 Chapters 10 -16 Study Guide Dr. Kathleen Lang Part 3: Fields of Planning CHAPTER 10 Urban Design 1. An urban designer is responsible for a. identifying improvements that can be carried out quickly b. considering transportation needs between a city and its suburbs c. Many variables, such as transportation, neighborhood identity, pedestrian orientation, and climate d. working with politicians to formulate land -use policy e. designing buildings that integrate well into the surroundings 2. A ________ is a tool urban designers use to reproduce a mental map of an area a. blueprint b. topographical map c. functional analysis d. visual survey e. strategic planning tool 3. During the synthesis phase, the urban designer a. prepares the final design that will be presented to stakeholders b. gathers information about areas where growth and change are possible c. reviews architects’ b ids for design projects d. gathers data about the relationships between activities in the targeted area e. develops proposals to resolve conflicting demands 4. The skyways of Minneapolis illustrate ________, which is one goal of urban design a. the preservation of established neighborhoods b. the elimination of barriers to human movement c. the improvement of traffic congestion d. architectural innovation e. environmentally sound transportation options 5. A well -designed neighborhood is laid out to a. enable r esidents to reach their workplaces with ease b. have common areas that promote social relationships c. facilitate both small and large businesses d. have streets that minimize the need for residents to walking e. promote a peaceful and tranquil environment PA 310 Management of Urban Governments – Exam #3 Study Guide 6. A major objection neotraditionalists have to many suburbs is that they a. have sharply cornered streets that impede traffic flow b. are too far from major cities c. appear crowded d. destroy environmentally fragile areas e. are designed for automobiles, not pedestrians 7. One disadvantage of the pod and collector design is t hat a. drivers tend to avoid crowded collector roads by taking detours through residential areas b. the proximity of major shopping areas to residential areas creates security problems c. it forces residents to drive from one point in the pod to another d. parking for shoppers is inadequate e. space is not set aside for multifamily housing 8. An edge city is more spread out than a conventional urban center because it a. has a larger population b. encourages residences rather than businesses c. is automobile friendly and pedestrian unfriendly d. aims to be accessible to suburbanites on one side and to city dwellers on the other e. contains more land devoted to parks and outdoor recreation 9. Le Corbusier’s urban planning vision em phasized the idea that a. residences should be built far from the noise and pollution of highwa ys b. individuals are part of a larger group c. a community’s past should be protected in its current planning d. a house reflects the owner’s individualism and autonomy e. energy in the future will be scarce and expensive 10. Aside from Paolo Soleri’s megastructure design, most visions of urban design a. accommodate cars b. discourage automobile traffic c. emphasize mass transit d. envision high -density housing e. consider urban design’s social and psychological impact PA 310 Management of Urban Governments – Exam #3 Study Guide CHAPTER 11 Urban Renewal and Community Development 11. One reason why developers prefer to locate major projects on the urban fringe rather than in the city is that a. there is less commercial competition outsid e the city center b. small towns are more likely to welcome the potential tax income the developer can bring c. urban land is more likely to be contaminated by pollutants d. a parcel of city land is more likely to be divided among many owners e. there are fewer land -use regulations in the urban fringe 12. What is a benefit of urban renewal? a. There is an increase in quality low -cost housing for the poor b. Cities are better able to compete economically with their suburbs c. Community participation in urban renewal projects ensures that the program’s goals are met d. Urban vacancy rates tend to drop in areas of urban renewal e. Investments rise in areas that have been earmarked for urban renewal 13. In contrast to urban renewal, community development programs emphasize a. providing new homes for low -income families in areas that are to be redevelop ed b. close federal supervision of any projects receiving federal funds c. rehabilitating buildings rather than demolishing them d. acquiring substandard housing through eminent domain e. avoiding economic competition with surrounding suburbs 14. The federal government uses ________ rather than funds for specific cat egories to fund community development projects a. funding from private developers b. substitutive funding c. block grants d. low -interest loans e. bonds 15. W hat occupies the most land in most cities and towns? a. Commerce b. Housing c. Public Services d. Transportation e. Recreational Land PA 310 Management of Urban Governments – Exam #3 Study Guide 16. Public policy has different, sometimes contradictory, approaches to housing because a. what is legal in some regions may not be in others b. population densities change as different regions attract population shifts c. it must respond to different constituencies d. policies change with every new political administration e. academic planning philoso phies change over time f. 17. How can a community encourage private investment in low – and moderate -income housing? a. Reduce the number of regulations that developers must abide by b. Lower the property tax rate c. Create land -use controls that permit less expensive housing types d. Encourage commercial development to create a need for housing for workers e. Restrict development of a tract of land to single -family homes 18. To qualify for any federal community development funds, a community must a. meet a minimum requirement of low -income workers b. submit a detailed proposal of the des ired development project c. change its zoning to permit multiple uses of land d. analyze the housing needs of lower -income renters e. show that it can afford to cover costs that are not covered by federal funding 19. Since the 1990s, ________ made mortgage lending looser and looser, encourag ing practices that led to the collapse of the housing bubble in 2006 a. strict mortgage regulation b. flipping houses c. mortgage amortization d. securitization e. Government Sponsored Enterprises (GSEs) 20. The sharp i ncrease in foreclosures since 2006 has impacted municipalities is by a. dragging down property values around abandoned homes b. increasing lower -income housing c. forcing many local banks to close d. improving their eligibility for the Home Affordable Modificati on Program (HAMP) e. making it easier to rehabilitate a decaying neighborhood through eminent domain PA 310 Management of Urban Governments – Exam #3 Study Guide CHAPTER 12 Transportation Planning 21. The area of public transportation that is experiencing the greatest growth in percentage terms is a. paratransit b. heavy rail c. carpooling d. intercity rail service e. biodiesel buses 22. From an urban planner’s point of view, one benefit of intercity rail is that it a. can be subsidized by the federal gover nment b. freight can be transported by rail rather than by trucks, reducing air pollution c. reduces unemployment in edge cities d. provides an inexpensive alternative to slower kinds of mass transit e. encourages compact development in the areas it serves 23. Financing public transportation is radically different fr om private transportation, because a. no one wants to pay for it b. it serves a poor population c. it is labor -intensive, making it expensive d. the numbers of riders are very high e. employees must be specially trained 24. Mass transportation is largely paid for by a. fares b. private investors c. sales of assets d. government subsidies e. reinvested profits 25. An example of coordination between transportation planning and land -use planning is the a. Washington Beltway b. New York City Highline c. Intersta te Highway System d. Amtrak System e. Atlanta Beltline PA 310 Management of Urban Governments – Exam #3 Study Guide 26. A ________ must be created before transportation planning begins a. gravity model b. modal split estimate c. trip distribution estimate d. geographic database e. computer model 27. Why do transportation planners evaluate different patterns of future land use rather than extrapolating from current land use? a. To predict likely future land -use laws b. Transportation planning and land -use planning go hand -in-hand c. To determine which transportation plan would be safest and least expensive d. To determine what would be the greatest possible population density of an area e. To encourage municipalities to change land -use laws to accommodate more efficient transportation 28. Transportation planning requires both citizen and business i nput, but decisions ultimately a. a municipality to contribute to part of the costs of improved public transportation b. come out of the political process c. automobile manufactures contribute to the costs of improved road infrastructures d. future housing developments to be built to accommodate public transportation routes e. half of each transportation grant to be devoted to safety improvements 29. An example of a transportation demand management (T DM) technique is a. creating more public transportation to decrease the number of cars on the road b. reducing the amount of land reserved for parking, forcing more commuters to use public transportation c. encouraging businesses to increase t elecommuting d. constructing additional highway lanes reserved for buses e. reducing tolls on bridges and tunnels that link cities and their suburbs 30. Dynamic tolling reduces traffic congestion by a. removing tolls for high -occ upancy vehicle (HOV) lanes b. replacing human toll collectors with electronic sensors c. earmarking a toll road’s income to its own improvements d. changing tolls for high -occupancy toll (HOT) lanes as they become more or less congested e. eliminating tolls on certain highways during high -density driving times PA 310 Management of Urban Governments – Exam #3 Study Guide CHAPTER 13 Economic Developmen t Planning 31. In the 1820s, a group of New York City ________ paid to build the Erie Canal to gain commercial advantage over Boston and Philadelphia a. politicians b. planners c. bankers d. architects e. merchants 32. Many early railroads were funded by a. federal tax revenues b. bank loans c. money raised by municipalities d. investments by groups of speculators e. grants from research agencies 33. Structural unemployment can occur when a. fede ral policy intentionally reduces economic development in an area b. unemployment remains high despite federal attempts to reduce its causes c. an area’s unemployed workers lack the skills for the jobs that are available d. an employer moves out of an area and reduces its workforce to fit its changing structure e. large numbers of the une mployed give up looking for work 34. The belief that ________ underlies conservative opposition to the use of federal funds to improve the economy in poor areas a. economic development is the responsibility of the private sector, not the government b. a decrease in federal regulations will produce more wealth in all social classe s c. population movement to the suburbs has reduced the urban labor force d. ordinary market forces should be allowed to bring business to the most efficient locations e. urban areas will recover on their own in time 35. What was one of the major reasons that Mercedes -Benz and BMW opened automobile assembly plants in the United States? a. The states involved offered generous subsidy packages b. Labor was less expensive in the United States than in Germany c. The federal government offered the companies tax relief d. The companies wanted to increase their U S market e. U S environmental and employment regulations are less rigorous than those in Germany PA 310 Management of Urban Governments – Exam #3 Study Guide 36. What is one argument for a state adopting right -to -work laws? a. To ensure fairness in employee -employer relations b. To qualify for increased federal fundin g c. To improve the state economy by training skilled workers d. To attract businesses away from states that permit unions e. To identify and develop new industries suited to the geographies of impoverished areas 37. What is one motivation for local communities seeking to encourage economic development even when unemployment is not a problem? a. To diversify the local community b. To force states to develop better infrastructure in the region c. To give local citizens a better choice of goods and servi ces d. To give local citizens better and more diversified employment options e. To bring in more property tax revenue without raising property taxes 38. Planners and economic developers can come into conflict because planners ________, whereas economic developers are focused on attracting new business a. want to work with existing resources b. prefer maintaining the size of the community c. want to ensure the quality of life for residents d. want to please current businesses e. want development to fit into the master plan 39. In a(n) ________, businesses are given tax breaks to encourage new investment a. windfall b. small – area finance arrangement c. business investment district d. municipal industrial park e. enterprise zone 40. The most direct way communities can promote economic growth is by a. providing access and utilities to land that will be developed in the distant future b. enticing firms away from neighboring communities c. offering tax incentives to manufacturers d. zoning large tracts of suitable land for commercial development e. limiting the number of high -tech firms, which tend to be instable, in an area PA 310 Management of Urban Governments – Exam #3 Study Guide CHAPTER 14 Growth Management, Smart Growth, Sustainable Development, and Planning for Catastrophe 41. The growth management movement was strengthened by a. a growing public concern about the environment b. an economic downturn and the loss of jobs c. legal challenges to exclusionary zoning d. the development of interstate highways e. the decline of urban centers as people moved to the suburbs 42. Which group does not benefit from growth management? a. Owne rs of undeveloped land b. Homeowners c. Owners of rental property d. Wealthy citizens e. Elected local politicians 43. To manage growth, Fort Collins, Colorado, a. has created zoning districts that specify how much land can be subject to impervious cover b. has created a permanent greenbelt around the city c. has designated an “urban growth area” to which urban development standards apply d. requires over 20 percent of developments with more than five units be “affordable ” e. restricted the number of building permits per year 44. Bucks County, Pennsylvania, reacted to growth pressure by a. requiring that a percentage of low -income housing be built in every new development b. restricting commercial development in favor of residential development c. designating development districts and districts where development is discouraged d. designating certain areas for multifamily housing e. requiring developers whose projects interfere with storm water runoff to build new sewage lines 45. One reason why Hawaii instituted statewide land -use controls was that a. agriculture was important to the state economy b. tourism was important to the state economy c. counties had conflicting land -use regulations d. a large percentage of the population could not afford increasingly expensive housing e. undevelo ped land was not providing revenues for the state PA 310 Management of Urban Governments – Exam #3 Study Guide 46. New Jersey’s Meadowlands Development Commission instituted ________ so that it could direct development to certain areas without protests from other areas a. a coordinated planning system b. urban growth boundaries (UGBs) c. concurrency requirements d. property tax sharing e. regionwide environmental planning 47. Growth management is most likely to succeed when a. the state has the power to enforce local land -control regulations b. a community can avoid paying the costs of land development by forcing development elsewhere c. the community is small and public opinion supports growth management d. environmental regulations improve the qualit y of a community so that more people wish to move there e. the jurisdiction is large enough to be able to work displacement effects into its plan 48. Because of traffic congestion, proponents of smart growth tend to support a. creating new highways to encourage development in less crowded areas b. requiring land developers to provide more secondary roads in developments c. investing in mass transit in the suburbs d. employing the compact community development favored by New Urbanists e. concentrating businesses in commercial strips 49. Sustainable development planning calls for a. designing communities that include the means of producing their own energy b. encouraging agriculture near communities by means such as land -use regulations c. setting aside a percentage of open land to be developed by future generation s d. improving infrastructure in suburban areas close to urban areas e. coordinating environmental, soci al, and economic goals 50. Why can Manhattan be seen as environmentally virtuous from a sustained development perspective? a. Because of its high population density, inhabitants have less environmental impact than do people who live in the suburbs b. Although most of the natural environment has been paved over, Manhattan has one of the largest urban parks in the country c. Because of urban renewal programs, new housing could be created without developing open city land d. In spite of extensive manufacturing and commercial activities, stringent air and water regulations have kept the environment healthy e. Although there is little open land, a wide diversity of birds and small animals have adapted to urban conditions PA 310 Management of Urban Governments – Exam #3 Study Guide CHAPTE R 15 Environmental and Energy Planning 51. By focusing on one environmental issue at a time, an environmental planner may a. drive up costs of environmental remediation b. unintentionally cause new problems in other areas of the environment c. have more time to miti gate public opposition at each stage of the plan d. clarify the relationship of one environmental problem to others e. unfairly penalize some polluters 52. One way that global warming is likely to affect an urban planner’s job is by a. causing cities or states to fight over resources such as water rights b. causing increasingly violent storms that delay planning and construction projects c. causing climate changes that affect population movement d. motivating countries to collaborate in finding alternative sources of energy e. motivating Americans to give up their cars and demand pedestrian -friendly cities 53. From the 1960s to the present day, environmental pollution has a. stabilized and in some cases declined b. increased dramatically c. increased gradua lly d. decreased dramatically e. declined in some cases but increased dramatically in others 54. What is the advantage of uniform national environmental standards? a. States do not have enough experience in environmental protection to determine effective standards b. Uniform national standards simplify the process of rehabilitating the environment c. Uniform national standards are best for controlling pollution that has multiple sources d. If all states have the same standards, then businesses will not abandon or avoid states with strict standards e. Uniform national standards force other countries to improve their environmental records 55. The 1992 energy bill helped boost solar and wind power by a. Since the 1960s, there has been widespread public demand for clean energy b. Federal subsidies to producers of clean energy since the 1990s have encouraged innovative and cost -efficient technology c. Allowing homeowners to install solar panels and sell excess generated power back to the utility company d. Local resistance to the presence of wind and solar farms has decreased because of political instability in the oil -producing countries of the Middle East e. The continuously rising costs of oil and gasoline have created popular support for clean energy in the past decade PA 310 Management of Urban Governments – Exam #3 Study Guide 56. How did the Nationa l Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) affect planning? a. It has reduced environmental regulations that discouraged industries from locating in certain areas b. It required large projects using federal funding to file publicly accessible environmental impact statements c. It provided stimulus funding for intercity high -speed rail d. It required states to produce water quality plans e. It created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 57. What was one consequence of the Superfund ruling that owners of contaminate d sites must bring them up to EPA standards? a. Property values rose near contaminated sites once the decision was made to clean up the site b. Developers became reluctant to purchase old industrial sites c. Representatives of Western states in Congress rebelled, arguing that Superfund regulation interfered with landowners’ rights d. Superfund sites in suburban areas were restored faster than in urban areas because developers were eager to acquire suburban land e. Lawsuits by current owners of Superfund properties aga inst earlier owners multiplied 58. Land -use planning can reduce ________ by encouraging the development of residential areas near commercial and retail areas a. energy consumption b. air pollution c. solid waste d. water shortages e. pollution from manufacturing 59. The LEED rating system can motivate builders to construct environmentally superior buildings because a. municipalities often provide grants to cover construction costs for such buildings b. fed eral economic development subsidies are reserved for builders who conform to LEED standards c. it is easier to obtain low -interest mortgages for buildings that will receive LEED certification d. LEED certification is a selling point for environmentally conscious buyers e. LEED certification guarantees that buyers they be reimbursed if the building does not meet LEED standards PA 310 Management of Urban Governments – Exam #3 Study Guide 60. Community energy production systems serve to a. make communities independent of large utilities b. increase local revenues by selling energy to large utilities c. force down the prices charged by large utilities so that they can compete d. reduce the cost of waste disposal e. reduce traditional energy use CHAPTER 16 Planning for Metropolitan Regions 61. Planning for economic development can be more effective on a regional scale because a. the labor market is regional b. the region can more effectively compete against cities c. housing costs, which are usually a family’s biggest expense, are determined at a regional level is controlled at a regional level d. some municipalities have less available land than others e. environmental degradation can be distributed evenly rather than burden only one locality 62. Why is regional, rather than local, planning best when dealing with water supply? a. Water sources and delivery systems extend beyond municipal boundaries b. State and co unty organizations can better afford to hire expert hydrologists c. Federal regulations stipulate that communities must not deprive neighboring communities of access to water d. Regional collaboration is more likely to prevent water pollution e. Local opponents to the disturbances involved in improving water supply have less influence in an entire region 63. Unlike a regional planning agency, a public authority a. is purely advisory b. is responsible only for a city, not a region c. is independent of state control d. has some governmental powers e. deals only with transportation planning 64. The main purpose of the Councils of Governments (COGs) is to a. educate the public on important regional plan ning issues b. negotiate with the federal government to increase financial support for regional development c. advise the state on the development needs of individual communities d. facilitate intermunicipal cooperation in areas such as regional planning e. enforce planning regulations PA 310 Management of Urban Governments – Exam #3 Study Guide 65. What was one recommendation made by Minnesota’s Metropolitan Planning Commission to resolve the municipal competition that contributed to suburban sprawl? a. Impose restrictions on nonresidential development in each of the region’s municipalities b. Create separate municipal sewer systems for Minneapolis and St Paul to reduce competition for resources c. Create a single highway system linking Minnesota to neighboring states d. Ensure that small communities that had been unable to compete with the cities have greater input e. Collect a portion of tax revenues from new nonresidential development to be shared by the region’s municipalities 66. Minnesota’s Metropolitan Council work on light -rail transportation in the Minneapolis –St Paul region has resulted in a. accelerated population movement from the urban centers to the suburbs b. costly overruns and tax increases c. a decline in conventional rail use d. considerable corporate investment in the urban cent ers e. the development of light rail in other urban centers of Minnesota 67. The Port Authority of New York and New Jer sey was formed to ________ to improve rail transportation a. develop a regional transportation plan b. explore and encourage research in the latest engineering technolo gy c. build several bridges between New Jersey and Manhattan d. cut through the obstacles presented by multiple competing municipalities e. centralize taxation 68. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey finances new projects with ________, which do not impose a financial burden on any government a. corporate investments b. bank loans c. profits from highway tolls and railroad profits d. tax -exempt bonds e. public donations 69. One way in which the Atlanta Regional Commission influences regional planning is by a. publicizing the Atlanta region’s business opportunities b. investing in economic development projects c. providing a database containing land -use projections for use by regional planning agencies d. selecting the commission members of regional boards of directors e. centralizing funding resources on which regions can draw PA 310 Management of Urban Governments – Exam #3 Study Guide 70. Why was the Atlanta Regional Commission formed? a. To simplify regional planning by combining different agencies b. To enforce highway development standards in different counties around Atlanta c. To encourage commercial development that could compete with the industrial northeast d. To ensure th at suburban development was fair and equitable e. To coordinate environmental and economic development concerns

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