Part 3: Short Answer (4×5 = 20 marks) You must answer each of the following (all four questions). Responses must be a minimum of 200 words (300 maximum). Write a detailed summary of each of the follo

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Part 3: Short Answer (4×5 = 20 marks)

You must answer each of the following (all four questions). Responses must be a minimum of 200 words (300 maximum). Write a detailed summary of each of the following topics

Topics: Arjuna’s ethical dilemma (Hinduism); the Four Nobel Truths; ethical pillars in Islam; biocentrism and Indigenous traditions.

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Part 4: Long Answer (10 marks)

Your response should be approximately 300 words (400 maximum). Write a detailed summary on each of the following topic

Topic: Jihad and gender in Islam.


Part 3: Short Answer (4×5 = 20 marks) You must answer each of the following (all four questions). Responses must be a minimum of 200 words (300 maximum). Write a detailed summary of each of the follo
NO OUTSIDE MATERIALS Part 3: Short Answer (4×5 = 20 marks)  You must answer each of the following (all four questions). Responses must be a minimum of 200 words (300 maximum). Write detailed summary on each of the following topics Topics: Arjuna’s ethical dilemma (Hinduism); the Four Nobel Truths; ethical pillars in Islam; biocentrism and Indigenous traditions.  Part 4: Long Answer (10 marks) Your response should be approximately 300 words (400 maximum). Write detailed summary on each of the following topic Topic: Jihad and gender in Islam. 
Part 3: Short Answer (4×5 = 20 marks) You must answer each of the following (all four questions). Responses must be a minimum of 200 words (300 maximum). Write a detailed summary of each of the follo
NINTH EDITION A NTHOLOGY OF W ORLD S CRIPTURES ROBERT E. VAN VOORST Western Theological Seminary Holland, Michigan Australia Brazil Mexico Singapore United Kingdom United StatesCopEditorial re This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate formats, please visit to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the eBook version.CopEditorial re Anthology of World Scriptures, Ninth Edition Robert E. 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Printed in the United States of America Print Number: 01 Print Year: 2015CopEditorial re CONTENTS PREFACE xvi 1 Scripture Among the World ’s Religions 1 A Brief History of Scripture Scholarship 3 The Definition of Scripture 5 The Uses of Scripture 9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Studying Religions through their Scriptures 12 World Scriptures and Modern Scholarship 14 Scriptures and the World Wide Web 17 The Plan of This Book 18 SuggestionsonHowtoReadScriptures 19 Glossary 20 Questions for Study and Discussion 20 2 Hinduism 22 Introduction 23 Overview of Structure 23 Contemporary Use 26 Historical Origin and Development 28 TEACHING 30 Aditi and the Birth of the Gods ( Rig-Veda 10.72) 30 Two Philosophical Views of Creation ( Rig-Veda 10.129; Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad 1.4.1 –7) 30 The God Indra ( Rig-Veda 2.12) 32 Rudra and Shiva ( Shvetashvatara Upanishad 3.1 –13) 33 “That You Are ”(Chandogya Upanishad 6.1 –2, 9 –11) 34 Hindu Rejection of Buddhism and Jainism ( Vishnu Purana 3.18) 36 ETHICS 37 Sin and Forgiveness ( Rig-Veda 7.86) 37 The Three Da ’s(Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad 5.2) 37 –iii –CopEditorial re The Way of Knowledge ( Mundaka Upanishad 2.1 –13) 38 Stages of Life for a Twice-Born Man ( Laws of Manu 2.69 –74, 191 –201; 3.1 –19; 6.1 –9, 33 –49) 39 The Life of Women ( Laws of Manu 3.55 –60; 5.147 –165) 43 ORGANIZATION 44 Creation and the Caste System ( Rig-Veda 10.90) 44 The Duties of the Four Castes ( Institutes of Vishnu 2.1 –17) 45 The Outcastes ( Laws of Manu 10.51 –57) 46 RITUAL AND MEDITATION 47 The Gayatri Mantra ( Rig-Veda 3.62.10) 47 SacrificetoAgniinthe Vedas and Brahmanas (Rig-Veda 1.1; Agni-Brahmana 1.1 –19) 47 Soma ( Rig-Veda 8.48) 48 Marriage ( Rig-Veda 10.85.20 –47) 49 Cremation ( Rig-Veda 10.16) 51 Charms and Spells ( Atharva-Veda 6.20; 7.70; 6.9; 3.16) 52 Chanting of Om ( Chandogya Upanishad 1.1.1 –10) 53 ThePracticeofYoga( Shvetashvatara Upanishad 2.8 –15) 54 SELECTIONS FROM THE BHAGAVAD-GITA 55 TWO TAMIL POETS, APPAR AND TUKARAM 63 Appar: Confession of Sin 64 Appar: The Presence of God 64 Tukaram: Waiting 64 Tukaram: The Burden of the Past 65 Glossary 65 Questions for Study and Discussion 66 Scriptures in Film 66 3 Buddhism 67 Introduction 68 Overview of Structure 69 Contemporary Use 73 Historical Origin and Development 75 HISTORY 76 The Past Lives of Siddhartha Gotama ( Jataka 190) 76 The Life of Siddhartha Gotama ( Acts of the Buddha 1.1 –2, 9 –10, 15 –17, 19 –21, 23 –25, 34, 54, 59, 62, 72 –74, 83, 2.24 –26, 28 –32; 3.1 –8, 26 –33, 40 –44, 53 –61, 5.7 –20; 12.88 –104; 14.1 –9, 35 –37, 64 –68, 79 –81) 77 iv ContentsCopEditorial re The Death of Gotama Buddha ( Sutra of the Great Decease 6.1 –12, 33 –35, 45 –48) 82 TEACHING 84 The Four Noble Truths ( Sutra on Turning the Wheel of the Law 1–8) 84 The Noble Eightfold Path ( Sutra on Turning the Wheel of the Law 9–20) 85 The Skandhas and the Chain of Causation ( Acts of the Buddha 16.1, 28 –48) 86 The Essence of Mahayana Buddhism ( The Heart Sutra )87 A Mahayana View of the Buddha ( Lotus Sutra of the True Teaching 2.36; 10.1) 88 The Blessings of the Pure Land ( Array of the Joyous Land Sutra )89 ETHICS 91 Conduct of the Monk ( Path of Teaching 25, 360 –382) 91 Admonition to Laity ( Sutra for Dammika 18 –27) 92 Parable of the Burning House ( Lotus Sutra 3) 93 ORGANIZATION 95 Founding of the Monastic Order ( Large Group 1.6.10, 11 –16, 27 –30, 32, 34, 37) 95 Founding of the Order of Nuns ( Small Group 10.1 –6) 97 The Rules of Defeat for Monks and Nuns ( Teaching on Rules of Defeat 1–4) 98 Rules Requiring Formal Meetings of Monks ( Teaching on Rules Requiring Meetings of the Monks 1–13) 100 RITUAL 101 The Relics of the Buddha ( Sutra of the Great Decease 6.58 –60) 101 Mindfulness in Meditation ( Sutra on the Establishment of Mindfulness 10.1 –9) 103 A Mahayana View of the Merit of Making Images ( Taisho Revised Canon 16.694) 104 Tibetan Scripture to Guide the Soul after Death ( Tibetan Book of the Dead 1.1 –2) 106 A Collection of Tibetan Magical Formulas ( Rituals of the Goddess Kurukulla 3.76) 107 A Collection of Zen Koans ( The Gateless Gate 37 –40 ) 10 8 Glossary 109 Questions for Study and Discussion 110 Scriptures in Film 110 Contents vCopEditorial re 4 Jainism 111 Introduction 112 Overview of Structure 112 Historical Origin and Development, and Contemporary Use 113 HISTORY 115 The Life of Mahavira ( Acaranga Sutra 2.15.6 –9, 14, 16 –20, 22 –25, 27) 115 TEACHING 117 The Causes of Sin ( Acaranga Sutra 1.1 –2) 117 The Road to Final Deliverance ( Uttaradhyayana Sutra 28) 118 ETHICS 120 Ahimsa ( Kritanga Sutra 1.7.1 –9) 120 Rules for Monastic Life ( Uttaradhyayana Sutra 35) 121 ORGANIZATION 122 The Five Great Vows ( Acaranga Sutra 2.15.1 –4) 122 Glossary 123 Questions for Study and Discussion 123 5 Sikhism 124 Introduction 125 Overview of Structure 125 Contemporary Use 126 Historical Origin and Development 127 TEACHING 128 Selections from the Japji (Japji 1–3, 5 –6, 9, 15, 17 –18, 20 –22, Epilogue) 128 Remembering God ( Gauri Sukhmani , Mahala 5) 131 Dancing for Krishna ( Rag Gurji ,Mahala3) 132 The Hindu Thread ( Asa Ki Var , Mahala 1) 133 ETHICS 134 Prayer for Forgiveness ( Rag Bihagra , Mahala 5) 134 Against the Use of Wine ( Rag Bihagra ,Mahala1) 135 ORGANIZATION 136 TheGuru( Rag Gauri , Mahala 3) 136 God ’s Power in the Sikh Community ( Rag Gauri , Mahala 5) 136 vi ContentsCopEditorial re RITUAL 137 Hymn for the Installation of the Guru Granth (Rag Devgandhari , Mahala 5) 137 AMarriageHymn( Rag Asa , Mahala 5) 137 SELECTIONS FROM THE DASAM GRANTH 138 Guru Gobind Singh ’s Story ( Dasam Granth, Vichitar Natak 6) 138 God as the Holy Sword ( Dasam Granth, Vichitar Natak 6) 140 Glossary 141 Questions for Study and Discussion 141 Scriptures in Film 141 6 Confucianism 142 Introduction 143 Overview of Structure 144 Contemporary Use 146 Historical Origin and Development 147 HISTORY 147 The Character of Confucius ( Analects 2.4; 7.1 –9, 19 –24; 10.1 –3, 8 –12) 147 TEACHING 149 The Way ( Analects 16.2) 149 The Goodness of Human Nature ( Mencius 6.1.1 –4, 6) 150 ETHICS 151 The Virtues of the Superior Man ( Analects 1.1 –4, 6 –9, 14; 15.17 –23) 151 The Five Relationships ( Classic of Rites 20.8 –9) 153 Benevolence ( Analects 4.1 –6) 153 The Actions and Attitudes of Filiality ( Classic of Rites 10.1,4,7,10 –11, 13 –15; Analects 2.5 –7; 4.18 –21; 13.18) 154 Propriety ( Analects 3.3 –4, 8, 12 –14, 17 –19) 156 TheLoveofLearning( Analects 17.8 –9) 157 The Basis of Good Government ( Great Learning 1, 3 –7; 9.1, 3 –5) 158 The Mandate of Heaven ( Classic of History 4.1 –4) 159 Confidence and Prosperity in Government ( Mencius 4.3, 9; 1.6.20 –24) 161 RITUAL 162 Divination ( Classic of Changes 1, 47, 54) 162 Songs for Sacrifice ( Classic of Poetry: Gau 7; Minor Odes 10.1, 3; Minor Odes 5) 163 Music and Morality ( Classic of Rites 17.2.10 –11, 15 –16 , 18) 165 Contents viiCopEditorial re Glossary 166 Questions for Study and Discussion 167 Scriptures in Film 167 7 Daoism 168 Introduction 169 Overview of Structure 170 Contemporary Use, Historical Origin, and Development 170 TEACHING 172 The Nature of the Dao ( Daode Jing 1, 6, 25, 34; Zhuangzi 29) 172 The World ( Daode Jing 7, 42, 52) 174 The Relationship of Daoism to Confucianism ( Baopuzi 7.5a) 175 ETHICS 176 Effortless Action ( Zhuangzi 7) 176 Individual Life in Harmony with the Dao ( Daode Jing 16, 22, 33, 44) 177 The Superior Man ( Zhuangzi 12) 178 Government ( Daode Jing 3, 18, 57, 64) 179 On Death ( Zhuangzi 18) 180 Reward and Retribution ( Treatise of the Exalted One on Reward and Retribution 1) 182 A Visit to Hell ( Treatise of the Exalted One on Reward and Retribution, Appendix) 183 RITUAL 184 Methods of Prolonging Life ( Baopuzi 15.6b –7a; 19.6b –7a) 184 The Origins of Feng Shui ( Zang Shu 1.1 –4, 7 –25, 30 –43) 185 Glossary 187 Questions for Study and Discussion 187 Scriptures in Film 188 8 Shinto 189 Introduction 190 SELECTIONS FROM THE KOJIKI 192 Prefacetothe Kojiki 192 The Creation of Japan ( Kojiki 1–5, 33) 194 The Story of Emperor Yuryaku and the Woman Akawi-ko ( Kojiki 154) 197 Glossary 198 Questions for Study and Discussion 198 Scriptures in Film 198 viii ContentsCopEditorial re 9 Zoroastrianism 199 Introduction 200 Overview of Structure 201 Contemporary Use 202 Historical Origin and Development 203 HISTORY 203 The Call of Zarathushtra ( Yasna 29) 203 AHymnofPraisetoZarathushtra( Yasht 24:87b –94) 205 TEACHING AND ETHICS 206 Hymn to Ahura and the Purifying Fire ( Yasna 36) 206 Hymn to Ahura Mazda the Creator ( Yasna 37:1 –5) 206 The Choice between Good and Evil ( Yasna 30) 207 Judgment of the Soul on Chinvat Bridge ( Menok I Khrat 2.114 –195) 208 RITUAL 210 The Place of the Gathas (Yasna 55:1 –3) 210 The Zoroastrian Confession ( Yasna 12) 210 The Four Great Prayers (From the Yasna )211 Disposal of the Dead ( Vendidad, Fargard 6.5, 44 –51) 212 Glossary 213 Questions for Study and Discussion 213 10 Judaism 215 Introduction 216 Names 217 Overview of Structure 217 Contemporary Use 220 Historical Origin and Development 224 HISTORY 225 The Call of Abraham ( Genesis 12:1 –9) 225 The Call of Moses ( Exodus 3:1 –20) 226 Crossing the Red Sea ( Exodus 14:1 –31) 227 The Covenant with Israel ( Exodus 19:1 –8) 229 Ezra ’s Enforcement of Torah Observance ( Ezra 9:1 –7, 13 –15; 10:1 –12) 229 TEACHING 231 The Oneness of God ( Deuteronomy 6:1 –9) 231 God ’s Creation of the World ( Genesis 1:1 –2:3; 2:4 –25) 232 The Revolt of Humanity ( Genesis 3:1 –24) 234 Prayer for Divine Deliverance ( Psalm 5) 235 Contents ixCopEditorial re The Messianic King ( Isaiah 11:1 –9) 236 The Final Judgment of the World ( Daniel 7:1 –14) 237 Resurrection of the Dead ( Daniel 12:1 –3) 238 ETHICS 238 The Ten Commandments ( Exodus 20:1 –14) 238 Laws on Slaves, Violence, and Property ( Exodus 21:1 –36; 22:15 –26) 239 Equal Justice for All ( Exodus 23:1 –9) 241 Holy War ( Deuteronomy 20:1 –20) 242 Sexual Love ( Song of Songs 1:1 –2:17) 243 God ’s Call to an Unfaithful People ( Amos 4:1 –13) 244 Two Views of Wisdom ( Proverbs 1:1 –9, 20 –33; Ecclesiastes 1:1 –9) 245 The Virtuous Wife ( Proverbs 31:10 –31) 247 ORGANIZATION 248 Sacrifice and the Ordination of Priests ( Exodus 29:1 –37) 248 A Call to Be a Prophet ( Isaiah 6:1 –13) 249 Women as Rulers and Prophets ( Judges 4:4 –10, 12 –16; 2Kings 22:11 –20) 250 RITUAL 251 The Establishment of Circumcision ( Genesis 17:9 –14, 23 –27) 251 The Establishment of the Passover ( Exodus 12:1 –19, 24 –27 ) 252 Th eObservance of the Sabbath ( Exodus 31:12 –17) 253 The Day of Atonement ( Leviticus 16:1 –5, 11 –19, 29 –30, 34) 254 Kosher and Non-Kosher Foods ( Leviticus 11:2 –31, 41 –44) 255 SELECTIONS FROM RABBINIC LITERATURE 256 The Chain of Rabbinic Tradition: “The Sayings of the Fathers ”(Mishnah, Sayings of the Fathers 1:1 –18) 256 TheThree-FoldCordofLife( Tosefta, Sanctification 1:13 –17) 258 An Example of Rabbinic Debate: The Duty to Marry and Have Children (Jerusalem Talmud, Sisters-in-Law 61b –63) 259 KABBALAH MYSTICISM: THE ZOHAR 260 Glossary 262 Questions for Study and Discussion 262 Scriptures in Film 262 11 Christianity 264 Introduction 265 Names 266 Overview of Structure 266 Contemporary Use 268 Historical Origin and Development 271 x ContentsCopEditorial re HISTORY 273 The Birth of Jesus the Messiah ( Matthew 1:18 –25) 273 The Miracles of Jesus ( Luke 8:26 –56) 273 TheArrest,Trial,andDeathofJesus( Mark 14:43 –15:47) 275 TheResurrectionofJesus( Mark 16:1 –8) 277 The Ascension of Jesus ( Acts of the Apostles 1:6 –11) 278 The Coming of the Holy Spirit ( Acts of the Apostles 2:1 –21) 279 The Call/Conversion of the Apostle Paul ( Acts of the Apostles 9:1 –19) 280 The Council at Jerusalem ( Acts of the Apostles 15:1 –21) 281 TEACHING 282 The Parables of Jesus ( Mark 4:1 –34) 282 TheDivineWordBecameHuman( John 1:1 –18) 283 Nicodemus Visits Jesus ( John 3:1 –21) 284 A Sinful Woman Forgiven ( Luke 7:36 –50) 285 Results of Justification ( Romans 5:1 –11) 286 The End of Time ( Matthew 25:31 –46; Revelation 20:1 –21:4) 287 ETHICS 289 TheSermonontheMount( Matthew 5:1 –7:14, 24 –29) 289 Paul ’s Directions Concerning Marriage ( 1 Corinthians 7:1 –16, 25 –40) 292 Love ( 1Corinthians 13:1 –13) 294 Ethics in the Christian Household ( Ephesians 5:21 –6:9) 295 Tw oViews on Christians and the Roman State ( Romans 13:1 –10; Revelation 17:1 –18:5) 296 ORGANIZATION 297 The Twelve Apostles and Their Mission ( Matthew 10:1 –15) 297 Church Order in Matthew (Matthew 18:1 –22) 298 Peter as the Rock ( Matthew 16:13 –20) 299 Qualifications of Bishops and Deacons ( 1Timothy 3:1 –13) 300 ContrastingViewsonWomenintheEarlyChurch( Luke 10:38 –42; Galatians 3:25 –28; 1 Corinthians 11:2 –16; 1Timothy 2:8 –15) 301 RITUAL 302 Baptism ( Matthew 28:16 –20; Romans 6:1 –14) 302 The Eucharist ( Matthew 26:17 –19, 26 –29; John 6:25 –40, 51 –59) 303 Confession and Anointing ( James 5:13 –18) 305 EARLY NONCANONICAL JESUS TRADITION: SELECTIONS FROM THE GOSPEL OF THOMAS 305 Glossary 306 Questions for Study and Discussion 307 Scriptures in Film 307 Contents xiCopEditorial re 12 Islam 308 Introduction 309 Name 310 Overview of Structure 310 Contemporary Use 312 Historical Origin and Development 314 HISTORY 315 The Call of Muhammad ( Qur ’an 96:1 –19; 53:1 –18) 315 The Mission of Muhammad ( Qur ’an 11:1 –16; 93) 316 Opposition to Muhammad ( Qur ’an 52:30 –49; 63) 318 The Night Journey ( Qur ’an 17:1 –2) 319 The Flight to Medina ( Qur ’an 9:40) 320 The Wives of Muhammad ( Qur ’an 33:28 –33, 37 –40, 48 –49) 320 The Death of Muhammad ( Qur ’an 21:34 –36) 321 TEACHING 322 God ’s Absolute Oneness ( Qur ’an 6:100 –103; 112) 322 God ’sNames( Qur ’an 59:22 –24) 323 Predestination ( Qur ’an 42:8 –13; 7:177 –179) 323 Jinn ( Qur ’an 72:1 –15) 324 Creation ( Qur ’an 15:16 –48) 325 Adam,Eve,andtheFall( Qur ’an 2:29 –37 ) 325 The Holy Qur ’an (Qur ’an 42:50 –53; 46:1 –13; 2:87 –91) 326 On Unbelievers, Jews, and Christians ( Qur ’an 9:1 –7; 3:38 –50; 2:111 –121, 132 –137) 328 Resurrection and Judgment ( Qur ’an 75:1 –15; 69:14 –35) 330 Heaven and Hell ( Qur ’an 76:1 –22; 56:1 –39; 77:1 –39) 331 ETHICS 333 The Conduct of Believers ( Qur ’an 17:23 –38) 333 Women ( Qur ’an 4:19 –22, 34 –39; 2:220 –223, 227 –233) 334 Against Evil Magic ( Qur ’an 113; 114) 335 The Different Dimensions of Struggle (Jihad) ( Qur ’an 6:16, 19 –20; 48:11 –21; 2:190 –194, 216 –218) 336 Law Codes ( Qur ’an 4:1 –10) 337 RITUAL 338 The Opening of the Qur ’an (Qur ’an 1) 33 8 Confession of Faith ( Qur ’an 57:1 –7; 37:32 –39) 339 Prayer ( Qur ’an 2:142 –149) 339 Alms ( Qur ’an 107; 9:53 –60) 340 The Fast ( Qur ’an 2:183 –186) 341 xii ContentsCopEditorial re Pilgrimage ( Qur ’an 2:125 –129, 196 –199) 342 TheMosque( Qur ’an 24:36 –38; 9:15 –18) 343 SELECTIONS FROM THE HADITH 344 SELECTIONS FROM THE SHARI ’A349 Glossary 351 Questions for Study and Discussion 352 Scriptures in Film 352 13 New Religious Movements 353 Introduction 354 Names 355 Overview of Structure 356 Contemporary Use 358 Historical Origins and Development 359 THE SCRIPTURE OF BAHA ’I361 History: The Essence of Baha ’i Teaching and the Life of Baha ’u’llah (The Promised Day Is Come, Preface) 361 Teaching: Baha ’i, Islam, and Christianity ( Qayyumu ’l-Asma 1.61 –62) 362 Ethics: Baha ’iLaws( Kitab-I-Aqdas 1–2, 12 –14, 16, 30 –34, 45, 63 –65, 149 –150, 189) 363 Ritual: Baha ’i Prayers (Short Obligatory Prayer, Medium Obligatory Prayer, Prayer for America) 366 THE SCRIPTURE OF THE CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER-DAY SAINTS 367 History: Joseph Smith ’s Story ( Pearl of Great Price ,“Extracts from a History of Joseph Smith, the Prophet ”1–6, 7 –10, 14 –22, 29 –30, 32 –39, 59 –62, 68 –74) 367 History: The First Description of The Book of Mormon (Book of Mormon , Title Page) 370 History: Preparations for the Trek to Utah ( Doctrines and Covenants 136.1 –11, 17 –24, 30 –42) 371 Teaching: The Coming of Jesus Christ in 34 C.E. to the New World ( Book of Mormon ,3Nephi11:1 –41) 373 Teaching: Destruction of the Nephites and Burial of the Golden Plates ( Book of Mormon ,Mormon6.1 –3, 6 –11, 16 –22) 374 Teaching: The Essence of Latter-day Saints ’Doctrine ( Pearl of Great Price , “Articles of Faith ”1–13) 375 Organization: Church Pronouncements on Plural Marriages and on Men of African Descent ( Doctrine and Covenants ,“Official Declarations ” 1, 2) 376 Contents xiiiCopEditorial re THE SCRIPTURE OF CHRISTIAN SCIENCE 378 History: Introduction to the Work of Mary Baker Eddy ( Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, Preface) 378 Teaching: The Essence of Christian Science ( Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, “Recapitulation ”)379 Teaching: Prayer and Its Role in Healing ( Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, “Prayer ”)380 Teaching: Interpretation of Genesis 1( Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, “Genesis ”)381 Ritual: Two Testimonials to Healing ( Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, “Fruitage ”) 382 THE SCRIPTURE OF THE UNIFICATION CHURCH 383 Teaching: The Purpose of the Creation of the Universe ( Divine Principle 383 Teaching: Spiritual and Physical Falls of Adam and Eve ( Divine Principle –2) 384 Teaching: Restoration of Humanity ( Divine Principle 1.3, Introduction) 385 Teaching: Salvation through the Second Messiah, the True Parent (Divine Principle 2, Introduction) 386 Teaching: The Second Messiah as a Korean ( Divine Principle 2.6; –3) 387 THE SCRIPTURE OF FALUN GONG 388 Teaching: Main Characteristics of the Falun Gong Movement ( Zhuan Falun , Lecture 1, Conclusion) 388 Glossary 390 Questions for Study and Discussion 391 Scriptures in Film 391 INDEX 392 xiv ContentsCopEditorial re List of Maps Map 1: Distribution of Major World Religions Today Map 2: Spread of Buddhism in Asia, 400 B.C.E.–800 C.E. Map 3: Sikh Population in India and Sri Lanka, 2010 Map 4: China in the Sixth Century B.C.E. Map 5: Japanese Modernization and Expansion, 1868 –1918 Map 6: The Zoroastrian Persian Empire, ca. 500 B.C.E. Map 7: The Monarchies of Israel and Judah, 924 –722 B.C.E. Map 8: The Spread of Christianity to about 800 C.E. Map 9: Expansion of Islam, 622 –900 C.E. Map10:TheIslamicWorldToday Contents xvCopEditorial re PREFACE The major living religions of the world have all expressed their teachings and practices in writing. Over the course of time, some of these writings gained unique standing in their traditions and became scriptures. As scriptures, they continue to influence the course of their religions. To read the scriptures of the world, therefore, is to encounter world religions in a direct and meaningful way. This book is designed to facilitate this encounter for the general reader and, espe- cially, for the student of religion. Its pages contain the most notable and instructive sacred texts of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Confucianism, Daoism, Shinto, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and five new religious movements from around the world: Baha ’i, the Christian Science Church, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Unification Church, and Falun Gong. This anthology not only presents scripture readings, but also sets them in the context of their application in the traditions themselves, taking into account recent scholarship on the role of scriptures in religion. Moreover, it does this in one volume and in one format. It has an organization that is easily adaptable to most of the current methods of teaching world religions. This ninth edition incorporates the following significant revisions: Chapter 1 now examines the role of the study of scriptures in interfaith dialogue, in particular the growing “Scriptural Reasoning ”movement. Selections from the Rig-Veda in Chapter 2 have been put in poetic format. This will help students appreciate their genre. The introduction to Chapter 3, Buddhism, has been revised and expanded for greater clarity. A new translation of the Daode Jing has been used in Chapter 7. It expresses the meaning of that influential book in a more accessible way while retaining its poetically mystical qualities. New readings have been added to Chapters 3, 6, and 11. Chapter 3 now features a fuller selection of Zen koans, and a selection of Tibetan magical formulas to help students to understand popular Buddhism. Chapter 6 features a new reading on the Confucian concept of the mandate of Heaven, important for historic Chinese –xvi –CopEditorial re attitudes to governments. Chapter 11 has a new section covering early Pauline views on special church ministry, important for understanding the varieties of ministries and church order in first-century Christianity, many of which continue today. Chapter 12 has new readings from the Shari ’a, on Muslim laws governing alms- giving (zakat) and approved foods, with more-extensive-than-usual annotations to explain these legal readings to students. These selections deal with topics accessi- ble to students, and less controversial and emotion-laden than the Shari ’a laws on criminal punishments so much in the headlines recently. More than a dozen new photos have been added to help students visualize the uses of scripture treated in the text. All scholarship has been updated throughout, as have the vignettes that open most chapters. Anthology of World Scriptures is organized as follows: The first chapter examines the general phenomenon of scripture in the world ’s religions, its nature, use, and place in modern scholarship. Chapter 1 also introduces the reader to the art of reading scripture with practical suggestions. Chapters 2 –7 and 9 –12 present the scripture of a single religion and are organized as follows. (Chapter 8, Shinto, has a different internal order that is explained at the beginning of this chapter; Chapter 13 covers the five new religious movements given above, with chapter content in much the same organization as Chapters 2 –7 and 9–12.) Vignettes about scripture and its usage draw the reader ’s interest and imagina- tion. Then an introduction sets the context by explaining the overall structure, use, origin, and development of the scripture in its religion. (If the name of the scripture poses a problem for students, this is given a brief treatment before overall structure.) The first grouping of scripture passages concerns the history of the religion, especially the founder (if any) and early history of the tradition. The second grouping covers main doctrinal teachings, including divine or ultimate reality, creation and the envi- ronment, human nature, and human fulfillment. The third grouping deals with ethical systems, both personal and social; topics such as war and peace, justice, and the role of women are anthologized as fully as possible here. The fourth grouping focuses on organization, both the ways that religion orders itself and seeks to order its wider culture. The fifth grouping includes worship, devotion, ritual, and meditation. The final grouping in most chapters deals with later, post-scriptural developments of scrip- tural themes. Each chapter has full pedagogical aids — for example, concise introduc- tions to each passage, tables listing scripture canons, full annotations to explain difficult items in the readings, questions for study and discussion, a glossary with pronunciations, and a brief treatment of recent films that deal with scriptures. I am grateful for the strong reception this book has received. I trust that this new edition will stimulate its readers to explore the world of religion more deeply. MINDTAP This edition of Anthology of World Scriptures can be purchased with a MindTap that contains an array of online tools designed to reinforce the text ’s concepts and help students better prepare for class and for testing. These tools include quizzes, flash- cards, videos, and more. Students should go to to gain access, and instructors should contact their Cengage Sales Representative. Preface xviiCopEditorial re ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The editorial staff at Wadsworth continues to be a fine partner in developing and producing this book. I especially want to thank my product manager Debra Matteson and associate content developer Liz Fraser. Scholars at numerous institutions offered detailed, insightful critiques at many points along the way. I thank those who have reviewed this book: David W. Aiken, Ferris State University; Akintunde Akinade, Highpoint University; Vivodh J. Z. Anand, Montclair State University; Ida Baltkauska, Century College; Paul Bernadicou, University of San Francisco; Anne Birdwhistell, Richard Stockton College of New Jersey; Ralph J. Brabban, Chowan University; Charles W. Brown, William Rainey Harper College; Kathryn Broyles, American Public University System; James Camp- bell, McHenry County College; James Cook, Oakland Community College, Orchard Ridge; Dell deChant, University of South Florida; Marianne Ferguson, Buffalo State College; William Harman, University of Tennessee; Harry Hight, Virginia Highlands Community College; Jennifer Jesse, Truman State University; Charles R. Johnson, Washtenaw Community College; Roger Keller, Brigham Young University; Keith Kendall, Northern Michigan University; Frank Klapak, Seton Hall University; Tori Lockler, University of South Florida; Phillip Lucas, Stetson University; Jared Ludlow, Brigham Young University; Richard Mahon, Riverside Community College; William K. Mahony, Davidson College; Michael McKale, Saint Francis College; M. Jonas Mabey, Red Rocks Community College; Timothy Madigan, St. John Fisher College; Gwenyth Mapes, Grossmont College; Anne Monius, University of Virginia; Henry Munson, University of Maine; Rebecca Norris, Merrimack College; Vivian-Lee Nyi- tray, University of California at Riverside; Dan W. O ’Bryan, Sierra Nevada College; James Pavlin, Rutgers University; Richard Penaskovic, Auburn University; Brian Polk, Pennsylvania State University; Christopher Queen, Harvard University; Stephen J. Reno, Southern Oregon State College; Philip Riley, Santa Clara University; John A. Saliba, University of Detroit Mercy, McNichols Campus; Oliver Scharbrodt, Western Kentucky University; Roger L. Schmidt, San Bernardino Valley College; Philip Schmitz, Eastern Michigan University; Candice Shivers, Mount Wachusettt Commu- nity College; Daniel Sheridan, Loyola University of New Orleans; Robert Smith, Trenton State College; Gail Hinich Sutherland, Louisiana State University; Donald Swearer, Swarthmore College; Alban Urbanus, Wesley College; David Valeta, Univer- sity of Colorado, Boulder; Theresa A. Vaughn, University of Central Oklahoma; James Whitehall, Stephens College; Mark Whitters, Eastern Michigan University; Glenn Yocum, Whittier College; and Steve Young, McHenry County College. Finally, this ninth edition gives me the happy opportunity to renew my expression of gratitude to my family: to my wife, Mary, a scholar ’s ideal spouse; to our son Nicholas and daughter-in-law Jessica; and to our son Richard and daughter-in-law Bonnie, with their children William, Robert, and Camille. xviii PrefaceCopEditorial re CHAPTER ONE Scripture Among the World ’s Religions Music during Scripture Recitation Tibetan Buddhist monks in northern India sound their horns during a ceremony of scripture recitation. The scriptures, in the traditional format of long rectangular white pages, are laid out before them. This ceremony increases their merit and also brings a greater knowledge of Buddhist scriptures, a knowledge that is an essential part of a monk ’s progress toward enlightenment. –1–CopEditorial re The influence of scripture is felt throughout the world in ways both extraordinary and commonplace. Not all contemporary examples of scripture usage are as dramatic or controversial as in these stories, but they do show the importance of scripture: In Dearborn, Michigan, players on Fordson High School ’s football team prepare in August for the start of their season by practicing from 11 P.M. until about 4 A.M. Dearborn is the home of one of the largest Muslim populations in North America, and the team is mostly Muslim, as is the head coach. They practice only at night because the preseason practice coincides with Ramadan, the month-long period of fasting in which observant Muslims may take no food or drink during daylight hours. Ramadan is a period of devotion, but from the earliest years of Islam, its particular meaning celebrates the giving of the Qur ’an, the scripture of Islam. In New York City, the prominent Hollywood actor Denzel Washington is inter- viewed on the Today show by its lead host, Matt Lauer. The topic is the film The Book of Eli , which stars Washington and Mila Kunis. Eli ’s mission is to deliver this book — the last Bible in existence — safely to its destination, in the belief that this book is the key to rebuilding a better world. The book is a symbol of power and hope in a world that has suffered a near-total disaster. In the interview, Washington talks about how he reads the Bible as a spiritual exercise. In New Delhi, India, the lower house of the Indian Parliament had to be adjourned for the day when an uproar broke out over the pro-Hindu party in control of the government. The party tried to introduce legislation that would make the Bhagavad Gita , a part of a Hindu epic, the official sacred book of India. This was met by strong opposition from representatives of other religions in India, and even from some Hindu legislators. When the proposal was withdrawn, the assembly was opened again to relative calm, but many members of the Parliament are wary that other pro-Hindu measures might be introduced. In London, the publication of an audacious book by a prominent British atheist creates a stir —The Good Book: A Humanist Bible by University of London philos- ophy professor A. C. Grayling. This book bills itself as a “secular bible drawn from the wisdom and humanity in the world ’s great literature. ”The main title plays on an informal Christian name for the Bible ,“the Good Book. ”Grayling ’s book is structured in fourteen chapters that are meant to imitate the structure of the Bible , including such well-known biblical terms as “Genesis, ”“ Wisdom, ”“ Lamenta- tions, ”“ Acts, ”and “Epistles. ”Oddly enough, some of the figures that Grayling draws upon for his secular and humanist approach to life were themselves reli- gious, and prominently so: Confucius; Laozi, the traditional founder of Daoism; and Rumi, the founder of the Sufi Muslim movement. As these stories indicate, the scriptures of world religions have a continuing profound impact on life and culture. This anthology introduces these scriptures and encourages a deep encounter with them in all their variety. Scriptures of the world are so vast in size that some sort of sampling is necessary for all but the expert specialist. This anthology offers from each religion excerpts that faithfully reflect that religion ’s history and continuing life. 2 CHAPTER 1 |Scripture Among the World ’s ReligionsCopEditorial re A BRIEF HISTORY OF SCRIPTURE SCHOLARSHIP In the last 150 years, the scholarly study of world scriptures has passed through three stages that have strongly influenced how we read scriptures. 1In the first stage, around the middle 1800s, European scholars began a vast enterprise of making reliable trans- lations of the sacred literature of the religions of the world. (See Map 1 in the center section for the distribution of the major world religions.) The most notable and influential effort was the Sacred Books of the East series founded around 1880 by F. Max Müller, a professor in Oxford University. Müller is recognized today as a founder of the field of religious studies. The aim of scholars in this stage was to translate and study individual texts, not to examine the general religious features of scripture — how they were formed and how they are used. A feature of this first stage that continues today is the popular anthology of world scriptures that uses scriptures as a mine for enlightenment, paying little attention to how scripture functions in religious communities. 2 The academic movement known as the “History of Religions ”school dominated the second stage of scripture study. This school of thought, which arose in the 1920s, analyzed the development of each religion using historical and social- scientific methods. Both Eastern and Western scriptures were largely neglected at this stage. Perhaps in reaction to the earlier reliance on world scriptures, scholars relied on the study of ritual, myth, symbols, and other elements of religion, not on scriptures. Such a respected treatment of comparative religion as Gerardus van der Leeuw ’sReligion in Essence and Manifestation contains only a brief discussion of scripture as a feature of world religions. 3In addition, as social science methods increasingly entered the field of religious scholarship in this second stage, researchers turned away from studying literary sources from the past in favor of the social- scientific study of present-day living communities of faith. 4Mircea Eliade, a leading member of the History of Religions school, did pay attention to sacred texts, partic- ularly in his Essential Sacred Writings from Around the World. 5However, this is “the 1For an excellent comprehensive discussion of the history of the academic study of world religions, withsome detailed comments on scripture study, see Eric Sharpe, Comparative Religion: A History, 2nd ed. (LaSalle, IL: Open Court Press, 1987). The best succinct presentation of this topic is by S. Cain, “History of the Study of Religion, ”in Mircea Eliade, ed., Encyclopedia of Religion, vol. 14 (New York: Macmillan, 1987), pp. 64 –83. 2The first popular anthology is Moncure D. Conway, The Sacred Anthology: A Book of Ethical Scriptures (London: Trubner, 1873). Robert Ballou ’sThe Bible of the World (New York: Viking, 1939) and its abridgment in World Bible (New York: Viking, 1944) have remained in print continually, although never revised. Selwyn G. Champion and Dorothy Short compiled Readings from World Religions (Boston: Bea- con, 1952), which was reprinted most recently as The World ’s Great Religions: An Anthology of Sacred Texts (Mineola, NY: Dover, 2003). The Unification Church has published World Scripture: A Comparative Anthology of Sacred Texts, edited by Andrew Wilson (New York: Paragon House, 1991). Philip Novak has edited The World ’s Wisdom: Sacred Texts of the World ’s Religions (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1994). Robert Van de Weyer compiled A World Religions Bible (Berkeley, CA: O Books, 2003). 3Gerardus van der Leeuw, Religion in Essence and Manifestation (London: Allen & Unwin, 1938; German original, 1933). One short chapter, 64, deals with scripture.4For example, the widely used Reader in Comparative Religion: An Anthropological Approach , ed. W. A. Lessa and E. Z. Vogt, 4th ed. (New York: Harper & Row, 1997) has excellent readings in all the basictopics in the cultural-anthropological study of religion —symbol, myth, ritual, shamanism, magic —but no essay on scripture and its uses.5Mircea Eliade, Essential Sacred Writings from around the World (San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 1991); first published under the title From Primitives to Zen: A Thematic Sourcebook of the History of Religions (New York: Harper & Row, 1967). A Brief History of Scripture Scholarship 3CopEditorial re exception that proves the rule ”that the History of Religions school was not inter- ested in scriptures. Although the History of Religions approach to world religions is still influential, a third stage has emerged since around 1960 in which scholars have rediscovered the value of scripture. The overreliance on scripture that was characteristic of the first stage, and the neglect of scripture in the second stage, are now being corrected as scholars increasingly view scripture as an important feature among the religions of the world. A healthy balance on the importance of scripture for the study of religion has now been achieved. Today, scripture is correctly seen as one religious facet among many and therefore not to be isolated from the others. Another new element is an emphasis on the actual ways in which scripture is viewed and used in world religions. To understand scripture, we must know not just the scriptural text, but also how it comes alive in the total life of the religion. Recent research gives evidence of this third stage. Large-scale studies such as Geo Widengren ’sPhenomenology of Religion and Friedrich Heiler ’sManifestations and Essence of Religion deal extensively with scripture among the world ’s religions. 6Ninian Smart ’sSacred Texts of the World uses scripture to approach several different religious phenomena in each world religion. 7Six current books deal with scripture and its role in religion: The Holy Book in Comparative Perspective, by Frederick Denny and Roderick Taylor; Sacred Word and Sacred Text, by Harold Coward; Rethinking Scrip- ture: Essays from a Comparative Perspective, by Miriam Levering; Sacred Texts and Authority, by Jacob Neusner; What Is Scripture? A Comparative Approach, by Wilfred Cantwell Smith; and Theorizing Scriptures: New Critical Orientations to a Cultural Phenomenon, by Vincent Wimbush. A documentary film based on Wimbush ’s work is entitled “Finding God in the City of Angels: Scriptural Communities and Dynamics in Los Angeles. ”Most recent and extensive is the two-volume, 1991-page Norton Anthology of World Religions edited by Jack Miles, which gives extensive selections from writings, many of them scriptures, in Hinduism, Buddhism, Daoism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam. 8 Today, the comparative study of scripture is a leading feature in the study of world religions. Wilfred Cantwell Smith, of Harvard University, and some of his former doctoral students have had a strong impact on current scripture study. They argue for scripture study centered on the actual reception and use of scriptures. The work of William Graham on the oral dimensions of scripture has been especially influential. 9A measure of the strength of this stage is the attention now paid to 6Geo Widengren, Religionsphänomenologie (Berlin: de Gruyter, 1969); Friedrich Heiler, Erscheinungsfor- men und Wesen der Religion, 2nd ed. (Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 1979). 7Ninian Smart, Sacred Texts of the World (London: Macmillan, 1982). 8Frederick M. Denny and Rodney L. Taylor, eds., The Holy Book in Comparative Perspective (Charleston: University of South Carolina Press, 1985); Harold Coward, Sacred Word and Sacred Text (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1988); Miriam Levering, ed., Rethinking Scripture (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989); Wilfred Cantwell Smith, What Is Scripture? A Comparative Approach (Philadelphia: Augs- burg Fortress, 1993); Jacob Neusner, ed., Sacred Texts and Authority (Cleveland: Pilgrim, 1998); Vincent L. Wimbush, ed., Theorizing Scriptures: New Critical Orientations to a Cultural Phenomenon (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2008); Jack Miles, ed., Norton Anthology of World Religions (New York: Norton, 2014).9See especially William Graham ’sBeyond the Written Word: Oral Aspects of Scripture in the History of Reli- gion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). 4 CHAPTER 1 |Scripture Among the World ’s ReligionsCopEditorial re scripture in textbooks. 10 A few collections of world scriptures from different religions are now published for devotional, meditative reading. 11 As a representative of this third stage of scripture study, the present work offers students a wide range of scripture selections from the religions of the world. Introductions and annotations set the readings in the context of their actual usage. THE DEFINITION OF SCRIPTURE Now we must ask: What exactly is “scripture ”? At first glance, defining it seems easy enough. We think of scripture as the holy writing, the sacred text of a religion. All religions seem to have scriptures, and all appear to use them in the same way. As a fixture among most religions, scripture seems — on the surface — to be a constant. On closer examination, however, these simple notions vanish, and “scripture ”gets harder to define. Books that are traditionally regarded as scriptures vary in several important aspects. In fact, they are as varied in form and functions as the religions and cultures from which they come: Some scriptures, especially those of Judaism and Christianity, prominently feature historical narratives that tell events in story form. Scriptures from other religions vary a great deal in the number of narratives they contain. Some scriptures have codes of religious law, some feature more general moral precepts, and still others do not seem concerned about ethics. Poetry is the leading literary form of some scriptures (the Qur ’an ); others feature prose. Some scriptures have philosophy that reflect on the world (for example, the Hindu Upanishads ), some have moral philosophy (the Confucian Analects, the Jewish and Christian Bible ), but many have no philosophy at all. Some scriptures contain directions for rituals (the Hindu Vedas, the Jewish Bible ), but others have no developed prescriptions for rites and ceremonies (the Qur ’an ). Also present in scriptures are many different genres , or literary forms: myth, legend, prophecy, sermons, love poems, divination, magic, and others. This brief overview shows that world scriptures vary first in literary form. We cannot open a book, examine its literary form, and pronounce it scriptural. Scripture is primarily a relational, not a literary, quality. As William Graham has written, the holiness of a book is not usually accepted immediately because of its literary form or contents, but it is “realized historically in the life of communities who respond to it as 10Kenneth Kramer, World Scriptures: An Introduction to Comparative Religion (New York: Paulist, 1986); Jean Holm and John Bowker, Sacred Writings (London: Pinter, 1994); Richard Viladesau and Mark Massa, World Religions: A Sourcebook for the Student of Christian Theology (New York: Paulist, 1994); Ian S. Markham, A World Religions Reader (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996); Terry D. Bilhartz, Sacred Words (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2006); Mary P. Fisher and Lee W. Bailey, An Anthology of Living Religions, 2nd ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2008); Joan Price, Sacred Scriptures of the World Religions (London and New York: Continuum, 2010); James Fieser and John Powers, Scriptures of the World ’s Religions, 5th ed. (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2014).11The most popular of these devotional anthologies of world scripture is Eknath Easwaran, God Makes the Rivers to Flow: Sacred Literature of the World, 3rd ed. (Tomales, CA: Nilgiri, 2003). See also Bonnie L. Kuchler, One Heart: Universal Wisdom from the World ’s Scriptures (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, 2004) and Joel Beversluis, Sourcebook of the World ’s Religions: An Interfaith Guide to Religion and Spirituality (Novato, CA: New World Library, 2000). The Definition of Scripture 5CopEditorial re something sacred or holy. ”12 Communities shape and receive scripture in many dif- ferent literary forms and styles, and scripture then shapes the life of faith. The relation between scripture and religion is reciprocal and dynamic. The second variation among scriptures has to do with their number. Among the various world religions, they can range from one book to an entire library. Like the Qur ’an, scriptures can be one unified text of moderate size between two covers. Like the Jewish and Christian scriptures, they can be collections of many short books between two covers. In Asian religions, they range in number from one book (the Adi Granth of Sikhism), to the dozen or so texts of Confucianism, to the hundreds of texts of Hinduism, and to the thousands of texts of Daoism (Taoism) and Buddhism. The number of books in any religion is a matter of a canon , a formal list or collection of books recognized as scriptural. The canon is closed in the three Abrahamic monotheisms — Judaism, Christianity, and Islam — and in Zoroastrianism. All the scriptures of these religions were long ago officially identified, and nothing can now be added to or subtracted from them. In Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Con- fucianism, and Daoism, however, the situation is quite different. The problems in defining a canon of scripture for a religion like Daoism, for example, which has about 1,200 sacred texts, are enormous. Moreover, the process of producing scripture has not officially ended. Where new scriptural revelations can be added — as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (a “Mormon ”church) added two in the twentieth century — a closed canon cannot exist. The large size of some scripture canons raises a question: How can believers use their religion ’s scriptures when no one person or group can know them all, let alone be expert in them all? In traditions with large canons, certain books are basic for everyone. In addition, different groups in a religion attach themselves to a few select scriptures that reflect their particular interests. This tendency to choose specific books from among the total body of scripture results in a “canon within the canon. ”Most commonly, it occurs in religions with very large numbers of books, but it also can be found in religions with relatively smaller canons — in Christianity, for example, some churches prefer some biblical books, others prefer different groups. In sum, scripture canons can be either completely closed or open to development and change. No matter how readily they can be altered, canonical texts are still viewed and treated as scripture. The third variation in scriptures lies in their functions. In some religions, scrip- ture is so central — or seems so to outsiders — that the lives of believers seem almost dictated by scripture. Sikhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are all properly called “religions of the book ”because of the high place and powerful function of their scriptures. New religious movements that occasionally branch off from these religions are also scripture-centered. 13 In contrast, Asian religions usually have a more informal relationship to their scriptures, which lay devotees consult mainly for general guidance and inspiration. (Monks and nuns in Asian religions, however, have a more formal and developed relationship to their scriptures.) 12William A. Graham, “Scripture, ”Encyclopedia of Religion vol. 13, p. 134. 13For a collection of fifteen scriptures from new religious movements that arose in the United States,see Laurie F. Maffly-Kipp, American Scriptures: An Anthology of Sacred Writings (New York: Penguin, 2010). 6 CHAPTER 1 |Scripture Among the World ’s ReligionsCopEditorial re Given all this variety, is it possible to define the word scripture in a way that takes variety into account yet applies to all world religions? Although some scholars answer in the negative, 14 most conclude that a comprehensive definition is possible and nec- essary. The definition we use here is this: Scripture is writing that is accepted and used in a religious community as especially sacred and authoritative. We now look closely at the key words and implications of this definition, discussing the formal and functional aspects of scriptures —what they are and how people use them. Our definition of scripture begins with the fact that it is writing. Scriptures exer- cise much of their authority as books, and we encounter them as books. The word scripture comes from the Latin scriptura, or “writing. ”Some scholars argue that oral tradition , the passing down of material by word of mouth, can be “scriptural. ”15 Although oral and written sacred traditions do have some similar characteristics and functions, strictly speaking “oral scripture ”is a contradiction in terms — scripture is, by definition, written. The scriptures of all religions, however, do have continuing, sig- nificant oral and aural (hearing) dimensions. 16 Most scriptures originated in oral tra- dition, so the “imprint ”of orality can be found in them. For example, David Carr has argued that Israelite (ancient Jewish) scripture emerged as a support for an educa- tional process in which written and oral dimensions were intertwined, in particular as an aid to memorizing and reciting key traditions. 17 The same is probably true for many other religions. Although the writing of scripture can obscure its oral dimen- sions (especially for us moderns, where the written word predominates), the orality of the text is still in the writing, waiting to be drawn out by faithful vocalizing of the words. Scripture comes more fully alive when believers read it aloud and hear it in worship. Most believers, even those in highly literate cultures, hear scripture in wor- ship more often than they read it privately. In this book, as in any book, we encounter scriptures as texts, but these texts are meant to be spoken and heard. Second, our definition states that scripture is accepted and used in a religious com- munity. Scripture is recognized as such by an entire religious group, and it is used by whole groups. Scripture is not a private document or collection of documents. Indivi- duals in many parts of the modern world have the option of inventing their own private religion, complete with their own favorite book or collection of books. This is not scripture as scholarship today understands it. Rather, scripture is a community thing. Third, scriptures are especially sacred. They have special religious significance in pointing to ultimate reality and truth. Sacredness should not be seen simply as being of divine origin or even as the “wholly other, ”Rudolf Otto ’s influential conception of sacredness that suits Western religions but not many Eastern faiths. 18 For example, the 14For example, in Rethinking Scripture , the essays by Coburn and Folkert reject the term scripture for the Word and canon. The other authors in this book keep “scripture ”as a conceptual category, and it is the dominant category in the volume as a whole, as the title implies.15See, for example, Roger Schmidt, Exploring Religion, 2nd ed. (Boston: Cengage, 1988) ,p. 208: “Broadly conceived, scripture refers to oral as well as written traditions that a people regard as sacred. Each religious community has a scripture, a body of sacred oral or written traditions. ” 16See especially Graham, Beyond the Written Word. For a general treatment of orality, see Walter Ong, Orality and Literacy (New York: Routledge, Chapman & Hall, 1982), and Jack Goody, The Interface between the Written and the Oral (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987). 17David M. Carr, Writing on the Tablet of the Heart: Origins of Scripture and Literature (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).18Rudolf Otto, The Idea of the Holy (London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1923; German original, 1917). The Definition of Scripture 7CopEditorial re sacred “Way ”witnessed by the Daode Jing (also spelled Tao Te Ching ) is not wholly other but is hidden in the universe and the self, waiting to be discovered and “tuned in to. ”Moreover, only a few books among world scriptures explicitly claim sacredness for themselves; the Qur ’an is a notable example in Western religions. Most scriptures receive their sacred status only after they have been written, circulated, and widely accepted as reflecting the faith in some special sense. The relational aspect of all scrip- ture comes to the fore in a religious community. Notice that this definition of scriptures says that they are especially sacred. Most religions have a secondary religious literature that is also viewed as holy, instructive, or authoritative. For example, Judaism has its Talmud, books of religious law, and Islam its Hadith, traditions about Muhammad. This may seem to complicate the matter of defining the idea of scripture. On what basis can we say that a certain holy book in a religious tradition is scripture but another holy book is not? The answer lies in the special reception and usage that believers give to works that they see as especially sacred. Most religions explicitly or implicitly hold some works to be secondary to scripture. Talmud is not the Hebrew Bible; Hadith is not the Qur ’an. Almost every religion has commentarial, devotional, or legal literature that follows up on scripture, and believers typically make a careful distinction between scripture and these works. Another mark of special sacredness is use in ritual. When believers read books aloud in worship, when they speak their words to carry out sacrifice, and especially when they venerate (pay formal respect to) books during worship, we have a sure indication that these books are especially sacred. Secondary religious literature rarely makes its way into worship. Different types of veneration are practiced in every world religion and in the new religious movements. Even in everyday life, scriptures enjoy special respect: The Christian Bible is the only book in the West still often bound in leather; Muslims wrap the Qur ’an in silk and store it in a special place. In the new religious movements, the key writings of the founders that function as scriptures are often printed and bound to resemble more traditional holy books. The final part of our definition is that scriptures are especially authoritative in their communities. Among all written texts in a community, a scripture is always the most authoritative and is often the court of final appeal in religious matters. The range of this authority and the way it is exercised vary depending on the nature of the religion and the content of its scriptures. In the Western “religions of the book, ”scriptures are comprehensive in content and regulate much of life. In the Eastern religions, scrip- tures are often not authoritative in the same way as in the Abrahamic traditions. Yet Asian scriptures often express the heart of their faith. Moreover, “at least four of the six South Asian or Far Eastern fundamentalist-like movements … do in fact privilege a sacred text and presume to draw certain fundamentals —beliefs and behaviors —from it.”19 The authority of scripture for most followers of a given religion is paradoxically acknowledged even when some occasionally reject it. Typically among Western reli- gions, to receive one religion ’s texts as scripture is automatically to exclude the texts of other religions. For example, the presentation of Jewish Bible material in the Qur ’an means that Muslims should not look directly to the Jewish Bible and read it. An exception to this is the Christian Bible, which contains the Jewish Bible renamed as the “Old Testament. ” 19Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, eds., Fundamentalisms Observed (Chicago: University of Chi- cago Press, 1991), p. 820. 8 CHAPTER 1 |Scripture Among the World ’s ReligionsCopEditorial re The authority of scripture in both East and West is established by a special class of scholars who are the guardians of scripture and recognized experts in its interpretation. In Buddhism, monks with special training and ability teach the sacred writings to other monks and inquiring laypeople. The Jewish rabbi, the Christian pastor, and the Mus- lim mullah — all leaders of local congregations —are experts in interpreting and teach- ing their scriptures. We must also remember that only quite recently in the sweep of human history have mass-produced books appeared and has mass literacy become possible. This is another reason for the existence of a special class to read, comment on, and relate sacred books to a religious community. Of course, the uses of scriptures by ordinary followers of a religion are, at times, quite different from the official, prescribed use. The authority of scripture in nearly every faith, including new religious move- ments, therefore, is mediated largely by individuals considered its official interpreters. Some of these individuals have written a commentary , a book written to explain another book, especially scripture. Commentary has had a large role in the history of many religions and regulates how scriptures are received and used, especially at the official level. Influential commentaries influence official reading and interpretation of the text. As John Henderson states, “Commentaries and commentarial modes of thinking dominated the intellectual history of most premodern civilizations. … Until the seventeenth century in Europe, and even later in China, India, and the Near East, thought, especially within high intellectual traditions, was primarily exegetical [text- interpretive] in character and expression. ”20 Commentaries are found for ancient scripture, not for new religious movements. THE USES OF SCRIPTURE When scripture is set in the full context of the everyday life of believers, its uses become plain. How believers use scripture shows its status and role in a religion. In this section, we discuss some basic dimensions of the comparative study of scripture usage. We begin with four uses that are primarily cognitive, understanding and thinking in some way about the words and their meaning. First, scripture is a source for estab- lishing and defending key doctrines. Scriptures can be used doctrinally because they typically contain the key teachings of the faith and because believers usually see them as continuing the voice of the founder(s). They have primary importance as statements of the deep truths of the universe and the right way to live in it. These teachings can assume different forms: God(s) and humanity, human imperfections and salvation, beginnings and ends of the individual and the cosmos, the moral life and how to achieve it. When scripture is used to establish doctrine, its official interpreters — monks, priests, scholars, and the like — usually do this. Sometimes, formal debate in councils or assemblies sets down doctrines, often within the confines of a monastery or temple. Defending doctrine occurs less often at the popular level, but even here scripture can function authoritatively. An appeal to a passage of holy writ is often the final word in any argument about religion. 20John B. Henderson, Scripture, Canon, Commentary: A Comparison of Confucian and Western Exegesis (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991), p. 3. The Uses of Scripture 9CopEditorial re Second, scripture is also prominently used in public worship. Worshippers often display and read it aloud. Although this practice is characteristic especially of the Abrahamic “religions of the book, ”it is also significant in religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism that are not so book oriented. The worship that goes on in a Buddhist monastery, for example, prominently features scriptures. Monks read them, chant them, meditate on them, and walk around them in solemn procession. Even when the book is not prominent in worship, its content often permeates the ceremonies of most scripturalizing religions. Prayers, sacrifices, and hymns come from and echo the language of scripture. Many lyrics of the music of worship are drawn from the scrip- tural text. Hymns and chants, with their emotional power, are significant vehicles for use of scripture in religious traditions in both East and West. Perhaps the place and function of scripture are most prominent when worship- pers formally venerate it. Almost every religion with scripture pays it ritual respect in some way. Hindus speak the words of a Veda with great care. In certain Daoist and Confucian temples, the location of the scripture collection is itself holy. In Judaism, the scrolls are removed from their ark at the front center of the synagogue with great solemnity and on certain festival days are paraded around the synagogue. In many Christian churches, everyone stands for the oral reading of the gospels. Bibliolatry [BIB -lee-AHL-ah-tree], literally, “worship of a book, ”results when believers in any religion with scriptures become absolutely dependent on them. A third typical cognitive use of scripture is in meditation and devotion. This is usually private and individual, but it can also occur in group settings, as when Buddhist monks meditate together on passages or on sacred formulas drawn from scripture. In Western religions, the scripture books are often marked into sections for devotional reading; it is the duty of believers to read, ponder, and often memorize the words. In meditation and devotion, the scriptures teach the truth of the religion and promote the growth of the reader into the fullness of the faith. A fourth cognitive use of scripture —and the newest —is in interfaith dialogue and understanding. In the past, scripture has had an important role in separating religions from each other. For example, Christianity ’sNew Testament was used to differentiate Christianity from Judaism; the Muslim Qur ’an shows the differences Islam has with the scriptures of Judaism and Christianity; and Buddhism ’s early scriptures show its differences with Hinduism, from which it arose. Moreover, new religious movements that arise from older religions with scriptures typically produce new scriptures them- selves. Since around 1900, however, scripture has also been used to bring religions closer together. This has arisen first as a byproduct of the academic study of religion, as scholars and students have learned to read world scriptures more objectively and irenically. 21 More recently, since the early 1990s, leaders in different religions have learned to read their scriptures together in small groups. The most prominent of this activity is in the “Scriptural Reasoning ”movement, which began with Jewish scholars in North America and now has spread around the world to followers of many reli- gions, scholars and non-scholars alike. In Scriptural Reasoning groups, people of 21Interfaith understanding is the aim of Brian Arthur Brown, ed., Three Testaments: Torah, Gospel, and Quran (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2012). This book presents these “testaments ”from current translations and analyzes them comparatively and irenically. It includes analysis of how Zoroastrian scrip- ture may have influenced these three bodies of scripture, but does not present Zoroastrian scripturesthemselves. 10 CHAPTER 1 |Scripture Among the World ’s ReligionsCopEditorial re several faiths gather to read each other ’s scriptures on a variety of topics candidly but constructively. The rapid growth of this movement has shown that scriptures can be a source of mutual understanding. Another important dimension of scripture use —one often overlooked —isnoncog- nitive, using the book itself or its words in a variety of ways without any mental attempt to understand their meaning. In iconic use , the text itself is revered as a holy object apart from its content. (An “icon ”is a holy picture of a holy person.) One cannot live or travel in any Muslim area without encountering Qur ’anic verses everywhere. They are displayed on private houses and public buildings, often in a stylized calligraphy. In these and other iconic usages of scripture, the appeal is typically more to the imagination and emotion than to the mind. A holy book can bring blessing and keep away evil. Scriptural words are often used in charms or talismans. The mere possession of a holy book also has power to bless and to ward off evil. For example, putting a certain Daoist text in the hands of a woman undergoing a perilous childbirth is said to cause the immediate safe birth of her child. In many religions, individuals who can afford to do so will often buy a holy book for possession in the home, even if they do not read it. Bibliomancy [BIB-lee-oh- MAN -see] is the use of holy books to foresee the future and guide one ’s response to it. Many religions feature as one form of bibliomancy the informal practice of opening a scripture book at random and reading the first passage that meets the eye. This passage is thought to have special power to direct the believer through an uncertain or difficult situation in life or through the difficulties of the new day. Bibliomancy assumes that a scripture book brings supernatural guidance for the blessing of the believer. Scholars of religion have categorized scripture uses in other ways beyond cogni- tive and noncognitive. Perhaps the most helpful is that of Sam D. Gill, who proposed that uses of scripture are informative and performative. Informative use means impart- ing information in various ways, such as in doctrine and history. Performative use, in contrast, means doing something — as, for example, when scripture is used to make sacrifice, to make the laws of a religious or civil community, or to bless and curse. 22 In both its informative and performative aspects, scripture is also used for transforma- tion. This transformative power is a result of its sacredness and authority. Scriptures come from a sacred source and are themselves sacred. This sacred quality generally entails some power to make holy those who read or listen to them. The transformative power of scripture occurs in both individual and communal ways — for example, to gain insight about personal or group problems and find the resources to solve them. Not all religions consider their scriptures to be divinely inspired, but all hold them to be inspiring and transformative in some way. This transformative power can be based on cognition, in which believers directly encounter the scriptures and experience their life-changing meaning. It can also happen just as often in noncognitive ways, as described earlier. 22Sam D. Gill, “Nonliterate Traditions and Holy Books: Toward a New Model, ”in Denny and Taylor, Holy Book, p. 234. The Uses of Scripture 11CopEditorial re ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF STUDYING RELIGIONS THROUGH THEIR SCRIPTURES The study of world religions through their sacred scriptures has both advan- tages and disadvantages. We need to be aware of the limitations of this method and work from its strengths to overcome its weaknesses, so we begin with the disadvantages. The first disadvantage, as we saw earlier, is that the reception and use of scripture isnot uniform across religions. Believers regard their scriptures in different ways, and scriptures function differently in each religion. As a student of world religions, you must take note of these variations and learn to look at each religion ’s scriptures in a fresh way. Readers of scripture who come from a “religion of the book ”must espe- cially try to lay aside their preconceptions. Moreover, the use of new scriptures in new religious movements in both Asia and North America often differs from usage in older, classical religious movements. The more fully we encounter world scriptures, the less likely we will be to inject our own biases into the scriptures of others. Then “scripture ” itself will become a fuller, more useful category. A second disadvantage is that we must read translations, which cannot fully cap- ture the literary characteristics or meaning of the original. We can describe four aspects of this disadvantage. Some of the original meaning and resonance of the words is lost or distorted in translation. For example, among Muslims, the identity and power of the Qur ’an in its Arabic language is such that it would be unthinkable to translate it into another language and still consider it the true Qur ’an. Some languages and styles are hard to translate into English. For example, the formal Chinese style used by many Confucian and Daoist scriptures is often elu- sive or even cryptic. These difficulties result in translations that vary widely. Bias creeps in because translations cannot be fully objective. A leading, controver- sial example today is the translation of the Arabic word jihad in the Qur ’an. Many translators render it only as “war, ”“ holy war, ”or “fighting, ”but it can also mean “struggle ”or “striving. ” Updating is needed because most languages change. Some scripture translations are updated regularly; others are not, for a variety of reasons, and become more and more outmoded as time goes on. A third main disadvantage is that scriptures tend to reflect only the patriarchal and elite perspectives of their traditions. They come from times and cultures that are patri- archal, where the voices of women — if they come through at all — are muted and filtered. 23 Scriptures strongly tend to embody official and elite ideas, the “mainstream ” that feminist scholars call “malestream. ”Comparatively little of popular religion can be found in them. Although the contents of scripture are patriarchal and elitist, feminist scholars today in many religions are working to make contemporary understanding and use of these scriptures more equalitarian. This anthology offers some coverage of 23For good treatment of this issue, see the introductory section of Serinity Young, ed., An Anthology of Sacred Texts By and About Women (New York: Crossroad, 1993). 12 CHAPTER 1 |Scripture Among the World ’s ReligionsCopEditorial re social justice and the role of women, but the elite, male perspective of these scriptures still comes through. 24 Finally, and perhaps most seriously, we lack the living context of scripture when we encounter only its textual form. Scripture, which (except in new religious move- ments) comes from very old times, comes alive as it is appropriated in the life of religious communities. Despite growing religious pluralism, many North American readers of scripture do not have access to these communities. They cannot easily visit a mosque or see the ritual of a Jewish home or synagogue. They cannot directly see the broad ways that scripture is reflected in religious life or the more specific ways it is used in worship, devotion, or law. What can be reproduced in a book like this is primarily the written text itself. The uses of scripture can be outlined here, but a printed book inevitably emphasizes the written, textual aspects of scripture over the oral and living. These disadvantages might seem significant enough to cause you to give up the encounter with world scriptures. The advantages of studying religions through their scriptures are compelling, however. By working from the strengths of this approach, you can overcome the weaknesses to some extent and use scripture appropriately to enter the world of other religions. The first advantage of this approach is that scripture is widespread among reli- gions. Even though it is not universal, each “major ”(to use a traditional but rather prejudicial term) living religion has a scripture. Scriptures naturally vary in form, con- tent, and usage, but they are usually present in a religion. As we have seen, recent researchers emphasize that they form a distinct and important element in the life of most religions. The tendency to “scripturalize ”— to make and use scriptures —is strong among religions. Indeed, almost every contemporary religion that is based in a literate culture produces and uses scriptures of some sort. New religious movements also express themselves in writings that have a scriptural status. Second, scriptures tend to be comprehensive for their faiths. Matters that a religion considers of great importance for its life are generally written down for the continuing community. “The sacred writings provide not only the essence of each particular religious tradition, but also the archetypal experiences which stir in the depths of all human lives: death, trust, anxiety, wonder, loyalty to a cause greater than oneself, fascination, healing, fulfillment, peace. ”25 Of course, what religions view as important does vary, and scriptures reflect this variety. Scriptures offer broad insight into the key characteristics of their faiths. Third, scriptures are authoritative for their religions. Because they are believed to come from God or the gods, an enlightened teacher, or a wise sage, and because they bear witness to an ultimate reality, the truth contained in scriptures is recognized and lived out by believers. To read a scripture is to discover what is of primary value in the world ’s religions. Moreover, because scriptures are authoritative, they typically reflect the distinctive main aspects of each tradition. “Despite the variety of attitudes to scriptural works [in the world ’s religions], there is a continuing tendency to find in 24An excellent current series of books edited by Donald S. Lopez Jr., Princeton Readings in Religions,seeks to rectify this male-elite perspective with anthologies on nearly all religions of the world, drawing on popular writings and anthropological field reports.25Leonard J. Biallas, “Teaching World Religions through Their Scriptures, ”Horizons 17 (1990): p. 80. Advantages and Disadvantages of Studying Religions Through Their Scriptures 13CopEditorial re a sacred text … the primary source for true doctrine, correct ritual, [and] appropriate conduct. ”26 The fourth advantage of studying scriptures lies in their ancient or foundational character. They or the oral traditions on which they are based arise soon after the beginning of a religion and often signal important stages in its early development. Chinese religions call their oldest scriptures “Classics, ”and, in a sense, all world scriptures are classic treatments of their religious tradition. Where a religion has a founder or founders, scriptures usually give deep insight into the life of the founder(s) from the perspective of later followers. The foundational character of scriptures thus makes them valuable as a primary source for the history of religions. In the new religious movements that we examine in Chapter 13, scriptural books were completed and published by the founder himself or herself, at the very begin- ning of the movement. Even though scriptures are indeed important, it is usually erroneous to argue, as does Charles Braden, that religion ancient or modern is “founded on ”scriptures. 27 This is a common misconception, especially in “religions of the book. ”Rather, as T. W. Hall puts it so well, “Religious communities existed prior to the writing of their scripture; … religions produced scripture and scripture did not produce religion. ”28 Fifth, scriptures are accessible in translation to English-language readers. Most of the important religious books of the world have been translated into English, and many of those that have not are now being translated. Sometimes, the translations of a certain scripture are few, but others can boast a near riot of English versions. The Daode Jing (Tao Te Ching ), for example, had more than twenty English versions in print in 2015, and even though the Qur ’an cannot be translated and still retain its holiest status, new English translations are produced regularly. Although no transla- tion can convey the full meaning and feeling of the original, a good translation can suggest it. Students of world scripture who want a closer, more accurate look at a given passage should consult at least two or three different contemporary translations of it, comparing them closely. Finally, scriptures as literary texts are open to analysis. Both the specialist scholar and the beginning reader can analyze them directly or, better yet, enter a conversation with them. Although religious texts range from mildly strange to completely baffling for those who come from other cultures and religious traditions, the same intellectual and scholarly skills that you use to read any other text can be put to use on world scriptures. With some effort, you can understand scriptures and use them as a pathway into other faiths. WORLD SCRIPTURES AND MODERN SCHOLARSHIP We must now turn to an important but often neglected topic: How does the modern academic study of scripture influence how religions use scriptures and how we read them? 26Richard C. Bush et al., The Religious World: Communities of Faith, 2nd ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1988), p. 3.27Charles Braden, The Scriptures of Mankind: An Introduction (New York: Macmillan, 1952), p. 8. 28T. William Hall, Richard B. Pilgrim, and Ronald R. Cavanagh, Religion: An Introduction (San Fran- cisco: Harper & Row, 1985), p. 109. 14 CHAPTER 1 |Scripture Among the World ’s ReligionsCopEditorial re Historical and critical literary scholarship is largely Western and European in origin, stemming from various methods of interpreting literature developed in the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. Textual criticism methodically judges manu- scripts to find the likely original reading; grammatical criticism analyzes the content and style of the wording of a work in its original language; literary criticism studies genres. Most important is historical criticism, in particular the historical-critical method , which probes the developmental genesis of works from the past. It seeks to discover their original meaning as understood by their first audience. In the early nineteenth century, the historical-critical method began to be applied to the Bible. Critical study of the Christian scripture has uncovered development, diversity, and even some disagreement within it. Christianity ’s effort to understand the Bible criti- cally has suffered reversals from time to time. Yet most Protestant groups accept this critical study, perceiving that it offers a fuller understanding of scripture that is com- patible with faith. In the early twentieth century, biblical criticism spread to Judaism, and today Conservative and Reform Jews widely accept it; only Orthodox Jews still oppose it. Since the Second Vatican Council (1962 –1965), Roman Catholics have also em- braced the historical-critical method. 29 Today, the basic methods of literary study still are largely European academic methods. Scholars and students read sacred texts through Western eyes and by Western methods. The endeavor to publish the literature of world religions is also a Western aca- demic enterprise. It had its roots in the eighteenth century, when the first copies of Chinese and Indian scripture made their way to Europe and were greeted with great interest, even enthusiasm, in some circles. One reason for this enthusiasm was an Enlightenment hope that these scriptures might be a religious or philosophical alter- native to what some saw as the hidebound clericalism of Christianity. The Vedas, for example, were at first viewed as religious expressions from near the dawn of time, pristine and unspoiled by priests. Gradually, Europeans realized that the Vedas reflect a priestly system as traditional as that of Christianity, and much older. By the middle of the nineteenth century, as we saw, a more mature scholarly interest in world scriptures blossomed into a systematic effort to publish reliable translations. The publishing of sacred texts continues today, especially in religions that have large canons. The meth- ods used to edit, translate, publish, and interpret these scriptures draw generally from the Western tradition. Most Western scholars of comparative religion were, until recently, Protestant Christians. Despite their efforts to be objective and their significant accomplishments, over the last century an inevitable Protestant bias crept into the way scholars have looked at the scriptures of other faiths. Certain mainstream Protestant ideas about Christian scripture colored the study of the scriptures of other religions. Today, these biases are being identified and corrected. They include: A concern with textuality to the exclusion of orality, from the Protestant emphasis on the scripture as written. 29See Gerald P. Fogarty, American Catholic Biblical Scholarship (San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1989); and Robert B. Robinson, Roman Catholic Exegesis since Divino Afflante Spiritu (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1988). World Scriptures and Modern Scholarship 15CopEditorial re The idea that scriptures are to be read mainly — or at least most profitably — by the individual, from Protestant ideas of the “priesthood of all believers ”and universal literacy. The notion that scriptures are widely authoritative over every aspect of religious life, from the Protestant assertion that the Christian scriptures are the sole author- ity in the Christian faith. The assumption that scriptures are best understood by objective, academically recognized methods of study, from mainstream Protestant commitment to using sound academic procedures when studying the Bible. 30 Of course, the other religions of the world generally do not share these notions in the Protestant bias, as we can see when we reflect comparatively on each of these bullet points. In the first item, on orality, most religions emphasize orality. In some religions, such as Hinduism, the oral dimension dominates the written. In others, such as Islam, written and oral traditions are more in balance. In the next item, many religions do not share the Protestant notion that scriptures should be read by the individual; rather, their adherents speak and hear their scriptures in groups, usually in worship and ritual. Indeed, it comes as a striking realization for modern North Americans that most followers of many religions throughout history (and even today!) cannot read and therefore cannot read their sacred texts. For the typical follower of most faiths, texts must be spoken and heard. We examined earlier the next Protestant assumption, that scriptures seek to regulate every aspect of religious life, and we concluded that they seek to regulate the center of religious life as their religion conceives that center. As for the last item of the “Protestant bias, ”the Western academic approach to scripture goes against the grain of many religions and is, therefore, viewed as alien. To study scripture objectively is to question its sacredness because such study employs the same methods used to study other literature. Each religion has some systematic study of its sacred texts, but such study usually remains devotional, meditative, and interpre- tive. Noncritical and unthreatening, it does not question the received beliefs about the origin and standing of the text. For example, many observant Hindus do not agree with scholars that the oldest forms of Hinduism came to India in the Indo-European migrations into India around 1500 B.C.E. because this is not mentioned in the Hindu scriptures from this period. In another example, Islam generally forbids Muslims to read the Qur ’an in such a way to question its unity or divine origin, as the Muslim writer Salman Rushdie discovered. His controversial novel, The Satanic Verses, 31 alleg- edly committed blasphemy against the Qur ’an. In 1989, Iranian officials put a $2 million price on his head, and he only recently —and tentatively — came out of hiding when the death threat was informally lifted. When we read scriptures, then, we must remember that the way we read is fully conditioned by our cultural backgrounds and academic enterprises. Those who read from a religious background must always try to keep their own viewpoints identified and in check (without giving them up, of course). Those with no religious commit- ments must try to suspend any doubts they may have about religion and scriptures. We read scriptures as “outsiders, ”in an objective, scholarly, noncommittal way. This is altogether necessary as a first step in coming to grips with scriptures. A second step, 30For more on this Protestant bias, see Levering, Rethinking Scripture, pp. 3 –5. 31Salman Rushdie, The Satanic Verses (New York: Viking, 1988). 16 CHAPTER 1 |Scripture Among the World ’s ReligionsCopEditorial re more difficult than the first but equally necessary, is to read them as much as possible as “insiders, ”with the eyes, minds, and hearts of those for whom these texts are much more than the object of scholarship. 32 SCRIPTURES AND THE WORLD WIDE WEB The past twenty years have seen an explosive growth in the World Wide Web. Much information about religion can be found on the web; indeed, religion seems to be one of the leading topics of discussion and inquiry. As a part of this interest in religion, many websites feature scriptures in translation or sometimes in the original. Reading scriptures on the World Wide Web is increasing steadily around the world. In 2014, for example, a sociological study of the use of the Bible in the United States reported that almost one-third of all private Bible reading is now done on the web. 33 Many positive features of this new opportunity to encounter world scriptures are obvious to students today. These positives can be listed here: The access is almost always free. The amount of scripture on the web is growing rapidly. The Internet presents unique ways of studying and learning —for example, the ability to search a text electronically. Some sites are fully interactive, allowing students to ask questions and participate in online discussion groups. When a religion site is sponsored by its followers, the perspective provided is likely to be more that of an “insider ”than classroom or textbook descriptions. The drawbacks of studying scriptures on the web are also obvious: Some sites are not well constructed; they may have poor layout, little eye appeal, out-of-date links, or other technical deficiencies. The translations used are, too often, public domain works more than one hundred years old that are not edited for today ’s readers. When representatives of a religion post that religion ’s writings for religious con- version or public relations purposes, the interpretations they provide may not agree with the current academic consensus about that religion. These electronic publications are subject to little or no scholarly control, such as editorial or peer review before publication, so their quality varies greatly, from excellent to poor. This mixed situation means that many students need help in finding, using, and especially analyzing critically these web-based scripture sites. Readers of this anthology may access the MindTap for this title to further their use of the web in religious studies. It has links to short, helpful essays on using the Internet in an academically appropriate way. It also has links to sites useful in the study of scriptures. The listing is not comprehensive, but it does offer a starting place to surf and learn. Please visit 32See the excellent remarks by Eric Sharpe in Encyclopedia of Religion, vol. 14, p. 85, on “imaginative sympathy ”in reading scripture as “insiders. ”See also Ross N. Reat, “Insiders and Outsiders in the Study of Religious Traditions, ”Journal of the American Academy of Religion 51 (1983): pp. 459 –475. 33Philip Goff, Arthur E. Farnsely II, and Peter J. Theusen, “The Bible in American Life, ”www.raac.iupui .edu/research-projects/bible-american-life/bible-american-life-report/, accessed April 20, 2015. Scriptures and the World Wide Web 17CopEditorial re and search for “Anthology of World Scriptures, ”and book- mark this book ’s site when you reach it. THE PLAN OF THIS BOOK This book contains excerpts of world scriptures in the following order of religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Confucianism, Daoism (Taoism), Shinto, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and selected new religious movements. This progression keeps these religions together in their family groups and goes in order of historical development. Moreover, the reader can see the relationships among religions and scriptures more easily when related bodies of texts are dealt with in succession. For example, when the Christian scriptures and then the Islamic follow the Jewish scriptures, the deep relationship among them becomes apparent. The final chapter gives excerpts from the scriptures of new religious movements: Falun Gong, Baha ’i, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Christian Science, and the Unification Church. Each chapter after this first (with the exception of Chapter 8, Shinto, which has a structure explained at the beginning of that chapter) is structured as follows: An introduction outlines the scriptures included, setting them in the context of the whole religion by examining briefly their name(s), overall structure, contemporary use, and their historical origins and development. The first grouping of scripture passages deals with the history of the religion. If the faith has a founder, special attention is given to him or her; any subsequent history of the religion that scripture reflects is also ex- cerpted. Second are passages covering the main doctrinal teaching of the religion. These topics include divine or ultimate reality, creation and the environment, the nature of humanity, and achieving human fulfillment (salvation, release, harmony, and the rest). Third are passages about the moral/ethical structure of the scriptures: good, evil, and the authentic human life. Personal morality is probably more widely treated in world scriptures, but social ethics are also prominent. Such topics as war and peace, violence and nonviolence, tolerance and intolerance of people of other faiths, the status of women, and a just society are represented as fully as possible. Fourth are passages about the organization of the religion, either in its internal organization (for example, monks and laity in Buddhism) or in its attempts to organize its wider culture (for example, the Hindu caste system in India). Last are passages about religious worship, ritual, devotion, and meditation. Of course, some religions have more in some of these categories than in others, but most religions do fit into them without significant distortion. Where they do not fully fit, this format is adapted to do justice to the particular nature of the texts. The predominant rationale for this organization is to further the learning of students encountering world religions. Teachers and students of world religions will recognize this organization as common for research and teaching in religion. Moreover, they are categories that seem to fit world scriptures themselves. Why not discard any attempt to use categories of organization and simply provide one or two longer excerpts from each religion ’s body of scripture? A rather uniform scripture like the Qur ’an may be encompassed in a few long readings, and even Islamic tradition says that the whole message of the Qur ’an is contained in each of its chapters. However, what Paul Muller-Ortega says about Hinduism is true of world religions in general, including the new religious movements: “It is not possible to put 18 CHAPTER 1 |Scripture Among the World ’s ReligionsCopEditorial re a single sacred text in the hands of students and expect the reading of that one text to allow students to encompass the tradition. … Thus, the preferred method of expos- ing students to the enormity of the Hindu sacred literature has been by means of anthologies. ”34 SUGGESTIONS ON HOW TO READ SCRIPTURES Individuals reading world scriptures for the first time often feel they are entering a strange new world. Sometimes, preconceived notions of what reading a given scripture will be like turn out to be quite wrong. Students of world religion are especially susceptible to the difficulties of reading scripture. Their textbooks usually try to make scriptures easier to encounter by simplifying and summarizing the content. To encounter scriptures more directly and in their original form is a harder process. As Mortimer Adler and Charles Van Doren once wrote, “The problem of reading the Holy Book … is the most difficult problem in the field of reading. ”35 In the end, however, it is more profitable for readers to wrestle as directly as possible with the texts. Of course, an anthology such as this does not present world scriptures in their totality but serves as a bridge to the full scripture text. Each reader must ultimately find an individually suitable method for reading world scriptures. However, these ten suggestions drawn from my experience and the experience of others may be helpful: 1. Use your knowledge of religion to set these readings in a fuller context. Try to relate scriptures as fully as possible to the life of the religions from which they come. For example, when you are reading about ritual, visualize how the ritual is carried out. 2. Read the introductions to each chapter before you turn to the passages. They will provide an important background for understanding the passages. 3. Skim the selections first. Having a general feel for the “lay of the land ”will help you when you begin to read in detail. 4. Read the scripture passages objectively. Use the same intellectual skills that you bring to any other text, religious or nonreligious. Remember their holy status in their religions, but do not be intimidated by it. 5. Mark the text as you read. Readers who mark the text, underlining or highlight- ing as few as three or four items per page, understand and remember more on average than readers who do not mark their text. Marking helps to make the text your own. 6. Pay attention to literary genre. Read with a feeling for the differences among myth, poetry, narrative, law, and other literary forms. 7. Make a personal glossary of unfamiliar terms and names as you go along. You can do this easily by circling them in the text and writing them in the bottom margin. (Use circles or some other type of marking that will distinguish them from your other marked material.) Then you can go back later to make a short note of their meaning, also in the margin. With a little extra effort, you can control the special terms. 34Paul Muller-Ortega, “Exploring Textbooks: Introductions to Hinduism, ”in B. R. Gaventa, ed., Critical Review of Books in Religion, 1988 (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1989), p. 71. 35Mortimer Adler and Charles Van Doren, How to Read a Book (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1940), p. 288. Suggestions on How to Read Scriptures 19CopEditorial re 8. Read each selection repeatedly until you are familiar with it. Familiarity enables you to identify any problems you have in understanding it. View these problems as opportunities for achieving greater understanding, not as roadblocks. 9. Read the selections aloud as much as possible. Listen to the sounds of the words, and try to get a sense of the oral dimensions of the text. You cannot reproduce the feeling of the original language, but reading aloud will at least remind you that the text has an oral dimension. 10. Put yourself, as well as you can, inside the faith of the scripture. What could these writings mean to you if you were among those who first heard them? What could they mean to you today if you were a typical follower of that faith? By using your knowledge and imagination, you can participate in the unique use of scripture in each religion and become — partially and temporarily — an insider. 36 GLOSSARY Abrahamic monotheisms Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, all of which look to Abraham as their father. bibliolatry [BIB -lee-AHL-ah-tree] Veneration of a scripture book. bibliomancy [BIB-lee-oh- MAN -see] The use of scrip- ture to foresee future events and guide one ’s re- sponse to them. canon A more or less fixed collection of books regarded as scriptural. commentary A book written to explain another book, often passage by passage. Many religions possess commentaries on their scriptures. genre A literary form, such as poetry, myth, proverb, narrative history, and philosophical meditation. historical-critical method The scholarly study of a text that derives meaning from the text ’s earliest phases and traces the text ’s historical development. iconic use Scripture when revered as a sacred object apart from its content. narrative The telling of an event or series of events in story form. oral tradition The passing down, usually through many generations, of myths, narratives, poems, and the like by word of mouth. Protestant bias Mainstream Protestant ideas about Christian scripture that have affected the study of the scriptures of other religions. scripture Writing accepted and used in a religious com- munity as especially sacred and authoritative. QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION 1. Explain in your own words the three main stages in the history of world scripture scholarship. Why is this important today? 2. What does the word scripture mean to you? Give a definition in your own words. 3. “Scripture is more a Western concept than an Asian concept. ”To what extent is this common statement accurate? 4. Suppose that a new potential scripture —a new gospel book about Jesus or a new chapter in the Qur ’an, for example —is discovered and shown to be authentic. Would such a potential scripture ac- tually get into the scripture canon of Christianity or Islam? Why or why not? 5. What uses of scripture seem most important or in- teresting to you? Why? 36“By an act of historical imagination we can actually participate up to a certain point in the aspirationsand devotions of other times and places. Yet this truly is only up to a certain point, for the curtain is suddenly lowered and we realize with a shock just how far away those places and times really are. That experience has been called ‘the paradox of understanding. ’”Jaroslav Pelikan, On Searching the Scriptures — Your Own or Someone Else ’s(New York: Quality Paperback Book Club, 1992), p. 7. 20 CHAPTER 1 |Scripture Among the World ’s ReligionsCopEditorial re 6. What disadvantages are posed by the ancient char- acter of scriptures? Can these be overcome? If so, how? 7. Reflect on Mohandas Gandhi ’s statement about studying others ’scriptures: “One should read others ’scriptures with respect and reverence even to be enriched in one ’s own religious convictions. ” 8. What other advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet in religious studies occur to you, be- sides the ones given here? MindTap is a fully online, highly personalized learning experience built upon Cengage Learning content. MindTap combines student learning tools —readings, multimedia, activities, and assessments —into a singular Learning Path that guides students through their course. Questions for Study and Discussion 21CopEditorial re CHAPTER TWO Hinduism Diana Eck Reading Hindu Scripture A Hindu woman in Varanasi, India, reads a pocket edition of the Bhagavad-Gita , one of the most popular and influential Hindu scriptures, in an act of private devotion. In this pilgrimage city where Hindus come to wash away the negative effects of karma in the Ganges River and engagein many other rituals, she is taking another route to salvation promised at the end of the Gita, faithful reading. –22 –CopEditorial re Hindus have a vast collection of scripture, and it is used in a variety of ways in religious practices and in wider Indian culture. These vignettes suggest just a few of them: In northern India, Indian filmmaker Deepa Mehta and her cast and crew are driven out of the holy city of Varanasi by angry mobs stirred up by local Hindu leaders. These mobs destroy her sets for the film Water, a story set in the 1930s of the confinement of widows to a life of self-denial in an effort to follow the ancient Laws of Manu scripture. Undeterred, she moves the filming out of India and completes her film, which opens to worldwide acclaim. Mehta even goes so far as to put quotations from the Laws of Manu into the opening scene of the film. Just before dawn, the head of an Indian household rises and purifies himself with water. Raising his arms to the rising sun, he recites a prayer to the sun-god Agni from the most ancient scripture, the Rig-Veda. This ritual, called the Agnihotra, has been performed continually in India for more than 3000 years. In Hardwar, India, people gather for the “world ’s largest religious festival. ”Ten million people have come to this site on the upper Ganges River. According to Hindu scriptures, bathing during this festival is the supreme act of worship. Both women and men spend a good deal of time in the river (in separate areas), wash- ing away the effects of bad karma that will affect their reincarnation negatively. Much of the other activity focuses on scripture: Holy men read scripture aloud, chant short religious formulas, and teach them to the pilgrims. In Bangalore, India, twenty-three-year-old Lakshmi works in a call center, answering inquiries from customers of a prominent American corporation. She dropped out of college to work in the center, and she is paid enough to live a middle-class life and be financially independent of her parents. She and thousands like her have provoked a growing social crisis in India. According to Indian cul- tural norms grounded in the Laws of Manu, a leading Hindu scripture, a female lives with her parents and is under their direction until she gets married, whenever that may be. “I want to live on my own, ”Lakshmi says. INTRODUCTION Hinduism is one of the oldest of world religions and certainly the most internally diverse. It encompasses many gods and offers many paths to salvation. It has no his- torical founder, no overall structure of authority. The scriptures of Hinduism mirror this diversity. Vast in size, varied in usage, and profound in influence, many scriptures have been chanted, heard, taught, and repeated for 3000 years. No one scripture is adhered to by all Hindus. Generalizations about Hindu scriptures are difficult to make; nearly every statement has exceptions. Still, the main lines of these scriptures can be reliably traced, and they provide good doors into the many-roomed house of Hinduism. Overview of Structure Hindus have not given any single comprehensive name to their scriptures. They divide them into two classes: Shruti and Smriti (see Table 2.1). Shruti [SHROO-tee], “what is heard, ”is the primary revelation. It has no human or divine author but captures the Introduction 23CopEditorial re cosmic sounds of truth first heard by rishis [REE-shees], ancient seers. These rishis began a process of oral transmission and practice through priestly families that con- tinues today. Shruti consists of four Vedas (“Knowledge ”Books), the Brahmanas (“Brahmin ”Books), the Aranyakas (“Forest/Wilderness/Jungle ”Books), and the Upanishads (“Sittings Near a Teacher ”Books). Altogether, it is “Vedic ”scripture. The canon of Shruti has been basically fixed for almost 2000 years, and all of Hindu- ism is, in some sense, based on it. The category of Smriti [SMRIH-tee], “what is remembered, ” designates all other scripture, which is post-Vedic. The role of Smriti is to bring out the meaning of earlier, Vedic traditions and apply them to later ages. The Smriti literature is vast in size and scope. It ranges from myths and legends of the Puranas, epics like the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, and law codes like the Laws of Manu and the Institutes of Vishnu. These scriptures have been widely translated from their original Sanskrit into the other languages of India, and the canon of Smriti is still open. Because of its more popular and ever-developing nature, Smriti scripture has had a strong influence on Hindu religion and Indian culture. In the Shruti category, the four Vedas [VAY-duhs] are the foundation of Hindu scripture. They are samhitas [SAHM-hee-tuhs], “collections ”of hymns, formulas, songs, and spells. The Rig-Veda samhita has 1028 hymns divided into ten books. Each hymn ( Rig ) is addressed to a single god or goddess, praising that god above other deities. Rig- Veda hymns begin with the invocation of a deity, then make requests of that deity and offer praises by recounting her or his famous deeds. Hymns typically finish by restating the request. TABLE 2.1 Hindu Scriptures Division Name Translation/ Content Approximate Date Size Shruti (“What Is Heard, ”Vedic scripture) Rig-Veda Hymn Veda 1200 B.C.E. 1028 hymns in 10 books Yajur-Veda Formula Veda 1000 B.C.E. Sama-Veda Song Veda 1000 B.C.E. 1549 songs for sacrifice Atharva-Veda Spell Veda 800 B.C.E. 731 hymns in 20 books Brahmanas Brahmin Books 800 B.C.E. Correspond to each Veda Aranyakas Forest Books 800 B.C.E. Upanishads Sittings Near a Teacher 700 B.C.E.–1500 C.E. 123 total; 13 principal Smriti (“What Is Remembered, ” post-Vedic scripture) Ramayana Story of Rama 200 B.C.E. 7 books Puranas Legends 400 –1000 C.E. 18 books Mahabharata Great Story of the Bharatas 400 C.E. 18 books Manusmriti Laws of Manu 200 C.E. 12 books Vishnusmriti Institutes of Vishnu 300 C.E. 100 chapters Tantras Weavings 500 –1800 C.E. Uncertain number of books 24 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re The Yajur-Veda samhita consists mostly of prose sacrificial formulas ( yajus ) used by the presiding priest in a sacrifice. The Sama-Veda is a collection of songs and melodies ( samans ) used in sacrifice; most of the words are taken from the Rig-Veda. The Rig, Yajur, and Sama Vedas together are known in Hinduism as the “threefold Veda. ” The Atharva-Veda differs remarkably from the other three, containing spells, curses, and charms. It reflects the everyday religious life of ordinary people; the three other Vedas reflect the religious life of the priestly group. The next part of Shruti to emerge was the Brahmanas [BRAH-mah-nuhs], which are manuals for sacrifice. They describe ancient Vedic sacrifice in great and fascinating detail and are organized to correspond to the four Veda samhitas. They present sacrifice —and especially ritual utterance, the powerful sacrificial word correctly spoken —as the power that strengthens the gods, keeps the universe intact, and brings blessing to the sacrificer. Brahmin priests sacrificed meat and other offerings to all the gods. The soma sacrifice involving a hallucinogenic drug is prominent. The Aranyakas [ah-RUN-yah-kuhs], which contain philosophical thoughts on sacrifice, especially the sacrificial fire, are a development of the Brahmanas. Reflections on the New Year festival are also prominent. These speculations were considered unsuitable for open knowledge and so were made in the privacy of the forest. Some Aranyakas have been incorporated into the Upanishads. The Upanishads [oo-PAH-nee-shahds] form the final part of Shruti. One hun- dred twenty-three Upanishads have survived, but only thirteen have been influential in Hindu history. The Upanishads are philosophical treatments on cosmic reality and sometimes feature debates between opposing teachers. Their emphasis is on self- denial as a way to find religious truth, the way of asceticism. The ritualism of the four Vedas and especially of the Brahmanas is downplayed and even attacked in the Upanishads. The Upanishads are concerned to find the One, the absolute spiritual reality that lies in and behind all the visible elements and beings of this physical world. As the conclusion of Shruti and the Vedic scripture collection, the Upanishads are also known as the Vedanta (End of the Veda ). We begin describing the Smriti with the two main epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. The Ramayana (Story of Rama) is traditionally attributed to the poet Valkimi. It was written in the third century B.C.E. Prince Rama was exiled from his kingdom and his wife Sita was kidnapped by the demon Ravana, but Rama was restored to his kingdom and his wife with the help of the monkey-god. The Maha- bharata (Great Story of the Bharatas) is the longest epic in the world. Its basic story involves the feud and eventual war between two sides of King Bharata ’s family. The Mahabharata is a vast repository of Indian myths and legends, and the Bhagavad- Gita [BAH-gah-vahd GEE-tuh], “Song of the Lord, ”is a small part of this larger epic. The Mahabharata and the Ramayana share a common body of myth and folklore. The Puranas [POOR-ah-nuhs], “Legends, ”traditionally eighteen in number, are also concerned with myth and lore. Like the epics (and the Smriti in general), they are addressed to the ordinary person. Emerging at about 400 to 1000 C.E., they stress devotion to a specific divinity as the way to release. Some speak of the god Shiva, some of Vishnu, and some of the goddess Shakti, the three main devotional movements of Hinduism. By far the most popular, and influential for medieval and early modern Indian popular literature and painting, is the Bhagavata-Purana. This tenth-century Introduction 25CopEditorial re work provides background on Krishna before his appearance in the Bhagavad-Gita, especially his youth among the cowherders of his village and his romantic adventures with the young cowherd women. Tantras ( “looms, weavings ”) arose in medieval India. Books of mystical teachings, spells, and rituals, they deal with beliefs and yogic meditation in a popular way. Each of the three main devotional movements — Shiva, Vishnu, and Shakti —has its own official collection of tantras, which tell the exploits of the movement ’s gods and bring their powers to devotees by means of yoga [YOH-guh], spiritual and mental discipline to promote religious knowledge, and by means of rituals. Tantrism is fre- quently associated in the Western world with exotic sexual practices, but this is only one aspect of it. The final type of Smriti to be considered here are law codes. These codes are called Dharma-Shastras [DAHR-muh SHAS-truhs], “Writings on Duty. ”“ Law ” here is broadly conceived; it encompasses caste, life stages, diet, government, and other matters. The most important manual is the Laws of Manu, composed around 200 C.E. in twelve books. The main concern of Manu is the codification and operation of the four-caste system. Manu ’sinfluence on Hindu life has been profound. Indeed, the two things that are often said to define a practicing Hindu are acceptance of the Vedas and following caste duty. Contemporary Use Hindu scriptures have a wide variety of uses today, some of which have already been mentioned. In what follows, we trace these uses briefly, with a special focus on orality. The four Vedas were orally composed and were handed down orally for thou- sands of years. To put them in a book would have seemed absurd, even sacrilegious, because they were, in essence, a spoken and heard revelation ( Shruti ) and their power resided in their oral use. Brahmin priests speak the Vedas in ritual. The threefold Veda has always been the text of this religious aristocracy, but never of the people as a whole. In fact, for almost two thousand years now Hindu law has declared that only male Brahmins may study the Veda . From the first, the sound of these scriptures was more important than their content. Traditionalist Hindus believe that the sounds of the Veda were the sounds that the sages heard reverberating from the creation of the universe and that the same sounds will be used again at the next cycle of re-creation. These sounds have been passed on orally from guru to student for thousands of years. The fact that writing was not introduced to India until around 500 B.C.E. meant that the foundational stage of Hinduism had only oral transmission and use of scrip- ture, and this preference for orality has continued until modern times. Gurus teach their students every element of correct oral usage of the Veda, including correct pro- nunciation, poetic meter, volume, and pitch. Brahmins who excel in Veda memoriza- tion and ritual enactment are known as pandits [PAHN-deets] (our word pundit, “recognized expert, ”is derived from “pandit ”). As a student, each young Brahmin is educated in one of the four Vedas and becomes an expert in the use of that Veda in sacrifice. Hymns in the Rig-Veda often end with a request to the deity that the sacri- ficers might “speak as men of power ”during the rites. Hindus do not study the content of the Vedas in, for example, meditation or doctrinal instruction. Much of the ancient Vedic form of the Sanskrit language has been lost, so the meaning of many passages is not recoverable. For the past 2000 years, 26 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re even Brahmins often have not fully understood what they were saying as they chanted the Vedas in the rituals. But understanding the Vedas is not important; only the correct sounds matter. Today, only a few Brahmin families keep up a ritually correct form of the ancient Vedic sacrifices. However, most domestic rituals are done with Vedic formulas. Speaking and concentrating on the mantra [MAHN-truh] allows the believer to tap into the cosmic power of creative speech. “Mantra ”is often used today in the Western world to mean a slogan, such as “My mantra is live and let live, ”but in Hinduism a mantra is a mystical formula as short as one word. The Upanishads became the texts of the philosophers, especially of the Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy. Reflecting on the meaning of this scripture in a life of strict renunciation allows the sage to be set free from desire and rebirth. In the last hundred years, a neo-Vedantic school has arisen, mainly drawing on ancient Hindu themes and also influenced by modern Western religious ideas such inter-religious tolerance. Hindu law codes are used for the ordering of society. They especially reflect the Brahmin caste and its view of Hindu life. How closely these books were followed and enforced in ancient times cannot be determined. However, their general influence on Indian life has certainly retained much authority even today in India. Of all Hindu scripture, the epics have been the best known and most loved. The Bhagavad-Gita, because of the way it affirms and integrates many main aspects of Hinduism, has been acceptable and influential among all Hindus. Because of its pro- motion of one devotional way as the best, however, it remains the special text of the Vishnu-Krishna devotional movement. For much of Hindu history, the primacy of scriptures has been in their oral, not their written, form. For example, the four Veda samhitas were composed and collected before writing was known in India. The Upanishads were not fully written down until 1656 C.E., and then only at the command of the Muslim ruler of India at the time, Dara Shakoh, who ordered a translation of these oral works into Persian so that Muslim scholars could read them. Since then, the Upanishads have been translated by Hindus into the other main Indian languages; the original Sanskrit was written down as well. The Hindu tradition has regarded writing itself as polluting compared with the sanctity of the spoken word. Now, however, orality is fading, and it is common to see even holy men reading aloud from books instead of reciting from memory. Even rituals are sometimes done with reading aloud from scripture. Still, the sound of the scriptures continues to be important because sound is their very essence. To sum up, Hindus ’use of scripture depends on their class and occupation and on the particular type of Hinduism (philosophical, devotional, and so forth) they follow. Most Hindus have a reverence, if often vague, for the threefold Veda, and they have some personal commitment to the structure of society as reflected in the law codes. In devotional Hinduism, believers have a strong feeling for the sacred literature of one ’s single chosen god or goddess. Comparing a typical Hindu attitude toward scripture with Western attitudes, Daniel Gold remarks, The idea of Vedic authority known to traditional Hindus is much more diffuse and abstract than the idea of a closed biblical canon known to the West. Christians, for example, variously interpret a revealed text to which most people have access and of which they can make some literal sense. For Hindus, by con- trast, a reverence for scriptural authority can often mean simply that they think Introduction 27CopEditorial re that what they do somehow comes from the Vedas, texts which in their antiquity are very rarely used or understood anymore …. They exist now primarily as words of power incorporated into newer rites. 1 Historical Origin and Development The history of Hindu scripture parallels the history of Hinduism as a whole. Keep in mind this general principle of Hindu scripture as we proceed: The literature grows by association. Earlier works, no matter how sacred, invite later works with related themes and styles, which, in turn, attract still more literature that is sacred. The four Vedas have their origin in ritual. Sacrifice itself seems to have come first because even the earliest Vedas presuppose an established sacrifice. The songs, melo- dies, and formal directions for their performance were drawn up later, soon after the Aryan invasion of India around 1500 B.C.E. The Rig-Veda contains these songs for sacrifice. The oldest hymns deal with the gods of the Indo-Aryans: the sky-god Dyaus Pitar, whom the Greeks knew as Zeus, and the earth-goddess Prithivi Mater. In the next stage, these old gods receded and new gods arose: Indra the new sky-god, Agni the god of fire, Soma the god of drugged sacrifice. The final hymns written down are found in the Rig-Veda Books 1 and 10, which move from polytheistic nature gods to the kind of cosmic speculations that search for the oneness of all being. The final, oral- collection form of the Rig-Veda was reached about 1200 B.C.E. The Sama-Veda was composed after the Rig-Veda was complete. It has lines from the Rig-Veda, chanted to fixed melodies. The melodies are not captured in the written text but are passed on from a singing priest to his disciples. The proper lyrics and music were essential to the success of the rite. The Yajur-Veda contains directions for sacri- fice and was written down after the Rig-Veda was established. The Atharva-Veda with its magical spells gives a glimpse into the more popular levels of ancient Hinduism. The spells are addressed not to the great gods but to the gods and spirits that control everyday life, its cycles, and challenges. The first seven books are the earliest; Books 8 through 12 are more recent and contain ideas similar to Book 10 of the Rig-Veda and the later Upanishads. The Brahmanas mark the high point of Hindu ritualism. The power of the priest- hood steadily grew in Vedic times (2000 –1000 B.C.E.), and the focus of the Brahmanas is on sacrifice itself, not on the gods. Sacrifice is the power that generates the cosmos and keeps it going for the benefit of humans and gods. The main group of the Brahmanas deals with the Yajur-Veda and the ritual process. Sacrifices using soma are prominent, as is the horse sacrifice, which took great expense and an entire year to enact. The Aranyakas mark the beginning of a departure from Vedic ritualism. Mixed and disjointed in content, these reflections may have been developed by marginalized Brahmins or by members of the warrior caste. The Upanishads, the last of the Vedic scriptures, are close in style to the Aranyakas. Most were written from 700 to 300 B.C.E. The so-called principal Upanishads number about thirteen and are the only Upanishads accepted by all Hindus. The oldest of these are the Chandogya and Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishads. Other Upanishads with special devotion to a particular deity date from the beginnings of the Common Era all the way to around 1500 C.E. and are accepted only by certain Hindu groups. 1Daniel Gold, “Organized Hinduisms, ”in Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, Fundamentalisms Observed (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), pp. 542 –543. 28 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re The Upanishads, like the other Shruti, are not uniform or systematic. They are diverse collections of philosophical materials from different teachers over the centuries. The “world-affirming ”Vedic religion that originally sought blessing in this world has also become a “world-negating ”religion that seeks release from continually reincar- nated existence in this world. These Upanishads present the way of knowledge, the search for the eternal One called Brahman [BRAH-muhn] as it relates to Atman [AHT-muhn], the eternal Self at the hidden center of every human. They are the beginnings of Hindu philosophy, which has been and remains influential, although it has been an option for only a tiny minority of Hindus of any period. Unlike the Shruti, the epics of Smriti have less interest in ritual and instead deal with broad religious and cultural topics. The Mahabharata was finished by 400 C.E., the Ramayana by 200 B.C.E. Evident in both are many layers of development: (1) myths of the gods, from earliest Hinduism; (2) the central plot of each epic; and (3) discussions of religious duty and law. The insertion of this last layer into the epic is a typically Indian practice: to pause at key points in the narrative for a religious discus- sion. The most famous of these insertions, the Bhagavad-Gita, section 6 of the Mahabharata, today is reckoned a book in itself. The impact of the epics has been heightened by their going beyond oral collections and books; they “have existed, for over two thousand years, in a variety of artistic genres including dance, theatre, film and television. ”2 The law codes or Dharma-Shastras began to be compiled in the schools in which the Vedas and Brahmanas were studied. They developed into comprehensive and systematic books that eventually formed the basis of Indian society. Manu, the most influential of the law codes, was written perhaps about 200 C.E. as a full code for Hindus, for every caste, occupation, and stage of life. Like the law books of other religions and civilizations, Manu and the other law codes were developed by commen- tary as the centuries passed, and thus their influence was perpetuated. How deep this influence may have been is unknown because Manu (again like most law codes) gives prescriptions for an ideal society. Real Hindu life, like the life of all religions, no doubt fell short of its ideals. Eighteen of the ancient stories of the Puranas are especially important. Their themes are creation, re-creation, origins of the gods and sages, eras of common his- tory, and dynastic histories. Some, like the Upanishads, are sectarian, appealing to devotees of only one god. The Puranas fall into three main categories as they promote the gods Vishnu, Shiva, and others. The most important Purana is the Bhagavata- Purana, composed about 400 –1000 C.E. It is based on and furthers the book for which it is named, the Bhagavad-Gita. Tantras — books of mystical teachings, spells, and directions for rituals — arose as a popular supplement to Vedic religion. While acknowledging the truth and authority of the Vedas, the tantras go beyond them to provide updated rituals. They perfect the use of specific techniques for the body and the mind. Tantrism is widespread in Hindu religion, but the devotees of the goddess Shakti have a special attachment to it. The Shaktic tantras occasionally feature “left-handed ”tantrism, which many Westerners wrongly associate with tantrism as a whole: esoteric rituals, magic, and exotic sexual practices. The tantras were written in the period 500 –1800 C.E. 2Robert Leach, “A Religion of the Book? On Sacred Texts in Hinduism, ”Expository Times 126 (2014), p. 21. Introduction 29CopEditorial re TEACHING Aditi and the Birth of the Gods This hymn from the Rig-Veda 10.72 presents several different and seemingly contradictory explanations of the creation of the world. In this order, they are: the world was spoken by the lords of sacred speech; it came from nonexistence; the mother-goddess gave birth to it; it was formed from the mutual births of Aditi and Daksa; it was formed from the god Martanda. These and other explanations still exist among Hindus today. Along with this positive view of the world, later Hinduism developed a more pessimistic view of the physical world. 3 Let us now with melodic skill proclaim the births of the gods, That one may see them when these hymns are chanted in a future age. The lords of sacred speech produced the gods like a smith, with blast and smelting. Existence, in an early age of the gods, from non-existence sprang. Existence, in the earliest age of the gods, from non-existence sprang. Then the regions of the sky were born, sprung from productive power. Earth sprang from productive power, and the regions of the earth were born. Aditi gave birth to Daksa, and then Daksa gave birth to Aditi. [5] Daksa, Aditi your daughter was brought forth for you. After her the blessed gods were born, who share immortal life. When you, O gods, stood in the deep and held each other close, A thick cloud of dust arose as if from the feet of dancers. When you gods caused all existing things to grow, You brought Surya up from the depths of the sea. Eight sons of Aditi from her body sprang to life; With seven she went to meet the gods as she cast Martanda far away. With her seven sons, Aditi went forth to meet the early age. She brought Martanda there to spring to life and die again. Two Philosophical Views of Creation Many Hindu accounts of the origin of the universe are philosophical rather than mythological. Questioning and puzzling, they stir the listener to reflection. In the first selection, from the Rig- Veda 10.129, “the One Thing ”is the impersonal creator by whom the gods themselves are Rig-Veda 10.72. 3This and all other selections from the Rig-Veda are adapted from Ralph T. H. Griffith, The Rig Veda (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1896). Rig-Veda 10.129; Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad 1.4.1 –7. 30 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re created. This hymn has been very influential among Hindus. The second selection, from Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad 1.4.1 –7, presents a philosophical reflection on the origin of the world. It traces creation to Brahman, the world-soul that is the unifying All in and behind the world. The cosmic Person ( purusha ) identified with the world-soul is neither male nor female, despite the references to the Person as “he. ”An emphasis is laid on the power of knowing the things the text reveals. 4 [Rig-Veda 10.129] At first there was nothing, whether non- existent or existent. There was no realm of air, no sky beyond it. What covered it, and where? What sheltered it? Was water there, an unfathomable depth of water? Death did not exist then, nor was there any- thing immortal. No sign was there to be the day ’s and night ’s divider. The One Thing, breathless, breathed by its own nature; apart from it was nothing at all. Darkness was there; concealed in darkness, all was indiscriminant chaos. All that existed then was void and formless …. Then Desire arose in the beginning, the pri- mal seed and germ of Spirit. Sages who searched with their heart ’s thought discovered the existent in the non-existent. [5] Their severing line was extended across; what was above it, and what below it? There were begetters, there were mighty forces, free action here and energy up high. Who really knows, who can declare, where this creation comes from? The gods are later than the production of this world. Who knows where it first came into being? He, the first origin of this creation, whose eye controls this world in highest heaven — He knows it, or perhaps he does not. [Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad 1.4.1 –7] In the beginning this world was only Soul, in the shape of a Person. He looked around and saw nothing but himself. He said, “This is I. ”Therefore, he became “I” by name. Even now, if a man is asked his name he first says, “I am, ”and then says his name. Before [ purva ] this he burned down [ ush ] all evils; therefore he was a Person [purusha ]. He who knows this can burn down everyone who tries to be before him. 5 He was afraid, and therefore anyone who is lonely is afraid. He thought, “As there is nothing but myself, why should I fear? ” Then his fear passed away. For what should he have feared? But he still felt no delight. Therefore a man who is lonely is unhappy. He longed for a second per- son. As he was as large as a man and woman together, he made his Self to fall in two, and there came husband and wife. Therefore Yajna- valkya 6 said: “We two [man and woman] are each like half a shell. ”The void that was in the male is filled by the wife. He had sexual inter- course with her, and humans were born. But then she thought, “How can he have sex- ual intercourse with me when he produced me from himself? I must hide. ”7She then became a cow. But he became a bull and had sex with her, and therefore cows were born. Then she became a mare, and he a stallion; then he a male ass, and she a female ass. He had sex with her [in both animal forms], and therefore one-hoofed animals were born. He became a she-goat, she a he-goat; he became a ewe, she a ram. He had sex with her, and therefore goats and sheep were born. In this way he created everything that exists in pairs, all 4This and all other selections from the Upanishads are adapted from F. Max Müller, The Upanishads, vols. 1 and 15 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1878, 1884). 5He who knows this can burn down everyone … before him: Have power over them.6Vajnavalkya: A sage of ancient India, and a major figure in the Upanishads. 7How can he have sexual intercourse … hide: The woman sees incest in this intercourse; she resists it, but it continues until the whole world is created. TEACHING |TwoPhilosophicalViewsofCreation 31CopEditorial re the way down to the ants. [5] He knew this: “I indeed am this creation, for I created all this. ” Therefore he became the creation, and he who knows this lives in this his creation. Next he pro- duced fire by rubbing. From the mouth, as from the fire-hole, 8and from the hands he created fire. Therefore both the mouth and the hands are hair- less inside, for the fire-hole has no hair inside. People say, “Sacrifice to this god or that god. ” But each god is his manifestation, for he is all gods. Whatever is moist he created from semen; this is Soma. 9So this universe is really either food or those who eat food. Soma is food, Agni the eater. This is the highest creation of Brah- man, when he created the gods from his better part, and when he who was then mortal created the immortals. Therefore it was the highest creation. He who knows this lives in this highest creation … . He cannot be seen, for when breathing he is called breath. When speaking, he is called speech; when seeing, eye; when hearing, ear; when think- ing, mind. All these are only the names of his acts. Those who worship him as the one or the other do not really know him. Let humans worship him as Soul [Atman], for in the Soul all these are one. This Soul is the footprint of everything, for through it one knows everything. As one can find lost people by following their footprints, he who knows this finds glory and praise. The God Indra Indra is the sky-god, the king of the gods. This hymn from Rig-Veda 2.12 extols Indra ’s accom- plishments over several opposing gods and for promoting the welfare of the people. Its resonant refrain, “He, O people, is Indra, ”runs throughout this hymn. It seeks to defend the importance of Indra against those who ignore him or even deny his existence (verse 5). This defense evi- dently did not succeed because in post-Vedic Hinduism Indra has largely disappeared. He who, when just born, became the most powerful god and the gods ’protector, He whose breath made the two worlds tremble, he, O people, is Indra. He who fixed fast the staggering earth and set firm the agitated mountains, He who measured out the air ’s wide middle region and gave the sky support, he, O people, is Indra. He who slew the Dragon, freed the Seven Rivers, and drove the cattle from the cave of Vala, 10 He who made fire with two stones, who is the spoiler in warriors ’battle, he, my people, is Indra. He who made this universe tremble, who put down the Dasas, 11 He who seized his foe ’s riches like a gambler gathering his winnings, he, my people, is Indra. 8fire-hole (in Sanskrit, yoni ): The human vagina symbolizing the female side of cosmic power. The heat of “fire ”connotes both sexual desire and procreative power. This symbolization draws on the way fire is created for the sacrifice, with a stick turned rapidly ( “rubbed ”) in a concave stone slab. The sacri- ficer blows gently on dried grass around the stick, igniting it.9Soma: The hallucinogenic drug used in Vedic sacrifice, here a god. Rig-Veda 2.12. 10Vala: Indra ’s demonic enemy, who penned up the cows. 11Dasas: Literally, “slaves, ”enemies of the Aryans in India whom they conquered; they are often connected with modernDravidian-type peoples on the Indian subcontinent. 32 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re [5] They ask about the powerful god, “Where is He? ” Some even say of him, “He does not exist. ” He sweeps away the foe ’s possessions like one puts birds to flight. Have faith in him, for he, O people, is Indra. He who stirs to action of the poor and lowly, the priest and the suppliant who sings his praises, He who favors him who presses Soma with stones made ready, he, O people, is Indra. He who controls horses, all chariots, the villages and cattle; He who gave being to the Sun and Morning, who leads the waters, he, O people, is Indra. He to whom two enemy armies cry in close combat, the stronger and the weaker; He to whom two on one chariot mounted cry for help, he, O people, is Indra. He who helps our people to conquer; when in battle, they invoke him for help; He of whom all this world is but the copy, he, O people, is Indra. [10] He who has smitten, before they knew their danger, many grievous sinners with his hurled weapon; He who does not forgive the boldness of one who provokes him, he, O people, is Indra. He who discovered Sambara in the fortieth autumn as he dwelled among the mountains; He slew the Dragon putting forth his vigor, the demon lying there, he, O people, is Indra …. He to whom Heaven and Earth bow, and before whose breath the mountains tremble, He who is known as the Soma-drinker, armed with thunder and wielding the lightning bolt, he, O people, is Indra. He who aids him who pours the Soma, the one who brews it, the sacrificer and the singer, He whom prayer exalts, and pours forth Soma as our gift, he, O people, is Indra. [20] You truly are fierce and true, and send strength to the man who brews and pours libation. May we be your friends forever, O Indra, and speak loudly to the assembled sacrificers. Rudra and Shiva Although one of the main branches of devotional Hinduism worships Shiva, he does not have a well-known text to celebrate him as Krishna does in the Bhagavad-Gita. This late Upani- shadic hymn from the Shvetashvatara Upanishad 3.1 –13 identifies the Vedic god Rudra and the cosmic Person known as Purusha with Shiva, and at the end of the hymn it identifies these three gods with Brahman, the world-soul. It is used today by the worshippers of Shiva to express his praise. This hymn shows well how the worship of one god characteristic of devo- tional Hinduism is related to the wider Hindu traditions with many gods. Shvetashvatara Upanishad 3.1 –13. TEACHING |Rudra and Shiva 33CopEditorial re The snarer [Rudra] rules alone by his powers, rules all the worlds by his powers. He stays the same while things arise and exist. They who know this are immortal. 12 There is only one Rudra. They do not allow a second; he rules all the worlds by his powers. He stands behind all persons. Having created all worlds, he who pro- tects it will roll it up at the end of time. This god has his eyes, his face, his arms, and his feet in every place. When producing heaven and earth, he forges them together with his arms and his wings. He is the creator and supporter of the gods. Rudra is the great seer, the lord of all. … May he endow us with good thoughts. [5] O Rudra, dweller in the mountains, look upon us with your most blessed form that is auspicious, not terrible, and reveals no evil! O lord of the mountains, make lucky that arrow that you hold in your hand to shoot. Do not hurt man or beast! Beyond you is the High Brah- man, the vast being hidden in the bodies of all creatures. He alone envelops everything as the Lord. Those who know this become immortal. I know that great Person of sunlike luster beyond the darkness. 13 A man who truly knows him passes over death; there is no other path to go. This whole universe is filled by this Person, to whom there is nothing superior, from whom there is nothing different, than whom there is nothing smaller or larger. This Person stands alone, fixed like a tree in the sky. [10] That which is beyond this world is without form and without suffering. They who know this become immortal, but others suffer pain. The Blessed One exists in the faces, the heads, and the necks of all. He dwells in the cave of the heart of all beings. He is all-pervading, and there- fore he is the omnipresent Shiva. That Person is the great lord. He is the mover of existence. He pos- sesses the purest power reaching everything. He is light; he is undecaying. The Person, not larger than a thumb, 14 always dwells in the heart of man; he is perceived by the heart, the thought, and the mind. Those who know this become immortal. “That You Are ” In this reading from Chandogya Upanishad 6.1 –2, 9 –11, the Oneness that exists in and beyond the world is developed in a dialogue between a son and his father. The dialogue is not between equals; notice the close but formal relationship between father and son —the son calls him “Sir. ”This kind of dialogue is also how gurus teach Hinduism to their students. Popularly known as “The Education of Svetaketu, ”this story points to Brahman as the inner essence of all that is, especially one ’s“True Self. ”The reading begins with Om [ohm], the cosmic sound that symbolizes the fundamental hidden reality of the universe. 12They who know this are immortal: This statement, repeated often here, expresses the leading Upanishadic teaching that deep knowledge of the Atman within one leads to release from reincarnation and its painful suffering. 13great Person … darkness: Here the Cosmic Person (Purusha) is identified with Brahman; this passage will soon identify him as Shiva as well.14The Person, not larger than a thumb: Although the Cosmic Person, Purusha, is typically described as very large (as “Cos- mic Person ”suggests), his dwelling in individual humans is remarkably small. Chandogya Upanishad 6.1 –2, 9 –11. 34 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re Om .15 Once there lived a young man by the name of Svetaketu Aruneya, the grandson of Aruna. His father, Uddalaka, said to him, “Svetaketu, go to school. No one belonging to our race is a Brahmin 16 by birth only; study of the Veda is necessary. ” Svetaketu began his apprenticeship with a teacher when he was twelve years of age. He returned to his father when he was twenty-four, after he had studied all the Vedas. But he was conceited, considering himself learned and impor- tant. His father said to him, “Svetaketu, you are so conceited, and you consider yourself so learned and important. My dear son, have you ever asked for that instruction by which we hear what cannot be heard? Have you asked for that instruction by which we can perceive what cannot be per- ceived, and by which we can know what cannot be known? ” “What is that instruction, sir? ”he asked. The father replied: “My dear son, by one clod of clay all that is made of clay is known; the differ- ence is only a name arising from speech, but the truth is that all of it is clay. By one nugget of gold all that is made of gold is known; the difference is only a name arising from speech, but the truth is that all of it is gold. By one pair of nail scissors all that is made of iron is known; the difference is only a name arising from speech, but the truth is that all of it is iron. This, my dear son, is that instruction. ” The son said: “Surely those venerable men, my teachers, did not know that. If they had known it, why should they not have told me? Sir, tell me that [instruction]. ” “In the beginning, there was only one thing, without a second. It thought, ‘May I be many, may I grow forth. ’It sent forth fire. That fire thought, ‘May I be many, may I grow forth. ’It sent forth water. Therefore whenever anyone is hot and per- spires, water is produced on him from fire alone. Water thought, ‘May I be many, may I grow forth. ’It sent forth earth. Therefore whenever it rains anywhere, food is produced from the earth …. [9] “My son, bees make honey by collecting the juices of distant trees, and reduce the juice into one form; these juices have no knowledge to say, ‘I am the juice of this tree or that. ’In the same manner, my son, all these creatures, when they have become merged in the True (either in deep sleep or in death), do not know that they are merged in the True. Whatever these creatures are, whether a lion, or a wolf, or a boar, or a worm, or a midge, or a gnat, or a mosquito, they become that again and again. A subtle essence is the self of all that exists. It is the True. It is the Self, and that [True Self], Svetaketu, you are. ” “Please, sir, inform me still more, ”said the son. “My son, these rivers run, the eastern like the Ganges River, toward the east, the western like the Sindhu River, toward the west. They go from sea to sea, that is, the clouds lift up the water from the sea to the sky, and send it back as rain to the sea. They become the sea. And as those rivers, when they are in the sea, do not know ‘I am this or that river, ’in the same man- ner, my son, all these creatures, when they have come back from the True, know not that they have come back from the True. Whatever these creatures are here, whether a lion, or a wolf, or a boar, or a worm, or a midge, or a gnat, or a mos- quito, they become that again and again. A subtle essence is the self of all that exists. It is the True Self, and that, Svetaketu, you are. ” “Please, sir, inform me more, ”said the son. “If someone were to strike at the root of this large tree here, it would bleed, but live. If he were to strike at its stem, it would bleed, but live. If he were to strike at its top, it would bleed, but live. Pervaded by the living Self that tree stands firm, drinking in its nourishment and rejoicing. But if the life, the living Self, leaves one of its branches, that branch withers; if it leaves a second, that branch withers; if it leaves a third, that branch withers. If it leaves the whole tree, the whole tree withers. In exactly the same manner, my son, know this. This body indeed withers and dies when the living Self has left it; the living Self dies not. That subtle essence is the self of all that exists. It is the True. It is the Self. That True Self, Svetaketu, you are. ” 15Om: A lesson is often begun with this cosmic sound. 16Brahmin: A member of the upper caste of priests, religious teachers, and intellectuals, typically the most educated of the castes. TEACHING |“That You Are ” 35CopEditorial re Hindu Rejection of Buddhism and Jainism In this selection from the Vishnu Purana 3.18, dated by many scholars to around 1000 C.E., the story of how Buddhism began in India is told from a Hindu perspective. Hinduism was not able to absorb and neutralize Buddhism, but eventually it was so reduced in India that it was no longer a threat to Hindu power. This story associates Jainism (with its naked monks carry- ing peacock feathers) with Buddhism, and opposes it as well. The main Hindu complaint against these religions is that they disregard the Vedas, the caste system, and Hinduism ’s occasional animal sacrifices. 17 After this great delusion proceeded to earth, the Daityas 18 engaged in ascetic penances on the banks of the Narmada River. Approaching them as a naked begging monk, with his head shaven, and carrying a bunch of peacock feathers, the Buddha addressed them in gentle accents: “Greet- ings, lords of the Daitya race! Why do you practice these acts of penance? Is it for some reward in this world, or in another? ” “Sage, ”replied the Daityas, “we pursue these devotions to obtain a reward hereafter. Why would you ask such a question? ” “If you are desirous of final emancipation, ” answered the ascetic, “listen carefully to my words, for you are worthy of a revelation which is the door to ultimate happiness. The duties that I will teach you are the secret path to liberation; there are none beyond or superior to them. By following them you shall obtain either heaven or release from future existence. You, mighty beings, are deserving of such lofty doctrine. ” By such smooth persuasions, and by many specious argu- ments, this deceptive being misled the Daityas from the tenets of the Vedas. The Daityas were seduced from their proper duties by the repeated lessons of this teacher of illusions. The Daityas were thus induced to depart from the religion of the Vedas. They became teachers of the same her- esies, and perverted others. The Vedas were soon deserted by most of the Daitya race. Then the same deluder, putting on garments of a red color, assuming a benevolent aspect, and speaking in soft and agreeable tones, said to them, “If you cherish a desire either for heaven or for final repose, stop your sinful massacre of animals (for sacrifice), and hear from me what you should do. Know that all that exists is composed of dis- criminative knowledge. Understand my words, for they have been uttered by the wise. This world subsists without support, and is engaged in the pursuit of error, which it mistakes for knowledge; it is poisoned by passion. ” In this manner, he exclaimed to them, “Be enlightened! ”and they replied, “It is enlightening. ”These Daityas were induced by the arch-deceiver to deviate from their religious duties. When they had abandoned their own faith, they persuaded others to do the same, and the heresy spread. The delusions of the false teacher did not end with the conversion of the Daityas to the Jain and Buddhist heresies. Rather, with various erroneous tenets he prevailed upon others to apostatize, until many people were led astray. They deserted the doctrines and observances inculcated by the three Vedas . Some then spoke evil of the sacred books; some blasphemed the gods; some treated sacrifices and other devotional ceremonies with scorn; and others spoke evil of the Brahmins. Vishnu Purana 3.18. 17Adapted from H. H. Wilson, The Vishnu Purana: A System of Hindu Mythology and Tradition (London: J. Murray, 1840), pp. 338 –341. 18Daityas : A mythological race of giants who were taken over by evil. 36 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re ETHICS Sin and Forgiveness The god Varuna protects the cosmic order and punishes those humans who violate it by misdeeds. This hymn from the Rig-Veda 7.86 presents the heartfelt pleas of the worshiper to Varuna to reveal his unknown sin to him and pardon it so that he may return to prosperity and happiness. Note that the hymn begins and ends with praise for Varuna in order to impress him with the worshiper ’s devotion. Creatures become truly wise through [Varuna ’s] greatness. He has held apart the vast heaven and earth. He put the high and mighty sun into motion, and spread the earth before it. I commune with my own heart on how Varuna and I may be united. What gift of mine will he accept and not be angry with? When may I find him gracious? I question others to find out my sin; I seek the wise, O Varuna, and ask them. Everyone tells me: “Surely Varuna is angry with you. ” What, Varuna, has been my large transgression, That you would slay the friend who sings your praises? Tell me, Unconquerable Lord, and quickly I will stop it; I will approach you with my praise. [5] Free us from sins committed by our fathers, And from those by which we ourselves offended …. Our own will did not betray us, But seduction, thoughtlessness, wine, dice, or anger did. The old is near to lead astray the younger; Even sleep removes not all evil-doing. May I do slave-like service to you, O Boun- teous One. May I serve, free from sin, the God inclined to anger. This gentle Lord gives wisdom to the simple; [Varuna is] the wiser God who leads the wise to riches. O Lord, O Varuna, may this praise come close to you and lie within your spirit. May it be well with us in rest and in labor. Preserve us always, O god, with your blessings. The Three Da ’s This influential passage from the Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad 5.2 puts the main virtues of Hinduism in their basic form as the three da’s: damyata, restraint and self-control; datta, Rig-Veda 7.86. Brihad-Aranyaka Upanishad 5.2. ETHICS |The Three Da ’s 37CopEditorial re generosity; and dayadhvam, compassion. In religions like Hinduism with complex ethical, ritual, and social systems, such simple, straightforward statements of religious obligations are especially important and prized. The threefold offspring of Prajapati —gods, men, and demons —lived as students of sacred knowl- edge with their father Prajapati. Having lived the life of a student of sacred knowledge, the gods said: “Speak to us, sir. ” Prajapati spoke to them this syllable, “Da. Do you understand this? ” They said to him, “We did understand. You said to us, ‘Control yourselves ( damyata ).’” “Om! ”he replied. “You did understand. ” Then they said to him again, “Speak to us, sir. ” He spoke to them this syllable, “Da. Do you understand this? ” They said to him: “We do understand. You said to us, ‘Give ( data ).’” “Om! ”he said. “You did understand. ” Then the spiritual beings said to him, “Speak to us, sir. ” He said this syllable to them, “Da. Do you understand? ” They said, “We understand. You said to us, ‘Be compassionate ( dayadhvam ).’” “Om !”he said. “You did understand. ” The divine voice of the thunder repeats, “Da! Da! Da! Control yourself, give, be compas- sionate. ”One should practice this same triad: self- control, giving, compassion. The Way of Knowledge This reading from the Mundaka Upanishad 2.1 –13 admits that all the ancient practices of Hinduism have their place. However, its main teaching is that they are “unsafe boats ”and that those who trust in them to bring them to release are “fools ”and “ignorant. ”The only effective way of release from the suffering of reincarnation is the way of knowledge-based meditation, guided by a wise guru. This belief has been a guiding principle for ordinary Hindu men, and especially ascetics and holy men, from Upanishadic times (800 –200 B.C.E.) until today. This is the truth: the sacrificial works that the poets saw in the hymns [of the Veda ] have been performed in many ways since the Vedic age. Practice them diligently, you lovers of truth! This is your path that leads to the world of good works! When the fire is lighted and the flame flickers, let a man offer his sacrifices between the two por- tions of melted butter, as an offering with faith. A man ’s Agnihotra sacrifice destroys his seven worlds if it is not followed by the new-moon and full-moon sacrifices, by the four-month sacrifices, and by the harvest sacrifice. It destroys his seven worlds if it is unattended by guests, not offered at all, done without the ceremony to all the gods, or not offered according to the rules. 19 [5] If a man performs his sacred works when these flames are shining, and the sacrificial offer- ings follow at the right time, they lead him as sun- rays to where the one Lord of the gods dwells. 20 Mundaka Upanishad 2.1 –13. 19according to the rules: This paragraph states some of the ways that sacrifices can be ineffective, culminating in the most significant —failure to observe the ritual rules when offering it, which mars the sacrifice.20They lead him … god dwells: That is, when he dies he goes to a blissful heaven before reincarnation. 38 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re “Come here, come here! ”the brilliant offerings say to him. They carry the sacrificer on the rays of the sun, while they utter pleasant speech and praise him: “This is your holy Brahma-world, gained by your good works. ” But those boats, the eighteen sacrifices, 21 are truly frail. Fools who praise this as the highest good are subjected again and again to old age and death. Fools dwelling in darkness, wise in their own conceit and puffed up with vain knowl- edge, go round and round, staggering back and forth …. [10] Considering sacrifice and good works as the best, these fools know no higher good. Having enjoyed their reward in the height of heaven, gained by good works, they come back again to this world or a lower one. But those who practice penance and faith in the forest, who are tranquil, wise, and live on alms, depart free from passion through the sun to where that immortal Person dwells. Let a man of the Brahmin [caste], after he has examined all these worlds that are gained by works, acquire freedom from all desires. Nothing that is eternal can be gained by what is not eternal. To understand this, let him take fuel in his hand 22 and approach a guru who is learned and dwells entirely in Brahman. The wise teacher will tell him the knowledge of Brahman, knowledge by which he knows the eternal and true Person …. His thoughts will not be troubled by any desires, and he will obtain perfect peace. Stages of Life for a Twice-Born Man The Laws of Manu presents the stages of life for Hindus of the three upper castes. The first stage is that of the student, who lives and studies with his guru (private teacher). The second stage is that of the householder, when the young man must marry and father children. Here the rules for whom to marry are presented. The third stage is that of retirement into the forest, and Manu sets forth the style of life and religious aims of this stage. The fourth stage is that of the ascetic, today called a “holy man ”or a “sadhu, ”who renounces all typical life to find release from rebirth. These laws on the stages of life reflect the situation of about 200 C.E., when Manu was written. Some differ from present practice. Asceticism, for example, no longer requires a prior retirement stage but can be entered by an adult male at any time. Moreover, the pattern here is idealized —only a minority of Hindus in the past and present has experienced it fully. Nonetheless, it continues to be influential as a guideline for a tradi- tional Hindu course of life. 23 [2.69, the Stage of Studentship] Having per- formed the rite of initiation, 24 the teacher must first instruct the pupil in the rules of personal purification, conduct, fire-worship, and twilight devotions. [70] A student who is about to begin the study of the Veda shall receive instruction after he has sipped water according to the sacred law, has made the Brahmangali, 25 has put on clean 21the eighteen sacrifices: The main Vedic sacrificial rituals. 22fuel in his hand: A sign of studentship is to bring wood for fires to one ’s teacher. Laws of Manu 2.69 –74, 191 –201; 3.1 –19; 6.1 –9, 33 –49. 23All selections from Manu are adapted from G. Buhler, The Laws of Manu (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1886). 24rite of initiation: The acceptance of a male into full member- ship in the Hindu community. 25Brahmangali: The traditional Indian gesture of greeting and respect, explained more fully in the next verse. ETHICS |Stages of Life for a Twice-Born Man 39CopEditorial re clothing, and has brought his sexual organs under due control. 26 Brahmin Student and his Guru In this 1872 British engraving, a student of the Brahmin caste is instructed in the scriptures by hisguru as family members look on. At the beginning and at the end of a lesson in the Veda, a student must always clasp both feet of his teacher. He must study by joining hands; that is called the Brahmangali [joining the palms for the sake of the Veda ]. With crossed hands he must clasp the feet of the teacher, and touch the left foot with his left hand, the right foot with his right hand. The teacher must say to him who is about to begin studying, “Recite! ”He shall stop when his teacher says: “Stop! ”The student must always pronounce the syllable “Om ”at the begin- ning and at the end of a lesson. Unless the syllable “Om ”precedes it, the lesson will slip away from him, and unless it follows it will fade away …. [191] When ordered by his teacher, and even without an order, a student shall always exert him- self in studying, and in doing what is useful to his teacher. Controlling his body, his speech, his organs of sense, and his mind, let him stand with joined hands, looking at the face of his teacher. Let him always keep his right arm uncovered, behave decently, and keep the rest of his body well cov- ered. Only when his teacher says, “Be seated, ” shall he sit down, always facing his teacher. When he is with his teacher, he should always eat less [than the teacher], and wear less valuable clothing and ornaments. Let him rise earlier and go to bed later. [195] Let him not answer or talk with his teacher while reclining on a bed, or while sitting, or eating, or with an averted face. Let him talk standing up, if his teacher is seated, advancing toward him when he stands, going to meet him if he advances, and running after him when he runs. When his teacher is near, his bed or seat must be low, and he must not sit carelessly at ease. The student must not pronounce the name of his teacher without adding an honorific title, even when talking about him behind his back. He must not mimic the way his teacher walks, speaks, or any other behavior. [200] If people justly criti- cize or falsely defame his teacher, he must cover his ears or leave. If he criticizes his teacher, even justly, he will become an ass in his next birth. 27 By falsely defaming him, he will become a dog. He who lives on his teacher ’s belongings will become a worm, and he who is envious of his teacher ’s merit will become an insect. [3.1, the Stage of the Householder] The vow of studying the three Vedas under a teacher must be kept for thirty-six years at most, or for half that time, or for a quarter, or until the student has perfectly learned them. A student who has studied in due order the three Vedas, or two, or even only one, without breaking the rules of studentship, shall enter the order of householders. He who is famous for the strict performance of his duties and has received his heritage, the Veda, from his father, shall be honored. He will sit on a couch and be adorned with a garland, with the present of a cow and honey-mixture. With the permission of his teacher, having bathed and performed accu- rately the ritual for returning home, a twice-born man shall marry a wife of equal caste who is endowed with auspicious bodily marks. [5] A young woman who is neither a Sapinda 28 on the 26sexual organs under control: Hindu students must remain celibate until they are married in the next stage of their life. 27his next birth: in reincarnation. 28Sapinda: A relative; literally, “sharer in the funeral feast, ” a status usually considered to go back six generations. So, a Sapinda relative would include one ’s sixth cousins and closer. 40 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re mother ’s side nor belongs to the same family on the father ’s side is recommended to twice-born men for marriage and conjugal union. In getting a wife, 29 let him carefully avoid the ten following types of families, even if they are rich. He must avoid a family that neglects the sacred rites, one in which no male children are born, and one in which the Veda is not studied. Those that are subject to these diseases must be avoided: hemorrhoids, tuberculosis, weakness of digestion, epilepsy, or white and black leprosy. He must not marry a young woman with reddish hair, nor one who has a redundant body part, nor one who is sickly, nor one either with no hair on the body or too much hair. He must not marry one who is too talkative or has red eyes. Let him not marry one named after a constellation, a tree, or a river, nor one bearing the name of a low caste, or of a mountain, nor one named after a bird, a snake, or a slave, nor one whose name inspires fear. [10] Let him wed a female free from bodily defects and who has an agreeable name. She must have the graceful gait of a swan or of an elephant, moderate hair on the body and on the head, small teeth, and soft limbs. For the first marriage of twice-born men, wives of equal caste are recommended. But for those who take a second wife to satisfy their sexual desires, the following females are approved. A Shu- dra woman alone can be the [second] wife of a Shudra-caste male, a Shudra woman and one of his own caste the [second] wife of a Vaisya, a Shu- dra and Vaisya woman and one of his own caste the wife of a Kshatriya, those three castes and one of his own caste the wife of a Brahmin. A Shudra woman is not mentioned in any ancient story as the first wife of a Brahmin or of a Kshatriya, though they lived in the greatest distress. [15] Twice-born men who foolishly marry [first] wives of the low caste soon degrade their families and their children to the state of Shudras. According to Atri and to Gautama the son of Utathya, 30 he who weds a Shudra woman becomes an outcast. According to Saunaka, he becomes an outcaste on the birth of a son, and according to Bhrigu when he has a male child from a Shudra female. A Brahmin who takes a Shudra wife to his bed will sink into hell. If he begets a child by her, he will lose the rank of a Brahmin. The spirits of deceased ancestors and the gods will not eat the offerings of a man who performs the rites in honor of the gods, in honor of dead ancestors, and in honor of guests in the house with a Shudra wife ’s assistance. Such a man will not go to heaven. No way of forgiveness is prescribed for him who drinks the moisture of a Shudra ’s lips, who is tainted by her breath, and who begets a son on her. [6.1, the Stage of Retirement] A twice-born Snataka, 31 who has lived according to the law of householders, may dwell in the forest in retire- ment after taking a firm resolution and keeping his sexual organs in subjection. He must carefully observe the rules given below. When a house- holder sees his skin wrinkled, his hair turning white, and the sons of his sons, he may depart to the forest. He must abandon all food raised by cultivation and all his belongings as he goes into the forest. He may either commit his wife to [the care of] his sons or be accompanied by her. 32 Tak- ing with him the sacred fire and the implements required for domestic sacrifices, he may go forth from the village into the forest and reside there, controlling his senses. [5] Let him offer those five great sacrifices according to the rule, with various kinds of pure food fit for ascetics, or with herbs, roots, and fruit. Let him wear an animal skin or a tattered garment; let him bathe in the evening or in the morning. Let him always wear his hair in braids, with the hair on his body, his beard, and his nails uncut. Let him perform an offering with the food he eats, and give alms according to his ability. Let him 29In getting a wife: Because almost all Hindu marriages are arranged to some extent by parents, these rules are carried out more by the parents than the young man.30Gautama: Not Gautama Buddha. 31Snataka: A Brahmin who has completed his studentship. 32accompanied by her: He may take his wife along, but not have sex with her. Note in the next passage that if the husbandchooses the stage of asceticism, the wife cannot accompany him. In either case, she is in a difficult situation: Having renounced his old life, her husband no longer belongs toher, but she still belongs to him. ETHICS |Stages of Life for a Twice-Born Man 41CopEditorial re honor those who come to his forest dwelling to give him alms of water, roots, and fruit. Let him always be industrious in privately reciting the Veda. Let him be patient in hardships, friendly toward all, collected in mind, always liberal in giv- ing, and compassionate toward all living creatures. Let him offer the Agnihotra with three sacred fires, and never omit the new-moon and full- moon sacrifices …. [6.33, the Stage of Asceticism] Having passed the third stage of his natural term of life in the forest, a man may live as an ascetic during the fourth stage of his life. First he must abandon all attach- ment to worldly objects. He who offers sacrifices and subdues his senses, busies himself with giving alms and offerings of food, and becomes an ascetic gains bliss after death. [35] When he has paid the three debts, 33 he must apply his mind to the attainment of final liberation. He who seeks it without having paid his debts sinks downwards. Having studied the Vedas according to the rule, having fathered sons according to the sacred law, and having offered sacrifices according to his abil- ity, he may direct his mind to the attainment of final liberation. A twice-born man who seeks final liberation sinks downward if he has not studied the Vedas, fathered sons, and offered sacrifices. Having performed the Ishti ceremony in which he gives all his property [to Brahmin priests] as the sacrificial fee, and having (spiritu- ally) taken the sacred household fire into himself, a Brahmin may depart from his house as an ascetic. Worlds, radiant in brilliance, become his who recites the texts regarding Brahman and departs from his house as an ascetic, after giving a promise of safety to all created beings. 34 [40] For the twice-born man who causes not even the smallest danger to created beings, there will be no danger from anything after death frees him from his body. Departing from his house fully provided with the means of purification, let him wander about absolutely silent. He must care nothing for enjoy- ments that may be offered to him. He must always wander about alone, seeking to attain final liberation (from reincarnation). The solitary man, who neither forsakes nor is forsaken, gains his desired result. He shall possess neither a fire nor a dwelling. He may go to a village for his food. He shall be indifferent to everything, firm in his purpose, meditating and concentrating his mind on Brahman. The marks of one who has attained liberation are a broken pot instead of an alms-bowl, the roots of trees for a dwelling, coarse worn out garments, life in solitude, and indiffer- ence toward everything. [45] Let him not desire to die; let him not desire to live. Let him wait for his appointed time as a servant waits for the payment of his wages. Let him put down his foot purified by his sight, 35 let him drink water purified by straining with a cloth, let him utter speech purified by truth, let him keep his heart pure. Let him patiently bear hard words, let him not insult anybody. Let him not become any- body ’s enemy for the sake of this perishable body. Against an angry man let him not show anger, let him bless when he is cursed, and let him not utter false speech ….36 He shall delight in matters of the Soul, and sit in the postures prescribed by yoga. He shall be independent of external help, entirely abstain from sensual enjoyments, and have himself for his only companion. He shall live in this world, but desire only the bliss of final liberation. 33the three debts: The three obligations discussed in the next verses: study of the Vedas, having sons, and sacrifice. These are similar to the modern Hindu expression “the three debts ”: to the gods, to the guru, to be a father. 34promise of safety to all created beings: The vow of ahimsa, nonviolence to all creatures. 35put down his foot purified by his sight: That is, in a place on the ground with no visible living beings on it; so too he must drink water purified of living creatures. This requirement, which follows up on the ascetic ’s“promise of safety to all cre- ated beings ”(earlier in section 39 of this passage), will become more important in Jainism.36Note the emphasis on ordinary Hindu morality (patience,calm emotions, speaking the truth, and so forth) that accom-panies instructions on ascetic practices. The physical and emo-tional hardships of an ascetic lifestyle can lead to bad behaviortoward others, a problem among ascetics even today. 42 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re The Life of Women The first passage is often quoted as an example of a positive Hindu attitude toward women. It gives some indication of the respected place of Hindu women in the home, but in the context of a strongly patriarchal society. Much of this passage from the Laws of Manu 3:55 –60 has as its background the participation of the wife in the sacred rites of the home. The second pas- sage from 5.147 –165 contains rules for the whole life of women, emphasizing respect and obedience to husbands during their life. After her husband ’s death, a woman must not remarry and must live an ascetic life. This is her way to live with him in heaven and then be reincar- nated into a better life. [3.55] Women must be honored and adorned by their fathers, brothers, husbands, and brothers- in-law, if they desire their own welfare. Where women are honored, the gods are pleased. Where they are not honored, no sacred rite yields rewards. Where the female relatives live in grief, the family soon perishes completely. But the family where they are not unhappy always prospers. Female rela- tives pronounce a curse on houses where women are not honored. These houses perish completely, as if destroyed by magic. Men who seek their own welfare should always honor women on holidays and festivals with gifts of jewelry, clothes, and dainty food. [60] In a family where the husband is pleased with his wife and the wife with her hus- band, happiness will certainly be lasting. [5.147] Nothing must be done independently by a girl, by a young woman, or by an old woman, even in her own house. In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her hus- band, and when her husband is dead she is subject to her sons. A woman must never be independent. She must not seek to separate herself from her father, husband, or sons. By leaving them she would make both her own and her husband ’s fam- ilies contemptible. [150] She must always be cheerful, clever in household affairs, careful in cleaning her utensils, and economical in expenditure. She shall obey the man to whom her father may give her (in mar- riage) as long as he lives. For the sake of getting good fortune for brides, the recitation of sacred texts and the sacrifice to the Lord of creatures are used at weddings; but the betrothal by the father or guardian is the cause of the husband ’s dominion over his wife. The husband who wed- ded her with sacred texts always gives happiness to his wife, both in season and out of season, in this world and in the next. Although a husband may be completely lacking in virtue, or seek pleasure elsewhere, or be lacking any good qualities, he must be constantly worshipped as a god by a faith- ful wife. [155] No sacrifice, no vow, no fast must be performed by women apart from their hus- bands. If a wife obeys her husband, she will for that reason alone be exalted in heaven. 37 A faithful wife who desires to dwell after death with her husband must never do anything that might displease him, whether he is alive or dead. After he dies, she may emaciate her body by living on pure flowers, roots, and fruit; but she must never even mention the name of another man after her husband has died. Until death she must be patient in hardships, self-controlled, and chaste. She must strive to fulfill that most excel- lent duty that is prescribed for wives, to have one husband only. Many thousands of Brahmins who were chaste from their youth have gone to heaven without continuing their race. [160] A vir- tuous wife who constantly remains chaste after the Laws of Manu 3.55 –60; 5.147 –165. 37heaven: As elsewhere in Hinduism, usually a temporary reward before reincarnation. ETHICS |TheLifeofWomen 43CopEditorial re death of her husband reaches heaven although she has no son, just like those chaste men. But a [widowed] woman who desires to have offspring violates her duty toward her [deceased] husband. She brings disgrace on herself in this world, and loses her place with her husband in heaven. Offspring begotten by another man is not considered lawful. Offspring begotten on another man ’s wife does not belong to the beget- ter, nor is a second husband anywhere allowed for virtuous women. 38 She who lives with a man of higher caste, forsaking her own husband who belongs to a lower one, will become contemptible in this world, and is called a remarried woman. By violating her duty toward her dead husband, a wife is disgraced in this world. After death her soul enters the womb of a jackal, and is tormented by diseases as the punishment of her sin. [165] She who controls her thoughts, words, and deeds, and never slights her husband, will reside after death with him in heaven. She is called a virtuous wife. ORGANIZATION Creation and the Caste System As we saw earlier, creation hymns of the Rig-Veda often depict the Cosmic Man ( Purusha )as the one through whose sacrifice the gods fashioned the universe. In this hymn from Rig-Veda 10.90, the making of humanity is presented in terms of the caste system, its first appearance in Hindu literature and the foundation of its later authority. Much of the caste system is under- going a liberalizing change in modern India, especially in the cities. However, it is still impor- tant as a general social structure and cultural inheritance, particularly in the towns, villages, and countryside where the majority of Indians live. The Man has a thousand heads, a thousand eyes, a thousand feet. On every side pervading earth, he fills a space beyond it ten fingers wide. This Man is all that has been and all that will be. He is the Lord of Immortality who grows even larger by food. So mighty is his greatness, but even greater than this is the Man. All creatures are one-fourth of him, and three-fourths of him are eternal in heaven. Three-fourths of him went up; one-fourth of him stayed here. Thence he strode out to every side, over what eats and what does not eat. [5] From the Man Viraj 39 was born; again the Man from Viraj was born. As soon as he was born he spread eastward and westward over the earth. When gods prepared the sacrifice with the Man as their offering, Its liquefied butter was spring, the sacrificial gift was autumn, and summer was the wood. 38anywhere allowed … women: No ancient Hindu stories or laws permit it. Rig-Veda 10.90. 39Viraj: The female counterpart of the Man, with whom he has sexual intercourse and produces another, identical Man who is then fashioned into the world. (Mythology is notalways logically consistent!) 44 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re On the grass they anointed the Man as the sacrifice. With him the deities and all Sadhyas 40 and rishis sacrificed. From that great general sacrifice the dripping fat was gathered up. He formed [from that sacrifice] the creatures of the air, and the animals both wild and tame. From that great sacrifice Rig and Sama hymns were born; Spells and charms were produced; the for- mulas had their birth from it. 41 [10] From it were horses born, from it all animals with two rows of teeth; From it were generated cattle, from it the goats and sheep were born. When they divided the Man, how many por- tions did they make? What do they call his mouth, his arms? What do they call his thighs and feet? The Brahmin was his mouth, from his arms was the warrior made; His thighs became the Vaishya, from his feet the Shudra was produced. 42 The Moon was gendered from his mind, and from his eye the Sun had birth; Indra and Agni from his mouth were born, and the Wind god from his breath. Forth from his navel came the mid-air; the sky was fashioned from his head, Earth from his feet, and the regions of the earth from his ear. Thus they formed the worlds. The Duties of the Four Castes This passage from the Institutes of Vishnu 2.1 –17 contains a short description of the main structure of the caste system. The duties and means of livelihood of each caste are indicated. The end of this passage gives the moral duties binding on everyone of whatever caste, gender, or stage of life. Note that the “outcastes ”are not dealt with, or even mentioned, here. These general rules are growing more important in contemporary Hinduism as the caste system fades in the large cities and among Hindus living in the Western world. 43 Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras are the four castes. The first three of these are called “twice-born. ”44 They must perform with man- tras 45 the whole number of ceremonies, which begin with impregnation and end with the cere- mony of burning the dead body. Their duties are as follows. [5] A Brahmin teaches the Veda. A Kshatriya has constant prac- tice in arms. A Vaishya tends cattle. A Shudra serves the twice-born. All the twice-born are to sacrifice and study the Veda. [10] Their modes of livelihood are as follows. A Brahmin sacrifices for others and receives alms. A Kshatriya protects the world. A Vaishya engages in farming, keeps 40Sadhyas: Saints, called in the last verse of this hymn “the ancient gods. ” 41Rig, Sama, spells and charms, formulas: The four Vedas. 42Priests, Warriors, People, Servants: The four castes of Brah- mins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and Shudras, respectively. Institutes of Vishnu 2.1 –17. 43Adapted from Julius Jolly, The Institutes of Vishnu (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1880).44twice-born: Fully Hindu in privilege and responsibility. 45mantras: Sacred words or syllables chanted to create and acquire cosmic spiritual power. ORGANIZATION |The Duties of the Four Castes 45CopEditorial re cows, trades, lends money at interest, and grows seeds. A Shudra engages in all branches of crafts. [15] In times of distress, each caste may follow the occupation of that below it in rank. Duties common to all castes are patience, truthfulness, restraint, purity, liberality, self- control, not to kill, obedience toward one ’s gurus, visiting places of pilgrimage, sympathy, straightforwardness, freedom from covetousness, reverence toward gods and Brahmins, 46 and freedom from anger. The Outcastes About 15 to 20 percent of Indians are at the bottom of the caste system —“ outcastes. ”(This term means “those outside the caste system, ”not “those cast out. ”) They have been known by various names: “Untouchables, ”a designation now widely regarded as impolite; “Harijans, ” or “Children of God, ”Gandhi ’s name; “the scheduled [listed] classes, ”the Indian legal term; and Dalits [DAHL-its], “the downtrodden, ”the most preferred name today. Hindus of the four castes regard them as non-Hindu. The so-called outcastes are divided into many different subgroups, just as the members of the castes are. They do menial and ritually polluting jobs in Indian society, such as cleaning sewers and digging graves. In India today, the Dalits ’ challenges to their status are sources of serious conflict often resulting in violence. This selec- tion from the Laws of Manu 10.51 –57, one of the few scriptural treatments of outcastes, gives a summary of their traditional state and outlines two of their social roles. The dwellings of untouchables must be outside the village. They must use discarded bowls, and their only possessions are their dogs and donkeys. They take for their clothing the clothes of the dead, and eat their food in broken dishes. Their ornaments are made of black iron only, and they should always wander from place to place. 47 A [Hindu] man should not deal with them in any way; they must do business and marry only among themselves. Their food, for which they are dependent upon others, should be left for them in broken dishes, and they should not walk at night in cities or villages. [55] They may walk around during the day to do their work, with recognizably distinctive cloth- ing. They are to carry out the corpses of people with no relatives. 48 By the king ’s command, they are to execute those condemned to death, and take for themselves the clothes, beds, and orna- ments of those condemned to death. 46reverence towards … Brahmins: As sacrificers, the Brahmins preserve the order of the universe, and other castes are to honor them. Laws of Manu 10.51 –57. 47wander from place to place: This may seem contradictory to the first line of this passage, that Dalits are to have dwellings“outside the village. ”However, this “wandering ”likely means that the dwellings are impermanent. Today, many Dalits livein slums outside the larger Indian cities. 48carry out corpses … no relatives: Today, Dalits of the Dom class handle the bodies of the dead and carry out the manuallabors of funerals, especially cremation. 46 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re RITUAL AND MEDITATION The Gayatri Mantra The name of this short prayer, taken from the Rig-Veda 3.62.10, means “the savior of the singer. ”Beside the “Om ”mantra, the Gayatri is considered the single most important prayer-formula of Hinduism. Pious believers repeat it at least three times a day. On a literal level, this verse is a simple prayer to the sun-god Savitar for blessing. At a deeper level, it expresses and applies the power that the god himself holds. Given to a young man at his initiation with the sacred thread, it helps to produce his rebirth. Believers in other Hindu deities have adapted it for their use from early times through today. May we attain to the wonderful glory of Savitar the god; to this may he stimulate our prayers. Sacrifice to Agni in the Vedas and Brahmanas This first hymn of the Rig-Veda seeks to please Agni by praises and invoke his blessings. Agni is the god of fire, especially the sacrificial fire. Like many other hymns of the Rig, it uses both the second person (for example, “To you, Agni ”) and the third person ( “Agni earned the prayers ”), but all of it is addressed to Agni. The second reading, Agni-Brahmana 1.1 –19, is a good example of the Brahmanic commentary on, and development of, the sacrificial rite. The ritual expounded here is the Agnihotra, the daily household sacrifice to Agni. The god Praja- pati is the precursor of Brahman. 49 [Rig-Veda 1.1] I praise Agni, the chosen Priest, the God, The minister of sacrifice who lavishes wealth. Worthy is Agni to be praised, by the living as much as by ancient seers. He shall bring the gods here. Through Agni one obtains wealth growing larger every day. Agni is heroic and glorious. Agni, the perfect sacrifice which you surround goes to the Gods. [5] May Agni, the wise Priest, truthful, most gloriously great, the god, Come hither with the gods. Whatever blessing, Agni, you will grant to us, That is indeed your truth. To you, dispeller of the night, O Agni, Day by day with prayer, bringing you rever- ence, we come. Rig-Veda 3.62.10. Rig-Veda 1.1; Agni-Brahmana 1.1 –19 49Adapted from Julius Eggeling, The Satapatha-Brahmana, Part 1 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1882). RITUAL AND MEDITATION |SacrificetoAgniinthe Vedas and Brahmanas 47CopEditorial re Ruler of sacrifices, guard of Law eternal, radiant One, You are increasing in your own abode. Be easy for us to approach, even as a father to his son; Agni, abide with us for our blessing. [Agni-Brahmana 1.1 –19] Prajapati alone existed in the beginning. He wondered, “How may I reproduce myself? ”He toiled and performed acts of penance. He generated Agni from his mouth. Because he generated him from his mouth, there- fore Agni is a consumer of food. Truly, he who knows Agni to be a consumer of food becomes himself a consumer of food. He thus generated him first of the gods. He, being generated, went forth as the first of the gods; for of him who goes first, they say that he goes at the head. Such, then, is the origin and nature of Agni. Prajapati then considered, “I have generated Agni as a food-eater. There is no other food here but myself, but Agni certainly would not eat me. ” This earth had been made quite bald; there were neither plants nor trees. This weighed on his mind. Then Agni turned toward him with open mouth [to eat him]. Prajapati was terrified, and his own greatness departed from him. His own greatness is his speech, but his speech departed from him. He desired an offering in himself and rubbed his hands; and because he rubbed his hands, palms are hairless. He then obtained either a butter-offering or a milk-offering; but they are both made of milk. [5] But this offering did not satisfy him, because it had hairs in it. He poured it away into the fire, saying, “Drink, while burning! ”From it plants sprang; hence their name “plants. ” He rubbed his hands a second time, and by that obtained another offering, either a butter-offering or a milk-offering. This offering then satisfied him. He hesitated, thinking, “Shall I offer it up? Or shall I not offer it up? ” His own greatness said to him, “Offer it up! ”Prajapati was aware that it was his own [ sva ] greatness that had spoken [aha ] to him; he offered it up with the word svaha. 50 This is why offerings today are made with the expression svaha. Then the burning sun arose; and then the blowing wind sprang up. Then Agni turned away. Prajapati, having performed offering, repro- duced himself, and saved himself from Agni as Agni was about to devour him. Whoever, know- ing this, offers the Agnihotra reproduces himself by offspring even as Prajapati reproduced himself. He saves himself from Agni, death, when he is about to devour him. When he does die and they place him on the fire, he is born again out of the fire, and the fire only consumes his body. Even as he is born from his father and mother, so is he born from the fire. But he who does not offer the Agnihotra does not come into life at all. Therefore the Agnihotra must be offered. Soma Soma is here in Rig-Veda 8.48, as elsewhere in the Vedas, at once a plant, a drink, and a god. To judge from this hymn, soma was a hallucinogenic drug, with an intended euphoric and expansive effect. Sometimes, a “bad trip ”on the drug resulted, so this hymn prays that harmful results will be kept away. The term soma is still used today in Hinduism (it is also the name of a hallucinatory drug used in Aldous Huxley ’s 1932 novel Brave New World ), but it now refers 50svaha [svah-HAH]: This word is pronounced as every sacri- fice is offered to the god(s); it is considered the name of both the sacrifice and the wife of Agni. Rig-Veda 8.48. 48 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re to a fruit drink made of wild rhubarb. Other religions have words spoken during ritual intoxi- cation, but few are as expressive as this hymn ’s“We have drunk the Soma and become immortal; we have gone to the light and discovered the gods. ” Wisely have I enjoyed the tasty food of Soma, Which brings devotion and treasure. Some is the food to which all gods and mortals gather themselves together …. We have drunk the Soma and become immortal; We have gone to the light and discovered the gods. What can an enemy ’s malice do to us now? What, O immortal god, can mortal man ’s deception do? Absorbed into the heart, be sweet as a kind father to his son, O Soma. Be as a wise friend, wide-ruling Soma, and lengthen our days of life. [5] I have drunk these glorious drops that give me freedom. Closely they knit my joints secure. Let them protect my foot from slipping on the way; Yes, let the drops I drink preserve me from disease. Make me shine bright like fire produced by friction; Give us clearer sight and make us better. For I think of you, O Soma; Shall I, as a rich man, attain to your comfort? May we enjoy with an enlivened spirit the juice you give, like ancestral riches. O King Soma, prolong our existence As the sun god makes the shining days grow longer. King Soma, favor us and make us prosper. We are your devotees; of this be mindful. Your spirit and power are fresh in us, O Soma; Give us not up unto our enemy ’s pleasure. When you have settled in each joint, O Soma, be the guardian of our bodies. When we break your holy laws, Be gracious to us as a kind Friend and the best god of all. [10] May I be with my Friend whose heart is tender. When I drink you, never harm me, O Soma deposited within me. For this, I pray for longer life to Indra. Our illnesses have lost their strength and vanished; They feared, and passed away into the darkness. Soma has risen in us, exceedingly mighty; We have come to where men prolong their existence … . So with sacrifice let us serve you, And let us become the lords of riches. Give us your blessing, you who preserve the gods. May sleep or idle talk never control us. Marriage Rig-Veda 10.85.20 –47 contains the incantations and blessings still spoken at weddings to bring good and repel evil. The bride is compared to the goddess Surya, and the wedding of the humans is set in parallel with Surya ’s divine marriage. The words are designed to bring Rig-Veda 10.85.20 –47. RITUAL AND MEDITATION |Marriage 49CopEditorial re good fortune: that the wife continues to have beauty and passion and be desired by her husband; that both have a long life together; that the marriage produces many sons. The careful reader can discern several different ritual actions of the marriage. First comes leaving the site of the wedding, then traveling to the couple ’s home, then consummation of marriage, and finally the anointing of the couple. Verses from this hymn are still a part of traditional Hindu weddings. Mount the world of life immortal, Surya; Make a happy bridal journey for your lord …. “Go away from here, because this maiden has a husband. ” Thus I ask Visvavasu 51 with hymns and homage. I implore him, “Seek another beautiful girl still in her father ’s house. Go away from here; with reverence we wor- ship you. Seek another willing woman, And leave this bride with her husband. ” May the path be straight and thornless on which our friends travel to the wedding. Let Aryaman and Bhaga lead us; Perfect, O gods, be the union of the wife and husband. Now from the noose of Varuna I free you, With which most blessed Savitar has bound you. To the world of virtuous action I give you up uninjured with your consort. From here, and not from there, 52 I set these free. I bind you softly but firmly there. Bounteous Indra, may she be blest in fortune and have sons. Let Pusan take your hand and lead you there; May the two Asvins transport you on their cart. Go to the house to be the household ’s mistress; Speak as a matriarch to your gathered people. Be happy and prosper with your children here; Vigilantly rule your household in this home. Unite your body with the body of your husband, So when you are full of years you can address your family. Its hue is purple and red; 53 The evil spirit who clings to it is driven off. Kinsmen of this bride thrive, And her husband is bound fast in bonds. Give the wedding robe away; Deal it as treasure to the Brahmin priests. This female fiend has got her feet, And as a wife attends her lord. His body is ugly when it glistens with this wicked fiend, When the husband wickedly wraps around his limbs The wedding garment of his wife …. Let not the highway thieves who lie in ambush find the wedded pair. By pleasant ways let them escape the danger, and let foes depart. Signs of good fortune mark the bride; Come, all of you, and look at her. Wish her prosperity, and then return unto your homes again …. The Brahmin who knows Surya well should take the garment of the bride. [35] The fringe, the cloth that decks her head, And then the triply parted robe — Behold the hues which Surya wears, These the Brahman purifies. 51Visvavasu: A lesser god who has sexual intercourse with vir- gins. He threatens to take the bride, unless words and actions can prevent him from this.52here: Her father ’s house; there: Her new house with her husband. 53purple and red: In her first experience of sexual intercourse, the bride bleeds on her wedding robe, which she is still wear- ing. The resulting stain becomes a magic spirit with power to curse and destroy the marriage. The procedure for dealingwith the robe is given at the end of this section of verse. 50 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re I take your hand in mine for happy fortune, That you may reach old age with me, your husband. The gods … have given you to be my household ’s mistress. O Pusan, make her most eager to please me, So she will stir and share my pleasures; May she wrap her loving arms around me, And welcome all my love and embraces. Give to the husband, Agni, the wife and many children. Agni has given this bride with splendor and life. Long life to him who is her lord; A hundred autumns let him live. [40] Soma obtained her first of all; Next, Gandharva was her lord. Agni was your third husband: Now a human is your fourth. Agni has bestowed on me riches, sons, and this spouse. Do not every leave me; Dwell here and reach the full span of human life. Play with your sons and grandsons, rejoicing in your own home. So may Prajapati bring children to us; May Aryaman adorn us until old age comes near. Do not be inauspicious as you enter your husband ’s house: Bring blessing to our two-legged and four- legged animals. Have no evil eye, do not be a husband-killer; Bring blessing to cattle; be radiant and gentle hearted. Love the gods, be delightful, and bear heroes. [45] O Bounteous Indra, make this bride blest in her sons and fortunate. Give her ten sons, and make her husband the eleventh. 54 Over your husband ’s father and your hus- band ’s mother bear full sway. 55 Over the sister of your lord, over his brothers rule supreme. So may all the gods, and so may the Waters, join our hearts. Cremation Agni is petitioned in Rig-Veda 10.16 to bring a good burning to the body of the dead, strikingly called in sacrificial imagery “a full cooking. ”The proper funeral ritual enables the soul of the dead man to go to his fathers. No explicit mention is made here of heaven or hell, or eventual reincarnation, which are important in later Hinduism and today. [To Agni:] Do not burn him completely or quite consume him, Agni. Let not his body or his skin be scattered. When you have fully cooked him, send him to his fathers. When you have made him ready, give him to his fathers. When he attains the life that waits him, he shall be controlled by the gods. 54Make her husband the eleventh: The husband is metaphori- cally the last son of the wife, perhaps signifying her care for him when he is aged.55Over your husband ’s father … full sway: Having power over one ’s in-laws is not to be taken too literally because in Indian society the wife is often influenced by her husband ’s family, not the other way around. This full sway probably refers to their respect for her, gained by her producing sons. Rig-Veda 10.16. RITUAL AND MEDITATION |Cremation 51CopEditorial re [To the dead man:] The Sun receive your eye, the Wind receive your spirit. Go, as your merit is, to earth or heaven. Go, if it be your lot, to the waters; Go, make your home in plants with all your limbs. [To Agni:] Your portion is the goat, so with your heat consume him. 56 Let your fierce flame and your glowing splendor burn him. With your auspicious forms, O gods, carry this man to the region of the pious. [5] Agni, send him back to his fathers, for he goes as our sacrifice …. [To the dead man:] Whatever wound the dark bird has inflicted on you, the ant or the serpent or the jackal, May Agni who devours all things heal it, and Soma who has passed into the Brahmins. Shield yourself with your flesh against the flames of Agni, encompass yourself with fat and marrow, So will the Bold One, eager to attack you with his fierce glow, Fail to embrace you and burn you up completely. [To Agni:] Forbear, O Agni, to upset this ladle: The gods and humans who merit Soma love it. This ladle serves the gods, In this the Immortal Deities rejoice. I send afar flesh eating Agni, bearing off stains may he depart to Yama ’s subjects. 57… [To the new fire:] Gladly would we set you down, gladly make you burn and glow. Gladly we would bring yearning Fathers near to eat the sacrifice. Cool, Agni, and refresh the spot which you have scorched and burned. Here let the water-lily grow, and tender grass and leafy herb. O full of coolness, you cool Plant, full of fresh moisture, freshening herb, Unite with the female frog. 58 Fill us with delight, O Agni. Charms and Spells The last Veda, the Atharva, is a collection of charms and spells used by ordinary Hindus. The first of these charms presented here is a spell against fever, the second a spell to frustrate the sacrifice of an enemy, the third a charm to induce sexual passion in one ’s wife, and the fourth a spell for success in business. The main point of the spell is often repeated to increase its power. Ritual actions that accompany the saying of these spells are occasionally suggested in the words. 59 56Your portion is the goat … consume him: In some Hindu fun- erals, the limbs of a goat are placed on the dead man as a sac- rifice to Agni. 57Yama: The god of death; this subjects are the souls of the dead in his realm.58unite with the female frog: In this last section, the ritual action implied in the text calls for water to be thrown on thefire, dousing it when it can no longer burn away the largerbones. It could also refer to putting the cremated remains into the river to float away. This produces, at least poetically, a marsh where water-plants and frogs live. The female frogsymbolizes fertility, the new life that comes at the end of thefuneral. Atharva-Veda 6.20; 7.70; 6.9; 3.16. 59Adapted from Maurice Bloomfield, Hymns of the Atharva-Veda (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1897). 52 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re [Atharva-Veda 6.20, against diseases that bring fever] As if from this Agni [fire], that burns and flashes, the fever comes. Let him [the fever] pass away like a babbling drunkard! Let him, the impious one, search out another person, not our- selves! Reverence be to the fever with the burning weapon! 60 Reverence be to Rudra, reverence to the fever, reverence to the luminous king Varuna! Reverence to heaven, reverence to earth, rever- ence to the plants! To you that burns through, and turns all bodies yellow, … to the fever pro- duced by the forest, I render honor. [7.70, for frustration of a sacrifice offered by someone else] Whenever that person over there in his thought and with his speech offers sacrifice accompanied by offerings and benedictions, may Nirriti the goddess of destruction ally herself with death and strike his offering before it takes effect! May the sorcerers Nirriti and Rakshas mar his true work with error! 61 May the gods, dispatched by Indra, churn up the butter used in his sacrifice! May that which he offers not succeed! I tie back both your arms, I shut your mouth. With the fury of Agni, I have destroyed your sacrifice. [6.9, for developing sexual desire in a new bride] Desire my body, my feet, my eyes, my thighs! As you lust after me, may your eyes and your hair be hot with love! I make you cling to my arm, cling to my heart, so that you shall be in my power and shall come to my wish. The cows, the mothers of the sacrificial butter who lick their young, in whose heart love is planted, shall make this woman love me! [3.16, for success in business] I urge Indra the merchant to come to us and be our helper. Ward off the one who does not pay his debts to us, and may masterful Indra bring wealth to me. O gods! That money with which, desiring more money, I conduct my business, let that multiply and never decrease. O Agni, with this sacrifice frustrate those who would ruin my profit. Chanting of Om The udgitha [uhd-GEE-tuh], or “loud chant, ”is the important mantra Om in the Vedic ritual. This passage from the Chandogya Upanishad 1.1.1 –10 gives instructions on this mantra, which it calls a “syllable. ”Members of the various Hindu schools differ on whether Om is the sound of Brahman itself or a close verbal expression of Brahman. However, for all Hindus it is the most sacred of sounds, the mantra that contains all other mantras, all the Vedas, all the meaning of the universe. Om is still chanted at the beginning and end of Vedic meditation and lessons. Those who chant it with full knowledge will be freed from karma. Let a man meditate on the syllable Om , called the Loud Chant. The full account of Om is this. The essence of all beings is the earth, the essence of the earth is water, the essence of water the plants, the essence of plants man, the essence of man speech, the essence of speech the Rig-Veda, the essence of the Rig-Veda the Sama- Veda, the essence of the Sama-Veda the udgitha, 60Reverence: The spell uses flattering praise, as well as insults, to drive the fever away.61mar with error: If an error of word or deed is made in the sacrificial ceremony, it is not effective. Such a belief is common to many religions with well-developed sacrificial systems. Chandogya Upanishad 1.1.1 –10. RITUAL AND MEDITATION |Chanting of Om 53CopEditorial re Om. The udgitha is the best of all essences, the highest, deserving the highest place, the eighth. What then is the Rig? What is the Sama? What is the udgitha? This is the question. [5] The Rig is speech, Sama is breath, the udgitha is the syllable Om. Now speech and breath, or Rig and Sama, form one couple. That couple is joined in the syllable Om. When two people come together, they fulfill each other ’s desire. Thus he who knows this meditates on the syllable Om , the udgitha, becomes a fulfiller of desires. That syllable is a syllable of permission, for whenever we permit anything, we say Om , “Yes. ”Now permission is gratification. He who knows this and meditates on the syllable Om becomes one who gratifies desires. By that syllable proceeds the threefold knowledge (of the three Vedas ). When the Adhvaryu priest [at a sacrifice] gives an order, he says Om . When the Hotri priest recites [at that sacrifice], he says Om . When the Udgatri priest sings, he says Om, all for the glory of that syllable. The threefold knowledge and threefold sacrifice proceed by the greatness of that syllable and by its essence. [10] Therefore it seems that both he who knows this [true meaning of Om ], and he who does not, perform the same sacrifice. But this is not so, for knowledge and ignorance are different. The sacrifice that a man performs with knowledge, faith, and the Upanishad is more powerful. This is the full account of the syllable Om . The Practice of Yoga This passage from the Shvetashvatara Upanishad 2.8 –15 relates some of the main components of yogic meditation. Yoga is a spiritual and mental discipline to promote knowledge that the individual soul and the world soul are one. It does so by harnessing the power of the body to this end, but it is not (as often thought and practiced in the West) primarily a method of exercise with some meditation included. Holding his body steady with the three upper parts 62 erect, and causing the senses with the mind to enter the heart, a wise man with the Brahma-boat will cross all the frightening streams. Compressing his breathings here in the body, and having his movements checked, one should breathe through his nostrils with diminished breath. Like that chariot yoked with vicious horses, the wise man should restrain his mind until it is undistracted. [10] In a clean level spot, free from pebbles, fire, and gravel, by the sound of water and similar things favorable to thought but not offensive to the eye, in a hidden retreat protected from the wind, one should practice yoga. Fog, smoke, sun, fire, wind, fire-flies, light- ning, a crystal, a moon — thesearetheprelimi- nary natural things indicating that Brahman [is being found in] yoga. When the fivefold quality of yoga is produced, arising from earth, water, fire, air, and space, no sickness, no old age, no death has he who has obtained a body made from the fire of yoga. Lightness, healthiness, steadiness, a clear complexion and pleasantness of voice, sweetness of odor, and scanty excre- tions — these, they say, are the first stage in the progress of yoga. Shvetashvatara Upanishad 2.8 –15. 62three upper parts: Head, neck, and torso. 54 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re Even as a mirror stained by dust shines bril- liantly when it has been cleansed, so the embodied one, on seeing the nature of the Soul, becomes unitary, his end attained, from sorrow freed. [15] With the nature of the self like a lamp, one who practices yoga beholds here the nature of Brahma. He becomes unborn, steadfast, and freed from his [human] nature. By knowing God one is released from all bonds! SELECTIONS FROM THE BHAGAVAD-GITA The most famous and influential text of Hinduism is section 6 of the Mahabharata epic known as the Bhagavad-Gita (“Song of the Lord ”). The Gita is especially important for an understanding of the devotional Hinduism that has flourished from about 400 C.E. until today. The background of the Gita is the rivalry between the Kaurava brothers and the Pan- dava brothers for the rule of India. In a game of dice, the leader of the Pandavas loses the group ’s claim to the throne. For thirteen years, the Pandavas are forced into exile. Civil war results when the Pandavas return to seize rule. As preparation for war begins, the god Krishna becomes a charioteer for Arjuna, a Pandava prince. As the battle is about to begin, Arjuna is appalled by thoughts of the fratricide that will surely result. Moreover, he is afraid that this great evil will harm his own soul now and, by implication, in its later incarnations. His charioteer Krishna teaches Arjuna divine truths that enable him to overcome his doubts. This teaching forms the content of the Gita. First, and most immediately for the plot of the Mahabharata, Krishna teaches Arjuna that he must do his caste duty and fight. Arjuna acknowledges that his warfare will not harm the souls of the slain. Second, Krishna explains that the several ways to salvation offered by Hinduism —sacrifice (the Vedic path), meditation (the Upanishadic and ascetic path), and action (the way of caste duty) —are effective only if approached in a spirit of complete detachment. The Gita teaches full involvement in life coupled with inner restraint and indifference. Third, the best way to salvation is devotion to Krishna, whom the Gita portrays as both the “base of Brahman ”that is, the impersonal world- soul, and a god filled with personal love for his devotees. In typically Hindu fashion, the Gita acknowledges and affirms all Hindu ways to the truth but affirms its own way as the best. The Gita contains 7000 verses grouped into eighteen chapters. It has no plot, only the setting just outlined that poses the religious problem. Most chapters begin with a question from Arjuna, which typically deals with the meaning of previous teachings in the Gita; a lengthy answer from Krishna follows. Many chapters end with a call for devotion to Krishna. The content of the Gita is repetitious; the key teachings are returned to again and again and examined from different perspectives. The following excerpts, taken from the excellent trans- lation by Eknath Easwaran, 63 attempt to reduce this repetition and present the essence of the Gita ’sargument. A short paragraph introduces and summarizes the content of each of the selections given here. Bhagavad-Gita 63From The Bhagavad Gita, translated by Eknath Easwaran, founder of the Blue Mountain Center of Meditation, copyright © 1985, 2007; reprinted by permission of Nilgiri Press, P. O. Box 256, Tomales, CA 94971, SELECTIONS FROM THE BHAGAVAD-GITA 55CopEditorial re [1.20 –47] Chapter 1 provides the narrative set- ting and the religious problem of the Gita. King Dhritarashtra ’s charioteer, Sanjaya, tells Dhritar- ashtra, the king of the Kauravas, what happened before the battle that took place to decide the fate of his kingdom. As Prince Arjuna came onto the battlefield, he was overcome by the horrors of the impending fratricidal war. He expressed his misgivings to his charioteer, Krishna, saying that war would lead to ruin and that he preferred death to fighting such a war. Then he dropped his weapons, waiting for his death at the hands of the enemy. Sanjaya: Then, O Dhritarashtra, lord of the earth, hav- ing seen your son ’s forces set in their places and the fighting about to begin, Arjuna spoke these words to Sri 64 Krishna: Arjuna: O Krishna, drive my chariot between the two armies. I want to see those who desire to fight with me. With whom will this battle be fought? I want to see those assembled to fight for Duryodhana, those who seek to please the evil- minded son of Dhritarashtra by engaging in war. Sanjaya: Thus Arjuna spoke, and Sri Krishna, driving his splendid chariot between the two armies, [25] facing Bhishma and Drona and all the kings of the earth, said: “Arjuna, behold all the Kurus gathered together. ” And Arjuna, standing between the two armies, saw fathers and grandfathers, teachers, uncles, and brothers, sons and grandsons, in-laws and friends. Seeing his kinsmen established in opposition, Arjuna was overcome by sorrow. Despairing, he spoke these words. Arjuna: O Krishna, I see my own relations here anxious to fight, and my limbs grow weak; my mouth is dry, my body shakes, and my hair is standing on end. [30] My skin burns, and the bow Gandiva 65 has slipped from my hand. I am unable to stand; my mind seems to be whirling. These signs bode evil for us. I do not see that any good can come from killing our relations in battle. O Krishna, I have no desire for victory, or for a kingdom or pleasures. Of what use is a king- dom or pleasure or even life, if those for whose sake we desire these things — teachers, fathers, sons, grandfathers, uncles, in-laws, grandsons, and others with family ties —are engaging in this battle, renouncing their wealth and their lives? [35] Even if they were to kill me, I would not want to kill them, not even to become ruler of the three worlds. 66 How much less for the earth alone! O Krishna, what satisfaction could we find in killing Dhritarashtra ’s sons? We would become sinners by slaying these men, even though they are evil. The sons of Dhritarashtra are related to us; therefore, we should not kill them. How can we gain happiness by killing members of our own family? Though they are overpowered by greed and see no evil in destroying families or injuring friends, we see these evils. Why shouldn ’t we turn away from this sin? [40] When a family declines, ancient traditions are destroyed. The spiritual foundations for life are then lost, and the family loses its sense of unity. Where there is no sense of unity, the women of the family become corrupt; and with the corruption of its women, society is plunged into chaos …. The timeless spiritual foundations of family and society would be 64Sri (pronounced “shree ”): Lord. 65Gandiva: “Magic. ” 66three worlds: The earth, the intermediate ( “astral ”) world, and the world of the gods. 56 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re destroyed by these terrible deeds, which violate the unity of life. It is said that those whose family dharma has been destroyed dwell in hell. 67 This is a great sin! We are prepared to kill our own relations out of greed for the pleasures of a kingdom. Better for me if the sons of Dhritarashtra, weapons in hand, were to attack me in battle and kill me unarmed and unresisting. Sanjaya: Overwhelmed by sorrow, Arjuna spoke these words. Casting away his bow and his arrows, he sat down in his chariot in the middle of the battlefield. [2:1 –7, 11 –27, 31 –38, 47 –48] In Chapter 2, Krishna rebukes Arjuna and urges him to fight. Krishna advances several arguments: (1) The soul, here called “the Self, ”is immortal, and all else is impermanent; therefore, the battle has no real eternal significance. (2) Arjuna, a Kshatriya (the warrior caste), must do his caste duty and fight. (3) He must fight in a con- templative, detached manner, not caring if he wins. (4) Yoga (physical and spiritual discipline) is the way to such detachment. Verse 38 is the key: “Having made pain and pleasure, profit and loss, victory and defeat the same to you, engage in this great battle and you will be freed from sin. ” Sanjaya: These are the words that Sri Krishna spoke to the despairing Arjuna, whose eyes were burn- ing with tears of pity and confusion. Krishna: This despair and weakness in a time of crisis are mean and unworthy of you, Arjuna. How have you fallen into a state so far from the path to liberation? It does not become you to yield to this weakness. Arise with a brave heart and destroy the enemy. Arjuna: How can I ever bring myself to fight against Bhishma and Drona, who are worthy of rever- ence? How can I, Krishna? [5] Surely it would be better to spend my life begging than to kill these great and worthy souls! If I killed them, every pleasure I found would be tainted. I don ’t even know which would be better, for us to conquer them or for them to conquer us. The sons of Dhritarashtra have confronted us; but why would we care to live if we killed them? My will is paralyzed, and I am utterly confused. Tell me which is the better path for me. Let me be your disciple. I have fallen at your feet; give me instruction … . Krishna: [11] You speak sincerely, but your sorrow has no cause. The wise grieve neither for the living nor for the dead. There has never been a time when you and I and the kings gathered here have not existed, nor will there be a time when we will cease to exist. As the same person inhabits the body through childhood, youth, and old age, so too at the time of death he attains another body. The wise are not deluded by these changes. When the senses contact sense objects, a person experiences cold or heat, pleasure or pain. These experiences are fleeting; they come and go. Bear them patiently, Arjuna. [15] Those who are unaffected by these changes, who are the same in pleasure and pain, are truly wise and fit for immortality. Assert your strength and realize this! The impermanent has no real- ity; reality lies in the eternal. Those who have seen the boundary between these two have attained the end of all knowledge. Realize that which pervades the universe and is inde- structible; no power can affect this unchang- ing, imperishable reality. The body is mortal, but that which dwells in the body is immortal and immeasurable. Therefore, Arjuna, fight in this battle. 67dwell in hell: Between death and (lower) reincarnation, one who undermines family duties is severely punished. SELECTIONS FROM THE BHAGAVAD-GITA 57CopEditorial re One believes he is the slayer, another believes he is the slain. Both are ignorant; there is nei- ther slayer nor slain. [20] You were never born; you will never die. You have never changed; you can never change. Unborn, eternal, immu- table, immemorial, you do not die when the body dies. Realizing that which is indestructi- ble, eternal, unborn, and unchanging, how can you slay or cause another to slay? As one aban- dons worn-out clothes and acquires new ones, so when the body is worn out a new one is acquired by the Self, who lives within. The Self cannot be pierced by weapons or burned by fire; water cannot wet it, nor can the wind dry it. The Self cannot be pierced or burned, made wet or dry. It is everlasting and infinite, standing on the motionless founda- tions of eternity. [25] The Self is unmanifested, beyond all thought, beyond all change. Know- ing this, you should not grieve. O mighty Arjuna, even if you believe the Self to be subject to birth and death, you should not grieve. Death is inevitable for the living; birth is inevitable for the dead. Since these are unavoidable, you should not sorrow … . [31] Consider your dharma, 68 and do not vac- illate. For a warrior, nothing is higher than a war against evil. The warrior confronted with such a war should be pleased, Arjuna, for it comes as an open gate to heaven. But if you do not participate in this battle against evil, you will incur sin, violating your dharma and your honor. The story of your dishonor will be repeated endlessly: and for a man of honor, dishonor is worse than death. [35] These brave warriors will think you have withdrawn from battle out of fear, and those who formerly esteemed you will treat you with disrespect. Your enemies will ridicule your strength and say things that should not be said. What could be more painful than this? Death means the attainment of heaven; victory means the enjoyment of the earth. Therefore rise up, Arjuna, resolved to fight! Having made pain and pleasure, profit and loss, victory and defeat the same to you, engage in this great battle and you will be freed from sin …. [47] You have the right to work, 69 but never to the fruit of work. You should never engage in action for the sake of reward, nor should you long for inaction. Perform work in this world, Arjuna, as a man established within himself — without selfish attachments, and the same in success and defeat. For yoga is perfect evenness of mind. [4:1 –15] In Chapter 4, Krishna tells Arjuna about his many incarnations. The Gita itself does not explicitly state that Krishna is an incar- nation of Vishnu, but Vishnu ’s followers in later devotional Hinduism saw this relationship and developed it fully. Krishna: I told this eternal secret to Vivasvat. 70 Vivasvat taught Manu, and Manu taught Ikshvaku. 71 Thus, Arjuna, eminent sages received knowl- edge of yoga in a continuous tradition. But through time the practice of yoga was lost in the world. The secret of these teachings is pro- found. I have explained them to you today because you are my friend and devotee. Arjuna: You were born much after Vivasvat; he lived very long ago. Why do you say that you taught this yoga in the beginning? 68dharma: Religious duty based on caste teaching, here about being a warrior. 69work: Take action. 70Vivasvat: The sun, the first created being. 71Manu, Ikshvaku: Manu is the first human being; Ikshvaku is the solar king. 58 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re Krishna: [5] You and I have passed through many births, Arjuna. You have forgotten [them], but I remember them all. 72 My true being is unborn and changeless. I am the Lord who dwells in every creature. Through the power of my own maya, 73 I man- ifest myself in a finite form. Whenever dharma declines and the purpose of life is forgotten, I manifest myself on earth. I am born in every age to protect the good, to destroy evil, and to reestablish dharma. They who know me as their own divine Self break through the belief that they are their body … . Such a one, Arjuna, is united with me. [10] Delivered from selfish attachment, fear, and anger, filled with me, surrendering themselves to me, purified in the fire of my being, many have reached the state of unity in me. As they approach me, so I receive them. All paths, Arjuna, lead to me. Those desiring success in their actions worship the gods; through action in the world of mortals, their desires are quickly fulfilled. The distinctions of caste, guna, 74 and karma have come from me. I am their cause, but I myself am changeless and beyond all action. Actions do not cling to me because I am not attached to their results. Those who understand this and practice it live in freedom. [15] Knowing this truth, aspirants desiring liberation in ancient times engaged in action. You too can do the same, pursuing an active life in the manner of those ancient sages. [9:16 –28] Chapter 9 tells how the universe was spun out of Krishna ’s body. Next come the attri- butes of God (Krishna), service of different (Hindu) gods, and a critique of Vedic religion. At the end, devotion to Krishna is emphasized as the path that, in contrast to the Vedic rituals, is open to all. Krishna: I am the ritual and the sacrifice; I am true medi- cine and the mantram. 75 I am the offering and the fire which consumes it, and the one to whom it is offered. I am the father and mother of this universe, and its grandfather too; I am its entire support. I am the sum of all knowledge, the purifier, the syllable Om. I am the sacred scriptures, the Rig, Yajur, and Sama Vedas. I am the goal of life, the Lord and support of all, the inner witness, the abode of all. I am the only refuge, the one true friend; I am the beginning, the staying, and the end of creation; I am the womb and the eternal seed. I am heat; I give and withhold the rain. I am immortality and I am death; I am what is and what is not. [20] Those who follow the rituals given in the Vedas, who offer sacrifices and take soma, free themselves from evil and attain the vast heaven of the gods, where they enjoy celestial plea- sures. When they have enjoyed these fully, their merit is exhausted and they return to this land of death. Observing Vedic rituals but caught in an endless chain of desires, they come and go. Those who worship me and meditate on me constantly, without any other thought — I will provide for all their needs. Those who worship other gods 76 with faith and devotion also wor- ship me, Arjuna, even if they do not observe the usual forms. I am the object of all worship, its enjoyer and Lord. 72I remember them all: Knowledge of prior lives is a sign of full enlightenment. The meaning of the English here is a bit ambiguous; the original states more clearly that Krishna remembers all his own prior lives, but Arjuna does not remember his.73maya: Spiritual power, especially to change one ’s appearance. 74guna: Forms of energy and matter. Every state of matter and mind is a combination of the three gunas: inertia, activity, andequilibrium. 75mantram: Mantra, the short sacred sound or saying that accompanies sacrifice and/or meditation.76worship other gods: That is, other Hindu gods, as in verse 20. SELECTIONS FROM THE BHAGAVAD-GITA 59CopEditorial re But those who fail to realize my true nature must be reborn. [25] Those who worship the devas 77 will go to the realm of the devas; those who worship their ancestors will be united with them after death. Those who worship phan- toms will become phantoms; but my devotees will come to me. Whatever I am offered in devotion with a pure heart — a leaf, a flower, fruit, or water —I par- take of that love offering. Whatever you do, make it an offering to me —the food you eat, the sacrifices you make, the help you give, even your suffering. In this way you will be freed from the bondage of karma, and from its results both pleasant and painful. Then, firm in renun- ciation and yoga, with your heart free, you will come to me. I look upon all creatures equally; none are less dear to me and none more dear. But those who worship me with love live in me, and I come to life in them. [11:1 –20, 50 –55] In Chapter 11, after Arjuna asks to see Krishna ’s divine form, Krishna shows him all his divine forms at once. Arjuna is filled with awe and praises Krishna. Krishna then returns to his human form. This praise of Krishna expresses the kind of attachment to one god that is characteristic of devotional Hinduism. Arjuna: Out of compassion you have taught me the supreme mystery of the Self. Through your words my delusion is gone. You have explained the origin and end of every creature, O lotus- eyed one, and told me of your own supreme, limitless existence. You have described your infinite glory, O Lord, and now I long to see it. I want to see you as the supreme ruler of creation. O Lord, master of yoga, if you think me strong enough to behold it, show me your immortal Self. Krishna: [5] Behold [in me], Arjuna, a million divine forms, with an infinite variety of color and shape. Behold the gods of the natural world, and many more wonders never revealed before. Behold the entire cosmos turning within my body, and the other things you desire to see. But these things cannot be seen with your physical eyes; therefore I give you spiritual vision to perceive my majestic power. Sanjaya: Having spoken these words, Krishna, the mas- ter of yoga, revealed to Arjuna his most exalted, lordly form. [10] He appeared with an infinite number of faces, ornamented by heavenly jew- els, displaying unending miracles and the countless weapons of his power. Clothed in celestial garments and covered with garlands, sweet-smelling with heavenly fragrances, he showed himself as the infinite Lord, the source of all wonders, whose face is everywhere. If a thousand suns were to rise in the heavens at the same time, the blaze of their light would resemble the splendor of that supreme spirit. There, within the body of the God of gods, Arjuna saw all the manifold forms of the uni- verse united as one. Filled with amazement, his hair standing on end in ecstasy, he bowed before the Lord with joined palms and spoke these words. Arjuna: [15] O Lord, I see within your body all the gods and every kind of living creature. I see Brahma, the Creator, seated on a lotus; I see the ancient sages and the celestial serpents. I see infinite mouths and arms, stomachs and eyes, and you are embodied in every form. I see you everywhere, without beginning, mid- dle, or end. You are the Lord of all creation, and the cosmos is your body. You wear a crown and carry a mace and discus; 78 your radiance is blinding and immeasurable. 77devas [DAY-vuhs]: The gods, particularly the Vedic gods like Indra, Agni, and the rest. 78mace and discus: Weapons that are symbols of power and authority. 60 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re I see you, who are so difficult to behold, shin- ing like a fiery sun blazing in every direction. You are the supreme, changeless Reality, the one thing to be known. You are the refuge of all creation, the immortal spirit, the eternal guardian of eternal dharma. You are without beginning, middle, or end; you touch every- thing with your infinite power. The sun and moon are your eyes, and your mouth is fire; your radiance warms the cosmos. [20] O Lord, your presence fills the heavens and the earth and reaches in every direction. I see the three worlds trembling before this vision of your wonderful and terrible form …. Sanjaya: [50] Having spoken these words, the Lord once again assumed the gentle form of Krishna and consoled his devotee, who had been so afraid. Arjuna: O Krishna, now that I have seen your gentle human form my mind is again composed and returned to normal. Krishna: It is extremely difficult to obtain the vision you have had; even the gods long always to see me in this aspect. Knowledge of the Vedas, austerity, charity or sacrifice cannot bring the vision you have seen. But through unfailing devotion, Arjuna, you can know me, see me, and attain union with me. [55] Those who make me the supreme goal of all their work and act without selfish attachment, who devote themselves to me completely and are free from ill will for any creature, enter into me. [16:1 –11, 21 –24] Chapter 16 is Krishna ’s sum- mary of general morality suitable for all twice- born Hindus. It first describes the person of “divine qualities ”who quickly escapes the pro- cess of rebirth by good deeds done according to caste duty and in a spirit of detachment. Then it tells of people with “demonic qualities ” who are eternally recycling through rebirth. Krishna: Be fearless and pure; never waver in your deter- mination or your dedication to the spiritual life. Give freely. Be self-controlled, sincere, truthful, loving, and full of the desire to serve. Realize the truth of the scriptures; learn to be detached and to take joy in renunciation. Do not get angry or harm any living creature, 79 but be com- passionate and gentle; show good will to all. Cultivate vigor, patience, will, purity; avoid malice and pride. Then, Arjuna, you will achieve your divine destiny. Other qualities, Arjuna, make a person more and more inhuman: hypocrisy, arrogance, con- ceit, anger, cruelty, ignorance. [5] The divine qualities lead to freedom; the demonic, to bondage. But do not grieve, Arjuna; you were born with divine attributes. 80 Some people have divine tendencies, others demonic. I have described the divine at length, Arjuna; now lis- ten while I describe the demonic. The demonic do things they should avoid and avoid the things they should do. They have no sense of uprightness, purity, or truth. “There is no God, ”they say, “no truth, no spiritual law, no moral order. The basis of life is sex; what else can it be? ” Holding such distorted views, possessing scant discrimination, they become enemies of the world, causing suffering and destruction. [10] Hypocritical, proud, and arrogant, living in delusion and clinging to deluded ideas, insatia- ble in their desires, they pursue their unclean ends. Although burdened with fears that end only with death, they still maintain with com- plete assurance, “Gratification of lust is the highest that life can offer. ”… 79not harm any living creature: The ideal of ahimsa, especially important in Jainism.80born with divine attributes: This, coupled with the “man born with demonic traits ”in the next sentence, is not deter- ministic. Hinduism does not see the moral value of anyone ’s life as fixed at birth. Rather, whatever the circumstances of birth, one is called upon to do one ’s religious duty and be born higher on the ladder of reincarnation. SELECTIONS FROM THE BHAGAVAD-GITA 61CopEditorial re [21] There are three gates to this self- destructive hell: lust, anger, and greed. Ren- ounce these three. Those who escape from these three gates of darkness, Arjuna, seek what is best and attain life ’s supreme goal. Others disregard the teachings of the scriptures. Driven by selfish desire, they miss the goal of life, miss even happiness and success. Therefore let the scriptures be your guide in what to do and what not to do. Understand their teachings; then act in accordance with them. [18:1 –9, 42 –49, 60 –73] In the eighteenth and last chapter of the Gita, the topics of renuncia- tion and the three constituents of nature are treated for the last time. Krishna summarizes the duties of the castes and stresses the impor- tance of doing one ’s caste duty in a spirit of detachment. Then comes a short summary of the teaching of the whole book, followed by a description of the merits obtained by reading it. Arjuna is convinced by Krishna and surrenders himself in obedience. Arjuna: O Krishna, destroyer of evil, please explain to me sannyasa and tyaga, and how one kind of renunciation differs from another. Krishna: To refrain from selfish acts is one kind of renunciation, called sannyasa; to renounce the fruit of action is another, called tyaga. Among the wise, some say that all action should be renounced as evil. Others say that certain kinds of action —self-sacrifice, giving, and self-discipline —should be continued. Lis- ten, Arjuna, and I will explain three kinds of tyaga and my conclusions concerning them. [5] Self-sacrifice, giving, and self-discipline should not be renounced, for they purify the thoughtful. Yet even these, Arjuna, should be performed without desire for selfish rewards. This is essential. To renounce one ’sresponsibili- ties is not fitting. The wise call such deluded renunciation tamasic. 81 To avoid action from fear of difficulty or physical discomfort is rajasic. There is no reward in such renunciation. But to fulfill your responsibilities knowing that they are obligatory, while at the same time desiring nothing for yourself —this is sattvic renunciation. Arjuna: Krishna, I want to know the real essence of both renunciation and relinquishment …. Krishna: [42] The different responsibilities found in the social order —distinguishing Brahmin, Ksha- triya, Vaishya, and Shudra —have their roots in this conditioning. 82 The responsibilities to which Brahmins are born, based on their nature, are self-control, tranquility, purity of heart, patience, humility, learning, austerity, wisdom, and faith. The qualities of Kshatriyas, based on their nature, are courage, strength, fortitude, dexterity, generosity, leadership, and the firm resolve never to retreat from battle. The occupations suitable for a Vaishya are agri- culture, dairying, and trade. The proper work of a Shudra is service. [45] By devotion to one ’s own particular duty, everyone can attain perfection. Let me tell you how. By performing one ’s own work, one worships the Creator who dwells in every creature. Such worship brings that person to fulfillment. It is better to perform one ’s own duties imperfectly than to master the duties of another. By fulfill- ing the obligations he is born with, a person never comes to grief. No one should abandon duties because he sees defects in them. Every action, every activity, is surrounded by defects as a fire is surrounded by smoke. One who is free from selfish attachments has mastered 81tamasic, with the later rajasic, are lower forms of renuncia- tion in which the gunas are not overcome; sattvic renunciation overcomes them and leads to true enlightenment.82this conditioning: Of the three gunas. 62 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re himself and his passions; he attains the supreme perfection of freedom from action …. [60] Your own karma, born of your own nature, will drive you to do even that which you do not wish to do, because of your delu- sion. The Lord dwells in the hearts of all crea- tures and whirls them round upon the wheel of maya. 83 Run to him for refuge with all your strength, and peace profound will be yours through his grace. I give you these precious words of wisdom; reflect on them and then do as you choose. These are the last words I shall speak to you, dear one, for your spiritual fulfillment. You are very dear to me. [65] Be aware of me always, adore me, make every act an offering to me, and you shall come to me; this I promise; for you are dear to me. Abandon all supports and look to me for protection. I shall purify you from the sins of the past; do not grieve. Do not share this wis- dom with anyone who lacks in devotion or self- control, lacks the desire to learn, or scoffs at me. Those who teach this supreme mystery of the Gita to all who love me perform the great- est act of love; they will come to me without doubt. No one can render me more devoted service; no one on earth can be dearer to me. [70] Those who meditate on these holy words worship me with wisdom and devotion. Even those who listen to them with faith, free from doubts, will find a happier world where good people dwell. Have you listened with attention? Are you now free from your doubts and confusion? Arjuna: You have dispelled my doubts and delusions, and I understand through your grace. My faith is firm now, and I will do your will. TWO TAMIL POETS, APPAR AND TUKARAM Much of the Sanskrit foundation of Hinduism was creatively adapted for the myriad languages of India. These adaptations preserved and extended the basic ideas of the ancient scriptural sources. The first two poems in this section sample the Tamil (south Indian) religious poetry of Appar (seventh century), the best known of the “Shaivite saints ”whose writings are given a scriptural function, if not formal status. 84 The last two poems are by Tukaram (seventeenth century), the greatest Maharashtrian poet. 85 These poems reflect popular bhakti (devotional) tradition, and many of them are recited in the humblest households in India. 83maya: Here, this means “delusion. ” 84Taken from F. Kingsbury and G. E. Phillips, Hymns of the Tamil Shaivite Saints (Calcutta: Association Press, 1921), pp. 47 –51. 85The first poem, “Waiting, ”is from N. Macnicol, Psalms of the Maratha Saints (Calcutta: Association Press, 1920), p. 58; the second poem, “The Burden of the Past, ”is from J. N. Fraser and K. B. Marathe, The Poems of Tukaram (Madras: Christian Literature Society, 1909), pp. 114 –115. TWO TAMIL POETS, APPAR AND TUKARAM 63CopEditorial re Appar: Confession of Sin Evil, all evil, are my race, evil my qualities all. Great am I only in sin, evil is even my good. Evil is my innermost self, foolish, avoiding the pure. A beast am I not, yet the ways of the beast I can never forsake. I can exhort with strong words, telling men what they should hate. Yet can I never give gifts, only to beg them I know. Ah! Wretched man that I am, why did I come to birth? Appar: The Presence of God No man holds sway over us, Nor death nor hell fear we; No tremblings, griefs of mind, No pains nor cringings see. Joy, day by day, unchanged Is ours, for we are His, His ever, who does reign, Our Shankara, 86 in bliss. Here to His feet we ’ve come, Feet as plucked flow ’rets fair; See how His ears divine Ring and white conch shell wear. He is ever hard to find, but He lives in the thought of the good; He is innermost secret of Scripture, inscruta- ble, unknowable; He is holy and milk and the shining light. He is the king of the Devas, Immanent in Vishnu, in Brahma, in flame and in wind, Yet in the mighty sounding sea and in the mountains. He is the great One who chooses Shiva ’s paradise for his own. If there be days when my tongue is dumb and speaks not of him, Let no such days be counted in the record of my life. Tukaram: Waiting With head on hand before my door, I sit and wait in vain. Along the road to Pandhari My heart and eyes I strain. When shall I look upon my Lord? When shall I see him come? Of all the passing days and hours I count the heavy sum. With watching long my eyelids throb, My limbs with sore distress, But my impatient heart forgets My body ’s weariness. Sleep is no longer sweet to me; I care not for my bed; Forgotten are my house and home, All thirst and hunger fled. Says Tuka, 87 Blest shall be the day — Ah, soon may it betide! — When one shall come from Pandhari To summon back the bride. 86Shankara: Shiva. 87Tuka: The poet Tukaram himself. In a custom of Indian poetry, the author includes his own name in the poem. 64 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re Tukaram: The Burden of the Past I have been harassed by the world. I have dwelled in my mother ’s womb and I must enter the gate of the womb eight million times. I was born a needy beggar and my life is passed under a stranger ’s power. I am bound fast in the meshes of my past and its later influence continues with me; It puts forth its power and whirls me along. My stomach is empty and never at rest. I have no fixed course or home or village. I have no power, O God, to end my wanderings; My soul dances about like rice in a frying pan. Ages have passed in this way and I do not know how many more await me. I cannot end my course, for it begins again; Only the ending of the world can set me free. Who will finish this suffering of mine? Who will take my burden on himself? Your name will carry me over the sea of this world, You run to the help of the distressed. Run to me, Narayana, 88 wretched as I am. Consider neither my merits nor my faults. Tukaram implores your mercy. GLOSSARY Aranyakas [ah-RUN-yah-kuhs] “Forest Books ”; phil- osophical thoughts on sacrifice; part of the canon of Shruti. Atman [AHT-muhn] Individual self or soul. Bhagavad-Gita [BAH-gah-vahd GEE-tuh] “Song of the Lord ”; a long poem on religious duty in the Mahabharata. Brahman [BRAH-muhn] Ultimate, absolute reality of the cosmos; the world soul. Brahmanas [BRAH-muh-nuhs] “Brahmin Books ”; Vedic expositions of sacrifice, part of the canon of Shruti. Dalits [DAHL-its] “The downtrodden ”; preferred name today for the lowest social class in India; also called “outcastes ”and “Harijans. ” Dharma-Shastras [DAHR-muh SHAS-truhs] Writ- ings on personal and social duties. mantra [MAHN-truh] Short sacred formula used in prayer or meditation (not, as often thought in North America, a common or personal motto). Om (or Aum) [OHM] Spoken syllable symbolizing the fundamental hidden reality of the universe. pandit [PAHN-deet] Brahmin who specializes in Vedic memorization and ritual enactment. Puranas [POOR-ah-nuhs] Legends about the gods stressing devotion to a specific divinity as the way to release. rishis [REE-shees] “Seers ”who heard the sounds of the four Vedas and collected them into the Veda. samhitas [SAHM-hee-tuhs] “Collections ”of hymns, formulas, songs, and spells that constitute the four Vedas. Shruti [SHROO-tee] “What is heard ”; the primary revelation heard by the ancients; the first level of Hindu scripture, considered of cosmic, not human, authorship. Smriti [SMRIH-tee] “What is remembered ”about divine revelation; epics, myths and legends, tantras, and law codes that constitute the second level of Hindu scripture. Upanishads [oo-PAH-nee-shahds] “Sittings near a Teacher ”; philosophical collections forming the end of the Veda , part of the canon of Shruti. Vedas [VAY-duhs] “Books of Knowledge ”; the four Vedas -Rig, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva -are part of the canon of Shruti. yoga [YOH-guh] Spiritual and mental discipline to promote religious knowledge; one who practices it is a yogin. 88Narayana: Vishnu. Glossary 65CopEditorial re QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION 1. To what degree, if any, can the Vedas be described as reflecting a nature-worship religion? 2. Compare the use and effects of soma to the modern use of drugs by people who argue that drug use brings a higher consciousness. What might the similarities and differences be? 3. In what ways do the Upanishads differ from and agree with earlier Vedic literature? Do you agree with those scholars who argue that the differences between the earlier Vedas and later writings (including the Upanishads ) justify calling the first stage “Vedic religion ”and only the second stage “Hinduism ”? 4. How does the variety of usages of Hindu scripture in the past and present mirror the variety of Hindu religion? 5. The main title of Robert Leach ’s survey of Hindu scripture is “A Religion of the Book? ” (above). How would you answer this question about Hinduism? 6. If (thinking hypothetically) you were to become a Hindu, to which caste would you like to belong? Which sex? Why? 7. How would you characterize the role of women in Hinduism? Are the texts given here reflective of what you see as women ’s actual conditions in India? 8. How and why does the Bhagavad-Gita present the path of devotion as the best form of Hinduism? 9. How does the Bhagavad-Gita present and answer the problem of war? What is your critique of its answer? How may its answer be applicable to peo- ple of other cultures and other religions? 10. How do the later devotional songs carry forth and develop the traditions of devotional Hinduism? 11. Explain this statement by the German scholar of Hinduism, Axel Michaels: Hinduism contrasts with the religions of the West, “where the self is preferred to the not-self, and where freedom in the world is more important than liberation from the world. ” SCRIPTURES IN FILM The Indian film industry, popularly known as “Bollywood, ”is second in size only to the film industry of the United States. However, it has not produced many English-language films that deal with Hindu scriptures. The Mahabharata (1989, not rated), directed by Peter Brooks, is a short version of the lengthy stage play done by the Brooklyn Academy of Music and has a short sectiononthe Bhagavad-Gita; it is available on For a treatment of the history and culture of modern India with indirect treat- ment of scriptural ideas, see Gandhi (1982, rated PG), directed by Richard Attenborough and starring Ben Kingsley. This excellent film won eight Academy Awards. Also set in the time of Gandhi is Water (2005, not rated, in Hindi with English subtitles) by Deepa Mehta, the story of widowed women and girls confined to a life of self-denial for the rest of their lives; it opens with quotations from the Laws of Manu. For a con- temporary treatment of stages of life, marriage, and role relationships in a modern Western con- text, see Monsoon Wedding (2001, rated R), directed by Mira Nair, who also directed The Namesake (2006, rated PG-13, starring Kal Penn in the title role), the story of a young man caught between Indian roots and American upbringing. A film with more controversial ties to Indian religion, both Hindu and Muslim, is 2008 ’s blockbuster hit with eight Academy Awards, Slumdog Millionaire (directed by Danny Boyle, rated R). MindTap is a fully online, highly personalized learning experience built upon Cengage Learning content. MindTap combines student learning tools —readings, multimedia, activities, and assessments —into a singular Learning Path that guides students through their course. 66 CHAPTER 2 |HinduismCopEditorial re CHAPTER THREE Buddhism Turning a Prayer Wheel Monk turns a prayer wheel inscribed with Buddhist scripture at a temple near Kathmandu, Nepal. Prayer flags on the tower also contain Buddhist scripture, and the wind is believed to generate their words as prayers. –67 –CopEditorial re Buddhism is the most widespread of the religions born in Asia, and its scriptures have a wide influence and a variety of uses, as these stories indicate: In Washington, DC, a “Dharma Wheel Cutting Karma ”has been turning since 1997 in the Asian section of the Library of Congress. The wheel contains 208 repetitions of forty-two Tibetan scriptures, some written on the outside of the wheel but most hidden inside, which otherwise fill fifteen volumes. It is modeled after similar prayer wheels in Tibetan monasteries and temples. The spiritual power generated by the constant electrically powered turning of the wheel is said by Buddhists to generate compassion, prevent natural disasters, and promote peace in the world. In a Chinese convent, Buddhist nuns gather daily to read scripture. A low hum fills the reading room as they recite in unison. Like Buddhist monastics every- where, they are “making merit ”by carefully reciting their key scriptures, a deed that will wear away the effects of negative karma. This merit will enable them to be reborn after death into a better existence, eventually to achieve Nirvana and be reborn no more. In Middletown, Connecticut, an important ritual happens at the Chenrezig Tibetan Buddhist Center. People form a block-long human chain from the apart- ment of the Center ’s monk to the Center itself. Then they pass a complete set of Tibetan scriptures —313 texts in all, printed in India —person-to-person from the apartment to the Center, and rededicate it there. They will be stored in wooden and glass cases on a specially made altar in the Center, one of only a few complete sets of the Tibetan Buddhist canon in the United States. INTRODUCTION The Buddhist religion is based on the life and teaching of the Indian sage Siddhartha Gotama, the Enlightened One, or the Buddha [BUH-dah; rhymes with “would-a, ” not “mood-a ”]. Historians have disagreed over the dating of Gotama ’s life, but there is now a growing consensus for ca. 536 –476 B.C.E. rather than about a century later; this consensus has been firmed up by archaeological excavations completed in 2013 of early Buddhist structures. Buddhists believe that individuals can overcome the misery of the world and reach their own buddha status by a process of mental and moral purification. The term buddha (not capitalized) applies to every individual who attains this state. Gotama is the Buddha (capitalized, usually with “the ”) par excellence. Buddhism has spread throughout most of Asia. (See Map 2, “Spread of Buddhism in Asia, 400 B.C.E.–800 C.E.,”in the map section.) With this growth has come a wide diversity within Buddhism that is mirrored in its scriptures. The Buddhist canon has three main forms — Theravadin, Mahayanan, and Tibetan — hundreds of scriptural texts, and many different types of usage. This assemblage of scriptures provides a fascinating overview of the early history of the Buddhist tradition and insight into the contemporary life of Buddhists everywhere. 68 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re Overview of Structure The scriptures of Theravada (south Asian) Buddhism are known as the Tipitaka 1 [TIH -pee-TAH-kuh], the “Three Baskets ”(see Table 3.1). Tradition says that the early disciples of Buddha first recited his words, and then wrote them down on palm leaves and separated them into two baskets ( pitakas ): the Vinaya Pitaka , “[monastic] Discipline Basket, ”and the Sutta Pitaka ,“Discourse Basket. ”A third basket, the Abhidhamma Pitaka ,or “Special Teaching Basket, ” arose somewhat later. In this section, we first consider each basket and then survey the structure of the Chinese and Tibetan forms of the Buddhist canon. The Vinaya Pitaka contains regulations for the communal life of the monks and nuns. Early Buddhism was centered on monasticism, and this became one of its lasting hallmarks in all forms of Buddhism to come. All the rules in the Vinaya Pitaka, along with all other Buddhist sacred texts, are said to be buddhavacana [BUHD -ah-vah- KAHN-uh], “the words of the Buddha, ”the Buddhist term that comes closest to “scripture. ”The Vinaya [vih-NIGH-yuh] has three divisions: the Sutta Vibhanga (Division of Rules), the Khandhaka (Sections), and the Parivara (Accessory), a short summary of the rules and how to apply them. The Vinaya presents 227 different rules for monks —most of them prohibitions of forbidden activities, grouped according to importance. These prohibitions range from a few major offenses that result in perma- nent expulsion from the order to many minor offenses that a monk need only confess to his monastic leader. All the rules for monks apply in a general way to the nuns as well, but a special section of the Sutta Vibhanga gives specific regulations for nuns. The Vinaya also contains key monastic rituals: beginning and end of the rainy-season retreat, ordination of new monks, and a twice-monthly recitation of all the rules for monks and nuns. The size of the Vinaya Pitaka is indicated by its most recent English translation, which runs to six substantial volumes. That the Vinaya is first among the three baskets of scripture attests to the leading role that monasticism has played in Buddhism. The second basket, the Sutta [SUH-tuh] Pitaka, contains teachings attributed to Gotama Buddha. The word sutta (Sanskrit: sutra) means “writing, ”but typically refers to a holy writing. Here, it connotes writings that are suitable for lay Buddhists as well as monks. Buddhists divide the Sutta Pitaka into five sections: Long Discourses, Medium-Length Discourses, Numerically Arranged Discourses, Item-More [or Gradual ] Discourses, and Short Texts. Most of these discourses follow a common structure: A discourse begins with the formula, “Thus I have heard [the Buddha say]. ”All Buddhist scripture is said to come from the Buddha, even if this is more a religious claim than a historical one. Then comes a statement of the place and occasion of the hearing. Next is the body of the teaching, the main part of the discourse. Last is the listener ’s confession of the truth of the teaching and acknowledgment that he or she is the Buddha ’s disciple. The Sutta Pitaka is probably the best known of the three baskets. With its ration- ale for the first basket, its collections of wise sayings, its stories of former lives of the Buddha and other famous Buddhists, and its general writings on doctrines and ethics, 1Sanskrit: Tripitaka. This chapter typically uses Pali language forms of key Buddhist words; Sanskrit equivalents appear in parentheses. The titles of scripture books reflect their language of origin, which is generally Pali. Introduction 69CopEditorial re TABLE 3.1 The Theravadin Canon: The Tipitaka Name Translation Date Content and/or Size Vinaya Pitaka Discipline Basket 483 B.C.E. Rules for monks and nuns 1. Sutta-vibhanga Division of Rules Monastic rules a.Mahavibhanga Great Division 227 rules for monks b. Bhikkuni-vibhanga Division about Nuns Rules for nuns 2. Khandhaka Sections a.Mahavagga Great Group Main rules b. Cullavagga Small Group Miscellaneous rules 3. Parivara Accessory Summaries of rules Sutta Pitaka Discourse Basket 300 –100 B.C.E. Teachings for Monks and Laity 1. Dijjha-nikaya Long Discourses 34 suttas 2. Majjhima-nikaya Medium-Length Discourses 152 suttas 3. Samyutta-nikaya Corrected Discourses 56 groups of suttas 4. Anguttara-nikaya Item-More Discourses 2308 suttas 5. Kuddaka-patha Short Discourses a.Khuddaka-nikaya Little Readings A meditation book b. Dhammapada Verses on Teaching 26 chapters c.Udana Utterances 80 utterances d. Itivuttaka Thus-saids 112 suttas e.Sutta-nipata Sutta Collection 71 suttas f.Vimana-vatthu Tales of Heavenly Mansions 85 poems g. Peta-vatthu Tales of Ghosts Rebirth as ghosts h. Thera-Gatha Verses of Elder Men Early monks ’poems i.Theri-Gatha Verses of Elder Women Early nuns ’poems j.Jataka Lives 550 past lives of Gotama k.Nidessa Exposition 2 commentaries 1.Patisambhida-magga Way of Analysis Doctrinal exposition m. Apadana Stories Saints ’past lives n. Buddhavamsa Lineage of the Buddhas 24 pre-Gotama buddhas o. Gariya-pitaka Basket of Perfections 35 tales from Jataka Abhidhamma Pitaka Special Teaching Basket 250 B.C.E.–300 C.E. Advanced Teachings for Monks 1. Dhamma-sangani Summary of Teaching 2. Vibhanga Divisions 3. Dhastu-Kadha Discussions of Elements 4. Puggala-pannatti Designation of Persons 5. Yamaka The Pairs 6. Patthama Activations Source: Adapted from Richard H. Robinson, The Buddhist Religion (Belmont, CA: Dickenson Publishing Company, 1970), pp. 125 –128. Copy- right © 1970, Dickenson Publishing Company. Used by permission of Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc. 70 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re the Sutta Pitaka provides for students of Buddhism the best access to the essence of the religion ’s tradition. The third basket, the Abhidhamma [AHB -hee-DAHM-muh] Pitaka, contains seven scholastic treatises based on the teachings of Buddha. They deal with advanced, difficult topics and are often highly philosophical. Although the Pali and Sanskrit versions of the first two baskets are similar in content, they vary quite a bit in the third basket. The Pali version, used by South Asian Theravada Buddhism, tries to adhere to the exact words of Buddha. The Sanskrit version, Abhidharma, is important for the growth of Buddhist philosophy because these Sanskrit books deal with the ideas of Buddha more than with his words. Like the Pali version, the Sanskrit has seven books, but they differ from the Pali name and content, and Chinese and Tibetan translations of them also differ. The seven most commonly recognized are Method of Knowledge, Treatise, Overview of Consciousness, Collection on the Teaching, Treatise on Communication, Overview of the Elements, and Discourse on Sacred Beliefs. The scriptures of Mahayana (North and East Asian, especially China and Japan) Buddhism are known as the “Chinese canon. ”The Mahayana tradition began in India, and some Mahayanan books originated there as well, but most arose in China. The Mahayana canon did not adopt the threefold-basket division of the Pali canon, although one can see traces of it. It has no main divisions (see Table 3.2), but many of the most important books of the Pali canon were incorporated in the Mahayana canon. The Theravadin and Mahayanan canons share important works such as the Jatakas [JAH-tah-kuhs] (Prior Lives of the Buddha, about 550 in number), the Death of the Buddha, Vinaya texts on monastic discipline, and various Abhidhamma texts. Some books from the Mahayana canon have even penetrated Theravada Bud- dhism and are recognized and used as scripture although not formally admitted to the historic Theravada canon. In Sri Lanka, for example, the Buddhacarita (Acts of the Buddha) and the Visuddhimagga (Path of Purification) are widely received and used as scripture. The Mahayana canon also added many other new books, all of them claiming to be the true word of Gotama Buddha. What constituted the “true word ”of the Buddha was rather fluid and was determined by its content rather than by appealing to early Buddhist history. A common saying on this among Buddhists comes from the Death of the Buddha : Just as whatever the Buddha speaks is well spoken, so too whatever is well spoken is the word of the Buddha. Among the most important books are the Prajna-Paramita (Perfection of Knowledge ) sutras, which are philosophical discussions of the denial of the reality of existence and nonexistence. The shortest Perfection of Knowledge sutra is the Heart Sutra , reproduced in this chapter; it has had more influence than probably any other Mahayanan book. The almost constant repetitiveness of Mahayanan books, done for the sake of monastic memorization, contributes to their great length. Another important work is the Description of the Happy Land — that is, the land where the gracious Buddha Amida rules and invites his followers to share eternal life with him. This text has become important in the Japanese Pure Land Buddhist sect. A third major work is the Lotus Sutra of the True Law. This work has become the leading text of Nichiren Buddhism. In sum, with its adoption of many older books along with an astonishing variety of new books, the scripture of Mahayana Buddhism is vast and complex. The third main Buddhist canon is the Tibetan (see Table 3.3). In the seventh century C.E., Buddhism came to Tibet, where it is known as Lamaism (from the Introduction 71CopEditorial re Tibetan bla-ma, the “superior ”religion). The Tibetan king sent a delegation to India, where an alphabet was devised for the Tibetan language and the entire Buddhist literature was translated into it. The Tibetans added many books of their own, secular as well as religious, to this Indian collection. Just as Tibetan Buddhism is a mix of Buddhism and traditional Tibetan religion, the scriptures of Tibetan Buddhism are a mixture of religious and nonreligious texts. The final and official assembling of these books came in the fourteenth century, when they were fixed into two sections: the Kanjur (Translation of the Ordinances) and the Tanjur (Translation of the Doctrine). The Kanjur contains 689 books of various lengths in 100 or 108 volumes. It contains only those texts that the Buddha himself is said to have taught. The first main division is the Discipline, for monks; the second is Supreme Otherworldly Knowledge; the third deals with Buddhist cosmology; TABLE 3.2 The Mahayana or Chinese Canon Name of Section Translation Date Size Agama Limbs (all traditionally 2 vols., 151 texts Jatakas Lives put at 483 B.C.E.) 2 vols., 68 texts Prajna-Paramita Perfect Wisdom 4 vols., 42 texts Saddharma-Pundarika — 1 vol., 16 texts Avatamsaka — 2 vols., 31 texts Ratnakuta — Mahaparinirvana Great Decease 1 vols., 23 texts — Great Assembly 1 vol., 28 texts Sutra-Pitaka Sutra Collection 4 vols., 423 texts Tantra Tantra 4 vols., 572 texts Vinaya Discipline 3 vols., 86 texts — Commentary on Sutras 3 vols., 31 texts Abhidhamma Special Teaching 4 vols., 28 texts Madhyamika 1 vol., 15 texts Togacara Yoga Practice 2 vols., 49 texts — Treatises 1 vol., 65 texts — Commentaries on Sutras 7 vols. — Commentaries on Vinaya 1 vol. — Commentaries on Shastras 5 vols. — Chinese Sectarian Writings 5 vols. — History and Biography 4 vols., 95 texts — Encyclopedias and Dictionaries 2 vols., 16 texts — Non-Buddhist Writings 1 vol., 8 texts — Catalogues 1 vol., 40 texts Source: Adapted from Richard H. Robinson, The Buddhist Religion (Belmont, CA: Dickenson Publishing Company, 1970), pp. 125 –128. Copy- right © 1970, Dickenson Publishing Company. Used by permission of Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc. 72 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re the fourth is Heap of Jewels; the fifth is Teaching Lectures; the sixth is Nirvana; and the last is Texture (Tantra). The Tanjur is not, as is often stated, a commentary on the Kanjur. It contains 225 volumes in two main sections, Teaching (Sutra) and Texture (Tantra). The Teaching section includes many translations of Indian commentaries on older scriptures. The Tanjur deals with a wider variety of topics than does the Kanjur: traditional religious teachings, magical texts drawn mainly from Indian Buddhism and native Tibetan religion, and texts on alchemy and astrology. Today, the preservation of Tibetan scriptures is a primary task of Tibetan Buddhist exiles. Contemporary Use Buddhist use of scripture today centers around monastic activity. Since early times, when the teaching of Buddha was passed along orally and then written down, the role of monks (but not nuns) in scriptural activity has been primary. The scriptures them- selves bear the marks of this orientation. For example, the first and the third baskets are explicitly for monastics. Other reasons also figure in why Buddhist scriptures are monastically oriented. The expense of owning such a large canon makes it accessible mainly to monastic orders. Its size demands a lifetime of study to master it; its content is challenging and specialized, calling for special teachers who can be found only among the monks. Buddhism in general demands withdrawal from the distractions of daily life in order to give the scriptures the kind of in-depth study they deserve. What does this monastic usage entail? First, Buddhism has traditionally distin- guished between study monks and meditation monks. The very term study monk indicates the first use of scripture — the study of the content of its teachings. A new monk studies scripture to learn the first and most important of the monastic rules that govern his life. He also studies the most easily understood texts in the Sutta Pitaka, such as the Dhammapada and the Jataka [JAH-tah-kuh] verses. As time progresses TABLE 3.3 The Tibetan Canon Name Translation Size Kanjur Translation of the Ordinances 108 vols. ’Dul-ba Discipline [for monastics] 13 vols. Shes-rab-kyi-pha-rol-tu-phyin-pa Supreme Otherworldly Knowledge 21 vols. Phal-chen Buddhist Cosmology 6 vols. dKon-brtsegs Heap of Jewels 6 vols. mDo Teaching Lectures 38 vols. Mya-ngan- ’das Nirvana 2 vols. rGyud Texture [Tantra] 22 vols. Tanjur Translation of the Doctrine 225 vols. mDo Teaching [Sutra] 136 vols. rGyud Texture [Tantra] 87 vols. A book of Hymns 1 vol. An index 1 vol. Introduction 73CopEditorial re and he masters this material, he learns the other rules in the Vinaya Pitaka and the other texts of the Sutta Pitaka. If, at the height of his monastic career, he displays excellence in study and teaching, he may go on to master the intricacies of the Abhid- hamma Pitaka. Because study of the scriptures is, in most forms of Buddhism, a prerequisite for becoming a meditation monk, all monks pass through this first phase. Throughout the history of Buddhism — and even today —study monks have greatly outnumbered meditation monks. This is especially the case in modern times, when the conviction has grown in many Buddhist circles that one cannot reach enlightenment in this life. In all this study and teaching, the goal is to realize in one ’s own life the teachings of the Buddha that lead toward nirvana, or enlightenment. The scripture itself, as a book, is worth little or nothing. The meaning of the words, not the words themselves, is the only valuable thing in the search for purification. Alongside the cognitive use of Buddhist scripture — based on knowing and understanding it for one ’s one spiritual benefit — Buddhist monks, nuns, and laity also use it in important noncognitive ways. For example, preserving scripture by copy- ing it brings merit to the copyist. Some copyists write a personal note at the end of the scripture texts they copy, indicating how they want their merit to be used (for example, to aid their fellow monks or to obtain a certain type of reincarnation). In Mahayana, scripture books are sometimes installed in a special shrine to receive vener- ation. Even the act of viewing scripture texts is thought to bring power to help one along toward enlightenment — the more texts, the better. Scriptures are thought by many Buddhists to be a part of the “dharma body ”of the Buddha so that they are prized almost as much as the other part of his “dharma body, ”the relics of his bones. As an example of this type of usage, scripture manuscripts are placed inside hollow images of the Buddha, to receive veneration by the faithful that accrues to their spir- itual benefit. 2 Monks also pursue scriptural activity for the laity. Many lay Buddhists have basic scripture anthologies and can read it themselves, but to have monks engage in activity with scripture on their behalf is considered much more beneficial. These activities are listed here: At funerals, monks recite texts for the merit of the deceased. Monks typically recite scriptures at wedding ceremonies, but they do not officiate at weddings. They lecture on the scriptures to the laity, both individuals and groups. Some monks preach the scriptures to the laity, often using such popular material as the Jataka tales. Wealthy layfolk sponsor recitations of scripture in the monasteries and pay for the publication of scriptures, all to make merit for deceased loved ones. Protective rituals have monks chanting selected scriptures for their spiritual powers and applying these powers to the protection of other Buddhists. These ceremonies are held for birthdays, for the dedication of a new house, at funerals, or on other important occasions. Sacred threads are used during these recitations and, at the end of the ceremony, are cut into short pieces and tied around the wrists of those present. 2Naomi Appleton, “Buddhist Scriptures: An Overview, ”Expository Times 125 (2014), p. 580. 74 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re Despite these rather extensive activities, the monastics ’involvement with the laity is incidental to their main activity — studying and meditating on scripture in order to travel the road to personal enlightenment. The Tibetan form of Buddhism holds its scriptures in great ritual esteem. The books are venerated in worship; incense and prayer are offered to them. They are produced in the traditional way — either printed by hand or with woodblocks — and are preserved in the monasteries with great care. Although these books are now preserved and reprinted in India, no scholarly critical edition of them has been compiled. Modern-language translations are very incomplete, and only a few Euro- pean and North American libraries possess a complete copy of the Kanjur and Tanjur . Historical Origin and Development The development of Buddhist scripture begins with Gotama Buddha himself. Bud- dhists believe that Gotama established among his monk disciples an oral transmission of his teachings on which later written scriptures are based. They trace all the varied scripture collections and their contents back to Buddha. Before Gotama died, he did not appoint a human successor. He promised instead that the path laid down in his teaching —dhamma [DAH-muh] (Sanskrit: dharma) — would lead the Buddhists and the monastic order he founded. Soon after his death, his disciples gathered at the first general council of Buddhists, held at Rajagaha in 483 B.C.E., to formalize his teachings. After seven months of chanting scriptures they had learned by memory, then collecting and examining the supposed sayings of Buddha for authenticity, they drafted an official version and committed it to memory. Ananda, his chief disciple, is said to have recited them all. The sayings were written down on palm leaves (more durable than paper or parchment in the hot, humid Indian climate) and then separated into baskets. Mahayana Buddhists believe that all three baskets were developed at this time. Theravada Buddhists believe that the last basket, Abhid- hamma Pitaka, was formed at the third general council of Buddhists in 253 B.C.E. Most modern scholars agree that this basket has a later origin. Even after this initial conversion to writing, oral transmission continued and was seen as the primary mode of scripture preservation by early Buddhists. An early Abhidhamma text, the Samuccaya, indicates reasons for this preference. Memorizing is easy, accumulates merit, aids understanding, brings mental satisfaction, and pro- motes one ’s good standing among others. In addition, early Buddhists saw transmis- sion by an exacting oral tradition as offering a more reliable way than writing to preserve the exact words of the Buddha. When Mahayana Buddhism arose in the first century C.E., it showed new concern for liberation through the assistance of a bodhisattva [BOHD -hee-SAHT-vuh], a per- son who postpones his or her own full enlightenment in order to help others. The older idea of self-redemption characteristic of Theravada Buddhism gave way to redemption through the grace of this Buddha. The new movement required a new scripture canon, and so began the Mahayanan canon. Although this collection is often called the “Chinese canon, ”it is also used in Japan, usually in its Chinese-language form. Introduction 75CopEditorial re HISTORY The Past Lives of Siddhartha Gotama After his enlightenment, Siddhartha knew all his past lives. In the Jatakas (Lives or Birth Stor- ies ), he recounts in detail 550 episodes from as many past lives, each story revealing his gradual progress to perfection. Each Jataka teaches one point, always to edify the reader. Only the verses at the end are considered inspired, and the stories are built from them. They come from a Mahayana setting that allows the bestowal of merit from one person to another, but they are widely known and loved in Theravada lands as well. In this story from Jataka 190, entitled “The Blessing of the Commandments, ”a faithful layman (a householder, not a monk) transfers merit to the barber. 3 The Master told this story about a believing lay- man. The layman was a faithful, pious person, and a chosen disciple. One evening, on his way to Jetavana, 4he came to the bank of a river. The ferrymen had already pulled up the ferry onto the shore in order to attend religious services. No boat could be seen at the landing, and the layman ’s mind was so full of delightful thoughts of the Buddha that he walked right into the river. His feet did not sink below the water. He got as far as mid-river, walking as if he were on dry land, but then he noticed the waves. Then his joy subsided, and he began to sink. But he stirred himself up to greater strength [by meditation], and continued walking on the water. So he arrived at Jetavana, greeted the Master, and took a seat on one side. The Master entered into a pleasant conversation with him: “I hope, good layman, you had no mishap on your way. ” “O Sir, ”he replied, “I was so absorbed in thoughts of the Buddha that when I set foot upon the river, I walked over it as though it had been dry ground! ” The Master said, “Ah, friend layman, you are not the only one who has been kept safe by remembering the virtues of the Buddha. In older days pious laymen have been shipwrecked in mid- ocean, and saved themselves by remembering the Buddha ’s virtues. ”Then, at the layman ’s request, he told this story from his past lives. Once upon a time … a disciple who had entered on the Path 5went on a ship with a barber of some considerable property. The barber ’s wife had given him charge of our friend, to look after him. A week later, the ship was wrecked in mid- ocean. These two men clung to one plank, and were cast up on an island. There the barber killed some birds, and cooked them, offering a share of his meal to the layman. “No, thank you, ”the layman said. 6He was thinking to himself, “There is no help for us here except the Three Jewels, ”7and so he pondered upon the blessings of the Three Jewels. As he pondered, a serpent-king who had been born on that island changed his own body to the shape of a great ship. The ship was filled with seven kinds of precious things. An ocean god was the helmsman. The three masts were made Jataka 190. 3Adapted from E. B. Cowell, The Jataka , vol. 2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1895), pp. 77 –78. 4Jetavana: A city in northern India where Gautama Buddha spent many rainy seasons and where a famous Buddhist mon- astery was built. That this layman was on his way to Jetavana reinforces the view of the text that he was particularly faithful. 5the Path: Of following the Buddha ’s teaching. 6No, thank you: The refusal to eat meat is another sign of the layman ’s Buddhist piety. 7Three Jewels: The Buddha, the Dhamma (Teaching), and the Sangha (monastic order); also called the “Three Refuges. ” 76 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re of sapphire, the anchor was made of gold, the ropes of silver, and the planks were golden. The helmsman stood on board, crying out, “Any pas- sengers for India? ” The layman said, “Yes, that ’s where we are headed. ” “In with you, then; get on board! ” He went aboard, and wanted to call his friend the barber. “You may come, ”the helmsman said to the lay brother, “but he may not. He is not a man of holy life. I brought this ship for you, not for him. ” The layman replied, “Very well; the gifts I have given, the virtues I have practiced, the powers I have developed — I give him the fruit of all of them! ” “I thank you, master! ”the barber said to the layman. “Now, ”said the Sea-spirit, “the barber may come aboard. ”So he conveyed them both over the sea, and sailed upstream to Benares. 8There, by his power, he created great wealth for both of them, and spoke this to them: “Keep company with the wise and good. If this barber had not been in company with this pious layman, he would have perished in the deep. ”Then he said this poem in praise of good company: “Behold the fruit of sacrifice, virtue, and piety: A serpent shaped as a ship conveys the good man o ’er the sea. Make friendship only with the good, and keep good company; A friend with the good, this barber could his home in safety see. ”… Master Gotama, after finishing this discourse, declared the truths this discourse showed, and identified the [connection to his] Birth. At the conclusion of the truths the pious layman entered on the Fruit of the Second Path. 9Gotama con- cluded by saying, “On that occasion the layman attained Nirvana; Sariputta 10 was the Serpent- king, and I myself was the ocean-god. ” The Life of Siddhartha Gotama Scholars of Buddhism today place the Acts of the Buddha (Buddhacarita) by Ashvaghosha, who lived in the first century B.C.E., between Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism because it has distinctive teachings from both of them. Today, it is a favorite book in Mahayana. Acts of the Buddha deals in poetic form with the life and teachings of the Buddha. Behind its more legendary touches, one can easily discern the outlines of the true historical story of Gotama. This selection recounts the birth of Gotama, his training as a Hindu, the “Four Sights, ”his “Great Retirement, ”and his enlightenment. It portrays the life of Siddhartha as an example for all Buddhists: All his followers should reach Nirvana in this manner. It opens, as do many Buddhist scriptures, with praise and an invocation to the Buddha. This praises him as an Arhat [AHR-haht], a “Worthy One ”who has achieved enlightenment. 11 8Benares: A holy city on the Ganges River also known as Varanasi. 9the Fruit of the Second Path: The path of those who are reborn again only once.10Sariputta: Along with Ananda, one of the two original and most important disciples of the historical Buddha. Acts of the Buddha 1.1 –2, 9 –10, 15 –17, 19 –21, 23 –25, 34, 54, 59, 62, 72 –74, 83, 2.24 –26, 28 –32; 3.1 –8, 26 –33, 40 –44, 53–61, 5.7 –20; 12.88 –104; 14.1 –9, 35 –37, 64 –68, 79 –81. 11From Buddhist Mahayana Texts , translated by E. B. Cowell, F. Max Müller, and J. Takakusu (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1894), pp. 1 –157. HISTORY |TheLifeofSiddharthaGotama 77CopEditorial re [The birth of Gotama] [1.1] That Arhat is here saluted who has no counterpart. Giving supreme happiness, he surpasses Brahman the Creator. Driving away darkness, he vanquishes the sun. Dispelling all burning heat, he surpasses the beau- tiful moon. There was a city, the dwelling-place of the great saint Kapila, 12 which had its sides sur- rounded by the beauty of a lofty broad plain like a line of clouds. With its high-soaring palaces, it was immersed in the sky …. [9] A king by the name of Suddhodana ruled over the city. He was a relative of the sun, anointed to stand at the head of earth ’s monarchs. He adorned it as a bee adorns a full-blown lotus. [10] He was the very best of kings, intent on liberality but empty of pride … . [15] He had a queen named Maya, who was free from all deceit. 13 She was a brilliance pro- ceeding from his brilliance, like the splendor of the sun when it is free from all the influence of darkness … . Truly the life of women is always darkness; yet when it encountered her, it shone brilliantly … . Falling from the host of beings in heaven, and illumining the three worlds, 14 the most excellent of Bodhisattvas 15 suddenly entered her womb. [20] He assumed in his descent the form of a huge elephant as white as the Himalayas, armed with six tusks, with its face perfumed with flowing ichor. Then he entered the womb of the queen of king Suddhodana to destroy the evils of the world. The guardians of the world hastened from heaven to watch over the world ’s one true ruler …. [23] Some days later, having a great longing in her mind, the queen went with the residents of the women ’s apartments by the king ’s permission into the Lumbini Garden. As the queen supported herself by a bough that hung with flowers, the Bodhisattva suddenly came forth, splitting open her womb. Then the constellation Pushya was auspicious. [25] Gotama was born from the queen ’s side, for the welfare of the world. He was born without pain and without illness [for his mother] …. [34] He said, “I am born for supreme knowledge, for the welfare of the world. Therefore, this is my last birth. ”… [54] The great seer Asita learned of this birth, the birth of him who was to destroy all birth, 16 by signs and through the power of his penances. In his thirst for the excellent Law, he came to the palace of the king …. [59] The sage, being invited by the king, was filled with properly intense feeling, and said these deep and solemn words [to the king] as his large eyes opened wide with wonder: … [62] “Hear the reason for my coming and rejoice in it. I have heard a heavenly voice saying that your son has been born for the sake of supreme knowledge. ”… [72] Asita knew that the king was disturbed by his fear of some impending evil, so he spoke to him, “Let not your mind, O monarch, be dis- turbed. All that I have said is certainly true. I have no fear about him, but I am distressed for my own disappointment. It is my time to depart, and this child is now born. He knows the mystery hard to attain, the means of destroying rebirth. When he has forsaken his kingdom, he will become indifferent to all worldly things, and then attain the highest truth by his strenuous efforts. He will shine as a sun of knowledge to destroy the darkness of illusion in the world. ”… [83] When he heard these words, the king, his queen, and his friends abandoned sorrow and rejoiced …. But he let his heart be influenced by the thought, “He will travel by the noble path. ” He was not opposed to religion, but he was alarmed at the prospect of losing his child [to a religious life] …. [The Four Sights] [2.24] When the young prince had passed the period of childhood and reached his youth, he learned in a few days all the knowl- edge suitable to his caste, which generally took many years to master. But his father the king 12Kapila: A Vedic sage and the traditional founder of a main type of Hindu philosophy.13Maya, who was free from all deceit: An ironic statement, because “maya ”means “deceit. ” 14the three worlds : The world of the gods, the lower heaven of stars and planets, and the surface of the earth.15Bodhisattvas: Individuals who have reached enlightenment but postpone entering Nirvana in order to help others reach it, a Mahayana teaching. 16birth … to destroy all birth: The Mahayana teaching that Buddhist enlightenment ends the cycle of reincarnation. 78 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re remembered what the great seer Asita said about his son ’s embrace of transcendental happiness, so the king in his anxiousness … turned the prince to sensual pleasures. He sought for him a bride possessed of beauty, modesty, gentle bearing, and widespread honor. She was from a family of unblemished moral excellence. Yasodhara was her name, a veritable goddess of good fortune …. [28] Later the king thought to himself, “He might see some discouraging sight that could dis- turb his mind. ”So the king had a dwelling pre- pared for his son in the private recesses of the palace. They were furnished with the delights proper for every season, gaily decorated like heav- enly chariots upon the earth, and bright like the clouds of autumn. He spent time among the splendid musical concerts of singing women. 17 [30] With the soft tambourines played by the women ’s fingertips, and ornamented with golden rims, and with the dances that were like the dances of the heavenly nymphs, that palace shone like Mount Kailasa. 18 The women delighted him with their soft voices, their beautiful pearl garlands, their playful intoxication, their sweet laughter, and their furtive glances. He was carried away in the arms of these women skilled in the ways of love and reckless in the pursuit of pleasure …. [3.1] On a certain day Gotama heard about the forests carpeted with tender grass. They had been all bound up in the cold season, but now their trees resounded with birds and they were adorned with lotus ponds. When he heard of the delightful appearance of these parks beloved by the women, he resolved to go outdoors. He was like an elephant shut up in a house for a long time. When the king learned the wish expressed by his son, he ordered an excursion to be prepared, one worthy of his own affection and his son ’s beauty and youth. But he prohibited any encoun- ter with any afflicted common person on the road. He said, “Heaven forbid that the prince with his tender nature should even imagine himself to be distressed! ”[5] Then he removed from the road with the greatest gentleness all those who had mutilated limbs, the old, the sick, and all squalid beggars. They made the highway assume its per- fect beauty. The prince and his attendants came down one day at a proper time from the roof of the palace, and went to visit the king to gain his permission to leave. Then the king, with tears ris- ing in his eyes, smelled his son ’s head and gazed for a long time upon him. He gave him his per- mission, saying, “Go. ”But in his heart he did not want him to depart …. [26] But then the gods, dwelling in their pure abodes, saw the city rejoicing like heaven itself. They created an old man to walk along and to stir the heart of the king ’s son. The prince saw that he was overcome with weakness, and differ- ent in form from other men. With his gaze intently fixed on the old man, he asked his driver, “Who is this man with white hair and his hand resting on a staff, his eyes hidden beneath his eye- brows, his limbs bent down and hanging loose? Is this a change produced in him, or his natural state, or an accident? ” The charioteer revealed to the king ’s son the secret that should have been kept so carefully. He thought no harm in this, for those same gods [who placed the old man on the road] had bewildered his mind. He said, [30] “Old age has broken him down. It is the ravisher of beauty, the ruin of vigor, the cause of sorrow, the destruction of delights, the affliction of memories, the enemy of the senses. He too once drank milk in his child- hood, and in time he learned to crawl on the ground. Step by step he became a vigorous youth, and now step by step he has reached old age. ” The startled prince spoke these words to the charioteer: “What! Will this evil come to me also? ” The charioteer said, “It will certainly come in time even to my long-lived lord. All people in the world know that old age will destroy their beauty, and they are resigned to it. ”… [40] Then the same deities created another man with his body all afflicted by disease. On see- ing him the prince addressed the charioteer, keep- ing his gaze fixed on the sick man. “That man with a swollen belly, his whole frame shaking as he pants, his arms and shoulders hanging loose, 17The pleasure-filled times that Gotama had with these womenare reminiscent of the times that the Hindu god Krishna spent with the cowherding girls.18Mount Kailasa: The Himalayan mountain in Tibet thought to be the home of the main Hindu god Shiva. HISTORY |TheLifeofSiddharthaGotama 79CopEditorial re his body all pale and thin, saying pathetically ‘Mother! ’when he embraces a stranger — what is the matter with him? ” Then his charioteer answered, “Gentle Sir, it is a very great affliction called sickness that has grown in him. It has made even this strong man no longer master of himself. ” Then the prince again said to his charioteer, looking upon the man compassionately, “Is this evil peculiar to him, or are all people threatened by sickness? ”The charioteer answered, “O prince, this evil is common to all people. Pressed by dis- eases, people try to find pleasure even though they are racked with pain. ”… [53] When the royal road was especially adorned and guarded, the king let the prince go out once more. He ordered the charioteer and chariot to proceed in a direction different from the previous one. But as the prince was going on his way, the very same deities created a dead man. Only the charioteer and the prince saw him as he was carried dead along the road. [55] Then the prince spoke to the charioteer, “Who is this car- ried by four men, and followed by mournful com- panions? He is no longer breathing! ” Then the driver, whose mind was overpow- ered by the gods who possess pure minds and who knew the truth, told his lord this truth that he had been forbidden to tell. “This is some poor man who, deprived of his intellect, senses, vitality, and qualities, lies as if he is asleep or unconscious, like mere wood or straw. He is abandoned by both friends and enemies after they have carefully cleaned him, wrapped him in cloth, and stayed with him. ” Hearing these words of the charioteer, the prince was startled. He said to him, “Is this due to an accident particular to him alone, or is it the end of all living creatures? ”Then the charioteer replied to him, “This is the final end of all living creatures. No matter if one is a poor man, a man of middle state, or a noble, destruction will come to all in this world. ” [60] Then the king ’s son, calm though he was, immediately sank down overwhelmed. He spoke with a loud voice, “This is the end appointed to all creatures, and yet the world has no fear of death and is infatuated with life! The human heart must be hard, to be self-composed in such a situation. ”… [The Great Retirement and Enlightenment] [5.7] Then Gotama wanted to become completely alone in his thoughts, and stopped those friends who were following him. He went to the root of a rose-apple tree in a solitary spot, with its beautiful leaves all quivering [in the wind]. There he sat on the ground covered with leaves, and with its young grass bright like lapis lazuli. Meditating on the origin and destruction of the world, he laid hold of the path that leads to firmness of mind. [10] Having attained firmness of mind, and being immediately set free from all sorrows such as the desire of worldly objects, he attained the first stage of contemplation. He considered thoroughly these faults of sick- ness, old age, and death that belong to all living beings. All the joy that he had felt in his vigor, in his youth, and in his life vanished in a moment. [15] He did not rejoice, but he also did not feel remorse. He suffered no hesitation, indolence, or sleep. He felt no attraction to the qualities of desire. He neither hated nor scorned another per- son. This pure, passionless meditation grew within the great-souled Gotama. Then, unobserved by the other men with him, a man in beggar ’s cloth- ing crept up to him. Gotama asked him, “Tell me, who are you? ” He replied, “O bull of men, I am terrified at birth and death, so I have become an ascetic for the sake of liberation. 19 Desiring liberation in a world subject to destruction, I seek a happy, indestructi- ble state. I am isolated from other people. My thoughts are unlike those of others, and my sinful passions are turned away from all objects of sense. Dwelling anywhere, at the root of a tree, or in an uninhabited house, a mountain, or a forest, I wander without a family and without home. I am a beggar ready for any food [that people may give me], and I seek only the highest good. ” [20] When he had spoken, and while Gotama was still looking at him, he suddenly flew up to the 19an ascetic for the sake of liberation: That is, a Hindu ascetic or renunciant who undergoes great physical and spiritual rigors to free himself from reincarnation. 80 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re sky. This ascetic was a heavenly inhabitant who, knowing that the prince ’s thoughts were other than what his outward form promised, had come to him to rouse his recollection. When the other man had gone like a bird to heaven, the foremost of men (Gotama) rejoiced and was astonished. Having comprehended the meaning of the term dhamma ,20 he set his mind on how to accomplish his deliverance …. [12.88] Then Gotama fixed his dwelling on the pure bank of the Nairangana River. He wanted a lonely habitation. Five beggars who desired liber- ation 21 came up to him when they saw him there. [90] Gotama thought, “This may be the means of abolishing birth and death, ”and at once he began a series of difficult austerities by fasting. For six years, vainly trying to attain merit, he practiced self- mortification. He performed many rules of absti- nence that are hard for a man to carry out. At the hours of eating, longing to cross the world whose farther shore is so difficult to reach, he broke his vow with single dates, sesame seeds, and rice. But the emaciation that was produced in his body by that asceticism became positive (spiritual) fatness because of his splendor. [95] With his glory and his beauty unimpaired although he was thin, he caused gladness to other eyes …. He had only skin and bone remaining. His fat, flesh, and blood had faded completely. Although he was physically dim- inished, he still shone with undiminished grandeur like the ocean. 22 Then the seer, his body emaciated to no pur- pose in a cruel self-mortification, and dreading continued existence, reflected on his longing to become a buddha. “This is not the way to passion- lessness, to perfect knowledge, or to liberation. That was the true way I found at the root of the rose-apple tree. But that cannot be attained by one who has lost his strength. ” Dinodia Photo/Stockbyte/Jupiter Images Statue of the Buddha in Bodhgaya, India One of the largest Buddha statues in the world at eighty feet tall, this statue represents Buddhameditating after his enlightenment. It was built by a Japanese Buddhist group, and dedicated in 1989 by the Dalai Lama. So resuming his care for his body, he next pondered how best to increase his bodily vigor. [100] He said, “Wearied with hunger, thirst, and fatigue, with one ’s mind no longer self- possessed through fatigue, how can one who is not absolutely calm reach the purpose that is to be attained by the mind? True calm is properly obtained by the constant [mental] satisfaction of the senses. The mind ’s self-possession is only obtained when the senses are perfectly satisfied. True meditation is produced in one whose mind is self-possessed and at rest. The exercise of perfect contemplation begins at once in someone calm in mind. It is by contemplation that supreme calm is eventually gained. This is the undecaying, immor- tal state, which is so hard to reach. ” When he realized, “This is based on eating food, ”the wise seer of unbounded wisdom decided to accept the continuance of his life … . [14.1] When he attained the highest mastery of all kinds of meditation, he remembered in the first watch of the night the continuous series of all his former births. “In such a place I was so and so by name; from there I passed and came here. ”He remembered his thousands of previous lives, experiencing each as it were over again. The Com- passionate One then felt compassion for all living beings. [5] This world of living beings rolls on helplessly like a wheel, because people willfully 20dhamma (Sanskrit, dharma): The main teachings of Bud- dhism; to understand them fully enables one to reach deliverance.21beggars who desired liberation: Hindu ascetics. 22he still shone … ocean: Buddhists believe that even in this diminished, emaciated state, the Buddha was full of grandeurand spiritual power. This is why many large Buddhist temples have statues of Gotama in his emaciated state before he foundthe Middle Path to enlightenment. HISTORY |TheLifeofSiddharthaGotama 81CopEditorial re reject the good guides in this life and do all kinds of actions in various [previous] lives. As he remembered, this conviction came to him, “All existence is as unsubstantial as a banana. ” When the second watch came, he was pos- sessed of unequaled energy. He who was the high- est of all seeing beings received a pre-eminent divine sight. By that divine, perfectly pure sight he saw the whole world as in a spotless mirror. He saw the various transmigrations and rebirths of the various beings with their several lower or higher merits from their actions, and compassion for others grew up more within him …. [35] After he pondered all this, in the last watch he reflected, “Alas for this whole world of living beings who are doomed to misery, all wan- dering astray! They do not know that this whole universe, destitute of any real refuge, is born and decays through that existence which is the site of the skandhas 23 and pain. It dies and passes into a new state and then is born anew. ”… [64] The all-knowing Bodhisattva, the illumi- nated one, pondered and meditated again and came to his conclusion. [65] “This is pain; this also is the origin of pain in the world of living beings; this also is the stopping of pain; this is that course which leads to its stopping. ”24 Having determined this, he knew everything as it really was. Sitting there on his seat of grass at the root of the tree, he pondered by his own efforts and attained perfect knowledge. Then he broke through the shell of ignorance, and gained all the various kinds of perfect intuition. He attained all that is included in perfect knowledge. He became the perfectly wise one, the Bhagavat, the Arhat, the king of the Law, the Tathagata [tah- THAH-gah-tuh], 25 the one who has attained the knowledge of all forms, the Lord of all knowledge … . [79] The gods rejoiced, and paid him worship and adoration with divine flowers. The whole world, when the great saint had become all-wise, was full of brightness. Then the holy one de- scended and stood on his throne under the tree. 26 There he passed seven days filled with the thought “I have here attained perfect wisdom. ” [80] When the Bodhisattva had attained perfect knowledge, all beings became full of great happi- ness. All the different universes were illumined by a great light. The happy earth shook in six differ- ent ways like an overjoyed woman. The bodhisatt- vas, each dwelling in his own special heavenly abode, assembled and praised him. The Death of Gotama Buddha In this excerpt from book six of the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, usually translated as Sutra of the Great Decease but more accurately rendered Sutra of the Great Completion of Nirvana, Bud- dha makes provision for life in the monastic community after his death. The unity and knowl- edge of the monastic community is emphasized —the Buddha leaves it in an ideal state. 27 23skandhas: The components that constitute the human per- son, physical and mental.24This is pain … its stopping: The Buddhist reader would easily recognize the Four Noble Truths in this sentence. 25Bhagavat: The “Blessed One ”;Arhat: the “Worthy One ”; Tathagata: “One who has come [or “gone ”] thus, ”a title of Buddha indicating his achievement of Nirvana.26the tree: The bo tree, so called because Gotama achieved enlightenment (Bodhi) there. Sutra of the Great Decease 6.1 –12, 33 –35, 45 –48. 27Adapted from T. W. Rhys Davids, trans., Buddhist Suttas , vol. 11 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1881), pp. 112 –130. 82 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re The Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda and said, “It may be, Ananda, that some of you may think, ‘The word of the Master is ended, we have a teacher no more! ’Do not think this way. When I am gone, the truths and the rules of the order that I have set forth and laid down for you all will be your teacher. “Ananda! When I am gone, do not address one another in the way in which the brothers have until now addressed each other, with the title of ‘Friend. ’A younger brother may be addressed by an elder with his name, or his family name, or the title ‘Friend. ’But an elder should be addressed by a younger brother as ‘Lord ’or as ‘Venerable Sir. ’When I am gone, Ananda, the order may, if it wishes, abolish all the lesser and minor rules for monks. ”28 [10] Then the Blessed One addressed the brothers and said, “Behold now, brothers, I exhort you: Decay is inherent in all component things! Work out your salvation with diligence! ” This was the last word of the Tathagata …. Then the Blessed One, passing out of the state in which both sensations and ideas have ceased to be, entered the state between conscious- ness and unconsciousness. Passing out of this state, he entered the state of mind to which noth- ing at all is especially present. Passing out of that state, he entered the state of mind to which the infinity of thought is the only thing present. Pass- ing out of that state, he entered the state of mind to which the infinity of space is alone present. Passing out of that state, he entered the fourth stage of deep meditation. Passing out of the fourth stage, he entered the third, and then the second and then the first. Passing out of the first stage of deep meditation, he entered the second. Passing out of the second stage, he entered the third. Passing out of the third stage, he entered the fourth stage of deep meditation. Then he passed out of the last stage of deep meditation, and immediately he died. When the Blessed One died, at the moment of his passing out of exis- tence, a mighty earthquake arose, terrible and awe-inspiring. The thunders of heaven burst forth …. [33] Then the Mallas of Kusinara 29 said to the venerable Ananda, “What should be done, Lord, with the remains of the Tathagata? ” “As men treat the remains of a king of kings, so should they treat the remains of a Tathagata. They wrap the body of a king of kings in a new cloth. When that is done, they wrap it in cotton wool. When that is done, they wrap it in a new cloth, and so on till they have wrapped the body in five hundred successive layers of both kinds. Then they place the body in a vessel of iron, and cover that up with another vessel of iron. They then build a funeral pyre with all kinds of perfumes on the wood, and burn the body of the king of kings. Then at the four crossroads they build a burial mound to the king of kings. This is the way in which they treat the remains of a king of kings, and so should they treat the remains of the Tathagata. At the four crossroads a burial mound should be built to the Tathagata. Whoever places garlands or perfumes or paint there, or makes sal- utation there, or becomes calm in heart there, shall have a profit and joy for a long time. ” Then the Mallas gave orders to their atten- dants, saying, “Gather all the carded cotton wool of the Mallas! ”[35] Then the Mallas wrapped the body of the Blessed One in a new cloth. When that was done, they wrapped it in cotton wool. When that was done, they wrapped the body of the Blessed One in five hundred layers. Then they placed the body in a vessel of iron, and covered that up with another vessel of iron. Then they built a funeral pyre of all kinds of perfumes, and they placed the body of the Blessed One on it …. [45] When the homage of the venerable Maha Kassapa and of those five hundred brothers was ended, the funeral pyre of the Blessed One caught fire by itself. As the body of the Blessed One burned itself away, neither soot nor ash was seen from the skin or from the flesh, the nerves or the fluid of the joints. Only the bones remained behind. 28Abolishing the lesser and minor rules for monks was not done because the monastic order could not agree on a distinction between necessary and unnecessary rules. 29Mallas of Kusinara: The Mallas were a powerful ruling clan in the area of Kusinara, northeast India, where the Buddhadied. HISTORY |The Death of Gotama Buddha 83CopEditorial re TEACHING The Four Noble Truths This excerpt from the Sutra on Turning the Wheel of the Law is the first sermon of the Buddha after his enlightenment, commonly known as the “Benares Sermon. ”It is an excellent short statement of the essentials of Buddhist teaching: the Middle Way, the Four Noble Truths, and the Eightfold Path. The “wheel of the law ”has become the main symbol of Buddhism, refer- ring to Buddha ’s teaching of the path to enlightenment. 30 Reverence to the Blessed One, the Holy One, the Fully Enlightened One! Thus I have heard. The Blessed One was once staying at Benares. The Blessed One addressed the five monks, “There are two extremes, O monks, which the man who has given up the world ought not to follow. The first is the habitual practice of those things whose attraction depends upon the passions. This is especially true of sensuality. It is a low and pagan way, unworthy, unprofitable, and fit only for the worldly-minded. Second is the habitual practice of asceticism, which is painful, unworthy, and unprofitable. “There is a middle path, O monks, avoiding these two extremes, discovered by the Tathagata. This path opens the eyes and gives understanding. It leads to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom, to full enlightenment, and to Nirvana! What is that middle path avoiding these two extremes? Truly, it is this Noble Eightfold Path, that is to say: Right views; right aspirations; right speech; right conduct; right livelihood; right effort; right mindfulness; and right contemplation …. [5] “Now this, O monks, is the noble truth concerning suffering. Birth is painful, decay is pain- ful, disease is painful, and death is painful. Union with something unpleasant is painful, and separa- tion from something pleasant is painful. Any crav- ing that is unsatisfied is painful. In brief, the five aggregates that spring from attachment, 31 the con- ditions of individuality and their cause, are painful. This is the noble truth concerning suffering. “Now this, O monks, is the noble truth con- cerning the origin of suffering. Truly, it is thirst or craving. It causes the renewal of existence, and is accompanied by sensual delight, seeking satisfac- tion now here, now there. It is the craving for the gratification of the passions, or the craving for a future life, or the craving for success in this present life. This is the noble truth concerning the origin of suffering. “Now this, O monks, is the noble truth con- cerning the destruction of suffering. Truly, it is the destruction of this very thirst. It is the laying aside of, the getting rid of, the being free from, the har- boring no longer of this thirst. This is the noble truth concerning the destruction of suffering. “Now this, O monks, is the noble truth con- cerning the way which leads to the destruction of sorrow. Truly, it is this Noble Eightfold Path. 32 … [21] “As long, O monks, as my knowledge and insight were not quite clear regarding each of these Four Noble Truths …, I was uncertain whether I had attained to the full insight of that wisdom that is unsurpassed in the heavens or on earth. But as soon as my knowledge and insight Sutra on Turning the Wheel of the Law 1–8. 30Adapted from Rhys Davids, Buddhist Suttas , pp. 146 –155. 31five aggregates … attachment: The five aggregates (also called “skandhas ”) are physical matter, sensation of an object, perception, mental habits, and consciousness. These lead to the conditions of individuality and their cause.32See the next reading for the Eightfold Path. 84 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re were quite clear regarding each of these Four Noble Truths, I became certain that I had attained to the full insight of that wisdom that is unsurpassed in the heavens or on earth. Now this knowledge and this insight have arisen within me. The emanci- pation of my heart is immovable. This is my last existence. There will be no rebirth for me! ”33 … [25] And when the royal chariot wheel of the truth had been set rolling by the Blessed One, the gods of the earth and the gods in heaven gave a shout. They said, “In Benares, at the hermitage of the Migadaya, the supreme wheel of the empire of truth has been set rolling by the Blessed One. That wheel can never be turned back by any shra- mana 34 or Brahmin, or by any god, or even by Brahma, not by anyone in the universe! ”In an instant, a second, a moment, this sound went up to the world of Brahma. This great ten- thousand-world system quaked and trembled and was shaken violently. An immeasurably bright light appeared in the universe, beyond even the power of the gods. The Noble Eightfold Path In the Sutra on Turning the Wheel of the Law (Dhammachakkappavattana Sutta )9 –20, the “Benares Sermon ”contains this explanation of the Noble Eightfold Path, a practical system that follows up on the more abstract Four Noble Truths. The Eightfold Path offers practical guidelines to mental and moral development with the goal of freeing individuals from attach- ments and delusions; it leads to understanding the truth about all things. By following the eight guidelines, the monk follows the path of the Buddha to release. The eight guidelines are often grouped in three categories: morality, wisdom, and meditation. Notice that the last two cate- gories are treated more fully than the first, indicating that these are the most difficult parts of the Eightfold Path. 35 The Blessed One said, “What, monks, is the Noble Eightfold Path? Right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. 36 “What is right view? It is knowledge of suffer- ing, of the origination of suffering, of the stopping of suffering, and of the way of practice leading to the stopping of suffering. 37 “What is right resolve? It is being resolved to practice renunciation, to be free from ill will, to be harmless. “What is right speech? It is refraining from lying, from divisive speech, from abusive speech, and from idle talk. “What is right action? It is not taking life, not stealing, and not having sexual intercourse. “What is right livelihood? This is when a dis- ciple of the noble ones, having abandoned a dis- honest livelihood, sustains his life with right livelihood. “What is right effort? This is when a monk desires, endeavors, persists, upholds, and exerts 33no rebirth for me: Gotama ’s knowledge that he will no longer be reborn is a sign that his enlightenment is full and complete. 34shramana: A holy man of great power and accomplishment; Gotama and Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, were known as shramanas. Sutra on Turning the Wheel of the Law 9–20. 35Adapted from Rhys Davids, Buddhist Suttas , pp. 149 –152. 36concentration: Can also be translated throughout this section as“meditation. ” 37It is knowledge … stopping of suffering: This sentence is a restatement of the Four Noble Truths. TEACHING |The Noble Eightfold Path 85CopEditorial re his intent so that evil, unhelpful qualities do not arise [in him]. He abandons unhelpful qualities that have arisen. [He] brings about helpful quali- ties that have not yet arisen. [He brings about] helpful qualities that have arisen. “What is right mindfulness? This is when a monk remains focused on the body in and of itself —he is fervent, aware, and mindful —putting away the greed and distress of the world. He remains focused on feelings in and of themselves — he is fervent, aware, and mindful —putting away the greed and distress of the world. He remains focused on the mind in and of itself — he is fervent, aware, and mindful —putting away the greed and distress of the world. He remains focused on men- tal qualities in and of themselves —he is fervent, aware, and mindful —putting away the greed and distress of the world. “What is right concentration? This is when a monk —quite withdrawn from sensuality and withdrawn from unskillful (mental) qualities — enters and remains in the first stage of concentra- tion: rapture and pleasure born from withdrawal, accompanied by directed thought and evaluation. With the stilling of his directed thought and eval- uation, he enters and remains in the second stage of concentration: rapture and pleasure born of concentration, unification of awareness free from directed thought and evaluation. This brings internal assurance. With the fading of rapture, he remains calm, mindful and alert, and physically sensitive of pleasure. He enters and remains in the third stage of concentration: calm and mind- ful, he has a pleasurable abiding. With the aban- doning of pleasure and pain, he enters and remains in the fourth stage of concentration: pure calmness and mindfulness, having neither pleasure nor pain. ” This is what the Blessed One said. The monks were delighted at his words. The Skandhas and the Chain of Causation This passage from Acts of the Buddha (Buddhacarita ) 16.1, 28 –48 outlines these skandhas and then traces the chain of causation that leads to suffering. The skandhas are the elements that together make up the human personality. They relate to the no-soul doctrine of Theravada Buddhism; when the skandhas act together, they give the illusion of a permanent soul. In Mahayana and Tibetan Buddhism, where the existence of the soul is affirmed, the skandhas are understood as illusions that must be denied by deep meditation. 38 The Omniscient Lion of the Sakyas [that is, the Buddha] then caused all the assembly to turn the wheel of the Law. 39 … [28] “The body is com- posed of the five skandhas, and produced from the five elements. It is empty and without soul, and arises from the action of the chain of causation. This chain of causation is the cause of coming into existence, and the cessation of this chain is the cause of the state of cessation … . [35] “The idea of ignorance is what gives the root to the huge poison-tree of mundane exis- tence with its trunk of pain. This causes the impressions, which produce [the acts of] the body, voice, and mind. Consciousness arises from these impressions, which produces the five senses and the mind … . “The association of the six organs with their objects is called ‘contact. ’The consciousness of Acts of the Buddha 16.1, 28 –48. 38Adapted from Cowell, Müller, and Takakusu, Buddhist Mahayana Texts , pp. 174 –180. 39turn the wheel of the Law: Give and spread the true teaching. 86 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re these different contacts is called ‘sensation. ’[40] Craving is produced by this, which is the desire of being troubled by worldly objects. Attachment to continued existence, arising from this, sets itself in action toward pleasure and the rest. From attach- ment springs continued existence. From existence arises birth through a returning to various wombs. On birth are dependent the successive events of old age, death, sorrow, and the like. By putting a stop to ignorance and what follows from it, all these cease successively. This is the chain of causa- tion, which has many turns, whose sphere of action is created by ignorance. This is to be medi- tated upon by you who enjoy dwelling tranquilly in lonely woods. He who knows it thoroughly reaches at last to absolute thinness. He becomes blissfully extinct. 40 “When you have learned this, to be freed from the bond of existence you must cut down ignorance with all your efforts, for it is the root of pain. [45] Then you will be set free from the bonds of the prison-house of existence, and you will possess as Arhats natures perfectly pure. You shall attain Nirvana. ” Having heard this lesson preached by the chief of saints, all the mendicants 41 understood the course and the cessation of embodied exis- tence. As these five ascetics listened to his words, their intellectual eye was purified for the attain- ment of perfect wisdom. The Essence of Mahayana Buddhism This Mahayana scripture, the full title of which is The Heart of Transcendent Wisdom, is one of the best known and loved in Buddhism both for its brevity and for its depth of meaning. Some even claim that it is the most popular of all Buddhist scriptures. It personifies wisdom as a woman, especially at its beginning and end. In a religion often given to long writings, this sutra is remarkable for its brevity. 42 Adoration to the Omniscient One! The venerable bodhisattva Avalokitesvara 43 was studying the deep Transcendent Wisdom. He reached this conclusion: “The five Skandhas must be considered empty by their nature. ” Then he said, “All form is emptiness, and emptiness is form. Emptiness is not different from form, and form is not different from empti- ness. What is form is emptiness, what is emptiness is form. The same applies to (the other skandhas): feeling, perception, impulse, and consciousness. “Here, Sariputra, all things have the marks of emptiness. They have no beginning and no end; they are faultless and not faultless, they are not imperfect and not perfect. Therefore, Sariputra, emptiness is not form, nor feeling, nor perception, nor impulse, nor consciousness. Emptiness has no eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, or mind. It has no 40extinct: Another translation of “nirvana. ” 41mendicants: Ascetics who receive food and alms from others in order to live. Buddhist monks and monasteries are typically supported by alms. The Heart Sutra. 42Adapted from Cowell, Müller, and Takakusu, Buddhist Mahayana Texts , pp. 153 –154. 43bodhisattva Avalokitesvara: A bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas, and one of the most widely vener-ated in Mahayana Buddhism. Among Chinese Buddhists, Ava- lokitesvara is often depicted in a female form as the goddess Guan Yin. TEACHING |The Essence of Mahayana Buddhism 87CopEditorial re form, sound, smell, taste, touch, objects. It has no mind. “In emptiness there is no knowledge and no ignorance; no destruction of knowledge and no destruction of ignorance; there is no decay and death and no destruction of decay and death. There is no pain, no origin of pain, no stoppage of pain, and no path to it. 44 There is no knowl- edge, and no obtaining of Nirvana. “A man who has approached the Transcen- dent Wisdom of the Bodhisattva dwells enveloped in consciousness. But when this consciousness has been annihilated, he becomes free of all fear, beyond the reach of change, enjoying final Nirvana. “All Buddhas of the past, present, and future, after approaching the Heart Sutra, have awoken to the highest perfect knowledge. “Therefore one ought to know the great verse of the Transcendent Wisdom, the verse of the great wisdom, the unsurpassed verse, the peerless verse, which appeases all pain —it is truth, because it is not false — the verse proclaimed by Transcen- dent Wisdom: ‘O wisdom, you who are gone, gone, gone to the other shore, landed at the other shore, Hail! ’” Thus ends the Heart of Transcendent Wisdom Sutra . A Mahayana View of the Buddha In Mahayana, the Buddha is a gracious savior who enables both monks and laity to reach Nirvana. This first selection from the Lotus Sutra of the True Law argues that the Mahayana (“Large Vehicle ”) is in fact the only vehicle in Buddhism. (It is not uncommon for the other two vehicles of Buddhism to claim the same for themselves.) In the second, the Lotus Sutra itself is the gift of the Buddha that enables those who read and venerate it to come to Nirvana. This veneration today is especially prominent in Nichiren Buddhism. 45 “By means of only one vehicle, namely, the Buddha-vehicle, I [the Buddha] teach creatures the law. There is no second vehicle, nor a third. This is the nature of the law, Sariputra, universally in the world, in all directions. For all the Tathaga- tas, who in times past existed in countless, innu- merable spheres in all directions for the welfare of many and the happiness of many, out of pity to the world, for the benefit, welfare, and happiness of the great body of creatures, preached the law to gods and men with able means. These means include several directions and indications, various arguments, reasons, illustrations, fundamental ideas, and interpretations. “All those Buddhas and Lords have preached the law to creatures by means of only one vehicle, the Buddha-vehicle, which finally leads to omni- science. It is identical with showing all creatures the sight of Tathagata-knowledge; with opening the eyes of creatures for the sight of Tathagata- knowledge; with the awakening (or admonishing) by the display (or sight) of Tathagata-knowledge; with leading the teaching of Tathagata-knowledge on the right path. Such is the law they have preached to creatures. Those creatures who have heard the law from the past Tathagatas have all reached supreme, perfect enlightenment. The Tathagatas who shall exist in the future, Sariputra, 44no pain, origin of pain, stoppage of pain, and the path to it: a reference to the Four Noble Truths. Lotus Sutra of the True Teaching 2.36; 10.1. 45All readings from the Lotus Sutra are adapted from H. Kern, trans., The Saddharma-Pundarika (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1884). 88 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re in countless, innumerable spheres in all directions for the welfare of many, the happiness of many, out of pity to the world, for the benefit, welfare and happiness of the great body of creatures, shall preach the law to gods and men …. Such is the law they shall preach to creatures. Those creatures, Sariputra, who shall hear the law from the future Tathagatas shall all reach supreme, perfect enlightenment …. “I myself also, Sariputra, am at the present period a Tathagata, for the welfare of many. I myself, also, Sariputra, am preaching the law [dharma] to creatures. Such is the law I preach to creatures. Those creatures, Sariputra, who now are hearing the law from me shall all reach supreme, perfect enlightenment. In this sense, Sariputra, it must be understood that nowhere in the world a second vehicle is taught, far less a third. ”… The Lord continued: “All those Bodhisattvas and Mahasattvas who in this assembly have heard well only a single stanza, a single verse [or word], or who even by a single rising thought have joy- fully accepted this Book, to all of them. I predict that they will achieve supreme and perfect enlight- enment. Whoever after the complete extinction of the Tathagata shall hear this Dharma and after hearing, if only a single stanza, joyfully accept it, even with a single rising thought, to those also, Bhaishajyaraga, be they young men or young women of good family, 46 predict their destiny to supreme and perfect enlightenment … . [10.1] “All those who will take, read, make known, recite, copy, and always keep in memory and from time to time think about only a single stanza of this teaching, they shall be reborn. They shall be reborn who by this book shall feel vener- ation for the Tathagatas, treat them with the respect due to Masters, honor, revere, and wor- ship them. They shall be reborn who shall worship this book with flowers, incense, perfumed garlands, ointment, powder, clothes, umbrellas, flags, ban- ners, music, etc., and with acts of reverence such as bowing and joining hands. In short, any young men or young women of good family who shall keep or joyfully accept only a single stanza of this teaching, to all of them I predict their destiny of supreme and perfect enlightenment. ” The Blessings of the Pure Land The “Pure Land ”tradition of Buddhism teaches that a Buddha named Amida ( “Unlimited Light ”) created and now rules over a “Buddha-land ”called the Pure Land. The Pure Land is a paradise so wonderful that those who come into it after death will quickly proceed toward full awakening. This passage from the Array of the Joyous Land Sutra calls it the “Joyous Land. ”The Pure Land sect of Mahayana Buddhism believes in salvation by faith in Amida; it is a popular form of Buddhism in China and Japan. Most Pure Land groups teach that good Buddhist character and constant repetition of the saying “Praise to Amida Buddha ”are neces- sary to enter the Pure Land after death. Shinran and other Japanese groups teach that all that is necessary is one moment of pure belief and one pure recitation of the saying. 47 46Young men or women of good family: Layfolk can also reach Nirvana, a characteristic Mahayana teaching. Array of the Joyous Land Sutra. 47Adapted from Nishu Utsuki, Kumamjiva (Kyoto, Japan: Publication Bureau of Buddhist Books, 1924), pp. 2 –5. TEACHING |TheBlessingsofthePureLand 89CopEditorial re Thus I have heard: Once the Buddha was dwelling in a garden of Jetavana in the area of Shravasti. He was with a large company of monks, twelve hun- dred and fifty members. They were all great arhats, well known among the people. He was also with … all great bodhisattvas. He was also with a large company of innumerable deities. Then the Buddha addressed Sariputra and said, “Beyond a hundred thousand lands west- ward from here, there is a world named Joyous Land. In that world there is a Buddha, Amida by name, now dwelling and preaching the law. Sari- putra, why is that country named the Joyous Land? The living beings in that country have no pains, but only pleasures. Therefore, it is called the Joyous Land. “Again, Sariputra, in the Joyous Land there are seven rows of balustrades, seven rows of fine nets, and seven rows of arrayed trees; they are all of four gems and surround and enclose the land. For this reason the land is called the Joyous Land. “Again, Sariputra, in the Joyous Land there are lakes of the seven gems, full of water with the eight meritorious qualities. The shores of the lakes are strewn with golden sand, and the stairs of the four sides are made of gold, silver, beryl, and crystal. On land there are stores and galleries adorned with gold, silver, beryl, crystal, white coral, red pearl and diamond. The lotus-flowers in the lakes, large as chariot wheels, are blue- colored with blue splendor, yellow-colored with yellow splendor, red-colored with red splendor, white-colored with white splendor, and they are all most exquisite and purely fragrant. [5] “Again, Sariputra, in that Buddha-land there are heavenly musical instruments always played on. Gold is spread on the ground, and six times every day and night it showers blossoms of the Mandarava flower. 48 Usually at dawn all of those who live in that land fill their plates with those wonderful blossoms, and go to make offering to a hundred thousand Buddhas of other regions. At the time of the meal they come back to their own country, eat their meal, and take a walk. Sariputra, the Joyous Land is arrayed with these good qualities and adornments. “And again, Sariputra, in that country there are always various wonderful birds of different colors: swan, peacock, parrot … and the bird with two heads. Six times every day and night all those birds sing in melodious tune, and that tune proclaims the Five Virtues, the Five Powers … the Noble Eightfold Path, and other laws of the kind. The living beings in that land, having heard that singing, all invoke the Buddha, invoke the Dharma, and invoke the Sangha. 49 … “Sariputra, why is that Buddha called Amida? Sariputra, the light of that Buddha is boundless; he shines without impediments all over the coun- tries of the ten quarters. Therefore he is called Amida. Again, the life of that Buddha and of his people is endless and boundless in Asamkhya- kalpas, so he is named Amida. Sariputra, since Buddha Amida attained Buddhahood, ten kal- pas 50 have now passed … . “Sariputra, if there be a good man or a good woman, who, on hearing of Buddha Amida, keeps his name in mind with thoughts undisturbed for one day, two days, three days, four days, five days, six days, or seven days, that person, when about to die, will see Amida Buddha accompanied by his holy host appear before him. Immediately after his death, he with his mind undisturbed can be born into the Joyous Land of Buddha Amida. As I wit- ness this benefit, I say these words; every being who listens to this preaching ought to offer up prayer with the desire to be born into that country. [10] “Sariputra, as I now glorify the incon- ceivable excellences of Amida Buddha, there are also Buddhas [in the Northern, Western, Eastern, and Southern areas of the earth, and lower and upper worlds of the cosmos] as many as the sands of the Ganges River, each of whom, in his own country stretching out his long broad tongue 48Mandarava flower: According to Buddhist legend, the man- darava flower exists only in heaven and blossoms only when portentous things are happening in the world. Thus, to haveconstant showers of these blossoms is extraordinary indeed. 49Buddha … Dharma … Sangha: The “Three Refuges ”of Buddhism. Invoking them involves saying “I take refuge in the Buddha, the Dharma [teaching, religion], and the Sangha[monastic community]. ” 50kalpas: A kalpa is a period of 430 million years. It is the tra- ditional period of time that one universe exists before it endsand another is re-created. 90 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re that covers three thousand greater worlds com- pletely, proclaims these truthful words: ‘All you sentient beings should believe in this sutra, which is approved and protected by all the Buddhas, and which glorifies the inconceivable excellences of Buddha Amida. ’… “Sariputra, why is it called the sutra approved and protected by all the Buddhas? Sariputra, if there be a good man or a good woman who lis- tens to those Buddhas ”invocation of the name of Buddha Amida and the name of this sutra, that good man or woman will be protected by all the Buddhas and never fail to attain supreme perfect enlightenment. For this reason, Sariputra, all of you should believe in my words and in what all the Buddhas proclaim. Sariputra, if there are men who have already made, are now making, or shall make prayer with the desire to be born in the land of Buddha Amida, they never fail to attain supreme perfect enlightenment; they have been born, are now being born, or shall be born in that country. Therefore, Sariputra, a good man or good woman who has the faith ought to offer up prayers to be born in that land. ” ETHICS Conduct of the Monk The Path of Teaching (Dhammapada) is one of the fifteen books in the Khuddaka-nikaya (“Little Readings ”) of the Sutta Pitaka. A first-century B.C.E. collection of wise sayings, it sum- marizes Buddhist moral wisdom. Monks and nuns often memorize it at the beginning of their training, and it is studied as well by the laity. 51 [25] Restraint in the eye is good, restraint in the ear is good, restraint in the nose is good, and restraint in the tongue is good. In the body res- traint is good, in speech restraint is good, and in thought restraint is good. Restraint is good in all things. A monk restrained in all things is freed from all pain. People call a monk one who controls his hand, who controls his feet, who controls his speech, who is well controlled, who delights inwardly, who is collected, and who is solitary and content. The monk who controls his mouth, who speaks wisely and calmly, who teaches the meaning of the law, 52 his word is sweet. He who dwells in the law, delights in the law, meditates on the law, and follows the law, that monk will never fall away from the true law …. [365] Let him not despise what he has received, nor ever envy others; a mendicant who envies others does not obtain peace of mind. Even the gods will praise a monk who, though he receives little, does not despise what he has received, if his life is pure and if he is not lazy. He who never identifies himself with his name and physical form, and does not grieve over what he has left behind, he indeed is called a monk. The monk who acts with kindness, who is calm in the doctrine of Buddha, will reach the quiet place [Nirvana], cessation of natural desires, and happiness. O monk, empty this boat! If emp- tied, it will go quickly. When you have cut off passion and hatred, you will go to Nirvana. Path of Teaching 25, 360 –382. 51Adapted from Max Müller, The Dhammapada (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1881), pp. 85 –88. 52law: Throughout this passage means “dhamma ”(Sanskrit, dharma), religious teaching. ETHICS |Conduct of the Monk 91CopEditorial re [370] Cut off the five senses, leave the five, rise above the five. A monk who has escaped from these five fetters is called “saved from the flood. ”Meditate, O monk, and do be not careless! Do not direct your thought to what gives pleasure. Then you will not have to swallow the hot iron ball (in hell) and cry out as you burn, “This is pain. ” Without knowledge there is no meditation, with- out meditation there is no knowledge. He who has knowledge and meditation is near to Nirvana. A monk who has entered his empty house, whose mind is tranquil, feels a super-human delight when he sees the law clearly. When he has considered the origin and destruction of the elements (skandhas) of the body, he finds happi- ness and joy that belong to those who know the immortal (Nirvana). [375] This is the beginning for a wise monk: watchfulness over the senses, contentedness, res- traint under the law, and keeping noble friends whose life is pure and who are not lazy. Let him live in charity; let him be perfect in his duties. Then in the fullness of delight he will put an end to his suffering. As a plant sheds its withered flowers, men should shed passion and hatred, O monks! The monk whose body and tongue and mind are quieted, who is collected, and has rejected the baits of the world, he is called quiet. Rouse yourself by yourself, examine yourself by yourself, thus self-protected and attentive you will live happily, O monk! [380] The self is the lord of self, the self is the refuge of self. Therefore curb yourself as the merchant curbs a good horse. The monk full of delight, who is calm in the teaching of the Buddha, will reach the quiet place (Nirvana), cessation of natural desires, and happi- ness. Even a young monk who applies himself to the doctrine of Buddha will brighten up this world like the moon on a cloudless night. Admonition to Laity At the end of a discussion of monastic morality, the Buddha lays down instructions for house- holders (laity). This passage from the Dammikasutta 18–27 forms a short summary of Buddhist morality. (Dammika was a layman who received the Buddha ’s teaching.) Notice that the rules given are modeled on those given to monks. I will also tell you about the householder ’s work. Let him not kill, or cause any living being to be killed, or let him approve of others killing. Let him refrain from hurting all creatures, both those that are strong and those that tremble. Then let [him] abstain from taking anything in any place that has not been given to him, know- ing it to belong to another. Let him not cause anyone to take, nor approve of those that take. Let him avoid all theft. Let the wise man avoid an unchaste life as a burning heap of coals. If he is not able to live a life of faithfulness [to his wife], then let him not trans- gress with another man ’s wife. Let no one speak falsely to another in the hall of justice or in the hall of the assembly. Let him not cause anyone to speak falsely, nor approve of those that speak falsely. Let him avoid all sort of untruth. Let the householder who approves of the dharma not give himself to intoxicating drinks. Let him not cause others to drink, nor approve of those who drink, knowing it to end in madness. For through intoxication stupid Sutra for Dammika 18–27. 92 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re people commit sins and make other people intoxicated. Let him avoid this seat of sin, this madness, this folly, which is delightful to the stupid. 53 [25] Let him not kill any living being, let him not take what has not been given [to him], let him not speak falsely, and let him not drink intoxicat- ing drinks, let him refrain from unchaste sexual intercourse, and let him not eat untimely food at night. Let him not wear wreaths of flowers nor use perfumes, and let him lie on a bed spread on the earth. They call this the eightfold abstinence, pro- claimed by Buddha, who has overcome pain. Parable of the Burning House How far can Buddhist teachings and teaching methods be adapted to different individuals and cultures and still remain valid? This famous story from chapter three of the Lotus Sutra answers this pressing question. It concludes that it is permissible to use “skillful means ”in getting the attention and agreement of people who are trapped in the concerns of the world. The justifi- cation for this is found in the first paragraph —its purpose is to turn people toward Buddhist enlightenment. The last part of this reading is an explanation of the parable, to make sure the point of the allegory is clear. Although some Buddhists believe that these (like all scriptures) are the words of the historical Buddha, most historians conclude that this sutra was written in the first or second century C.E. [The Buddha said:] Have I not told you before, Sariputra, that the Tathagata preaches the law by skillful means, that is, by varying fundamental ideas and interpretations according to the differ- ent dispositions and inclinations of people? All this has no other purpose but supreme and perfect enlightenment …. But to make this clear, I will tell you a parable …. There once was a certain man, very old and very rich. He had a big house, high, spacious, built a long time ago …. But this house had only one door; its terraces were tottering, the bases of its pillars rotten, the coverings and plaster of the walls loose. One day, all of a sudden the whole house was engulfed by a mass of fire. Let us sup- pose that the man had many little boys … and that he himself had come out of the house. That man, on seeing the house on fire, became frightened and anxious, and thought to himself: “I was able to come out from the burn- ing house through the door, quickly and safely, without being touched or scorched by the fire. But my children, those young boys, are staying in the burning house, playing, amusing, and diverting themselves with all sorts of sports. They do not perceive or understand or even care that the house is on fire, and they are not afraid. Though scorched by that great mass of fire, they do not mind the pain, nor do they con- ceive the idea of escaping. I am strong, so I must gather all my little boys and take them out of the house. ” But then a second reflection came to him: “This house has only one opening, and the door is shut. Those boys, fickle, unsteady, and childlike as they are, will come to disaster in this mass of fire [before I can carry them out]. Therefore I will warn them. ” 53In a religion where salvation comes by mental enlighten-ment, clouding the mind with intoxicating drink or drugs is seen as particularly evil. Lotus Sutra 3. ETHICS |Parable of the Burning House 93CopEditorial re So he calls to the boys: “Come out, children; the house is burning! ”But the ignorant boys do not heed his words; they are not afraid or alarmed, and they feel no misgiving. Then the man is going to think this: “I must by some skillful means get the boys out of the house. ” He knows the disposition of the boys, and has a clear perception of their inclinations. He says to them: “My children, I have put your best toys, which are so pretty, precious, and admi- rable, outside the house for you to play with. Come, run out, leave the house; I shall give each of you the toy that you want. Come now; come out for these toys! ”The boys, on hearing this, quickly rush out from the burning house. The man, seeing that his children have safely and happily escaped, and knowing that they are free from danger, goes and sits down in the open air on the square of the village. The boys go up to the place where their father is sitting, and say: “Father, give us our toys to play with, our ox-carts, goat-carts, and deer-carts. ” Then the man gives to his sons ox-carts only, made of seven precious substances, provided with benches, hung with a multitude of small bells, lofty, adorned with rare and wonderful jewels, embel- lished with jewel wreaths, decorated with garlands of flowers, carpeted with cotton mattresses and wool coverlets, covered with white cloth and silk, having on both sides rosy cushions, yoked with white, very fair and fleet oxen, led by a mul- titude of men. That man does so, because being rich he rightly thinks: “Why should I give these boys inferior carts, all these boys being my own children, dear and precious? ”… Meanwhile the boys are mounting the vehicles with feelings of astonishment and wonder. Now, Sariputra, what is your opinion? Is that man guilty of a falsehood by first holding out to his children the prospect of all their toy vehicles, and afterwards giving to each only one, the most magnificent vehicle? Sariputra answered: “By no means, Lord. That is not sufficient, O Lord, to qualify the man as a speaker of falsehood, since it only was a skilful device to persuade his children to go out of the burning house and save their lives. ” When the venerable Sariputra said this, the Lord said to him: “Very well, very well, Sariputra, quite so. So, too, Sariputra, the Tathagata is free from all dangers, wholly exempt from all misfor- tune, despondency, calamity, pain, grief, and the thick enveloping dark mists of ignorance. He, the Tathagata, endowed with Buddha-knowledge … is most merciful, long-suffering, benevolent, and compassionate. He appears in this triple world, which is like a big but decaying house, burning by a mass of misery, in order to deliver from affec- tion, hatred, and delusion the beings subject to birth, old age, disease, death. He does this in order to rouse them to supreme and perfect enlightenment … . Now, Sariputra, even as that man with pow- erful arms, without using the strength of his arms, attracts his children out of the burning house by an able device, and afterwards gives them magnif- icent, great vehicles, so, Sariputra, the Tathagata, possessed of knowledge and freedom from all hes- itation attracts the creatures out of the triple world which is like a burning house with decayed roof and shelter, shows his knowledge of able devices. He attracts the creatures and speaks to them thus: Do not delight in this triple world, which is like a burning house. For in delighting in this triple world you are burned with the thirst inseparable from the pleasures of the five senses. Fly from this triple world; get yourselves to [the enlightenment of Buddhism]. To attract them say: These vehicles are grand, praised by those who are noble, and provided with most pleasant things; with such you are to sport, play, and divert yourselves in a noble manner. You will feel the great delight of the faculties, powers, constituents of Bodhi, medi- tations, the (eight) degrees of emancipation, self-concentration, and the results of self-concen- tration, and you will become truly happy and cheerful. 94 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re ORGANIZATION Founding of the Monastic Order After his enlightenment, the Buddha converted the five Hindu ascetics who had left him when he gave up their practice of extreme asceticism, finding a middle path between asceticism and ordinary life that the ascetics condemn as “living in abundance. ”This selection from book one of the Large Group of sutras ( Mahavagga ) offers a succinct view of Buddhist teaching. Just as important, it offers a good view of the founding of the Buddhist order of monks and, therefore, of the Buddhist tradition itself. 54 The Blessed One, wandering from place to place, came to Benares, to the deer park Isipatana, where the five ascetics were. They saw the Blessed One coming from a distance. When they saw him, they agreed with each other, “Friends, there comes Gotama. He lives in abundance, has given up his exertions, and has turned to an abundant life. Let us not salute him, nor rise from our seats when he approaches, nor take his bowl and his robe from his hands. But let us put there a seat; if he likes, he can sit down. ” When they spoke to him [as “friend Gotama ”], the Blessed One said to them, “Do not address the Tathagata by his name or by calling him ‘Friend. ’ The Tathagata is the holy, absolute Sambuddha. 55 Give ear, O monks! I have won immortality. I will teach you; I will preach the doctrine to you. If you walk in the way I show you, you will before long penetratetothetruth.Youwillknowitandseeit face to face. You will live with the highest goal of the holy life, for which noble youths give up the world completely and go forth into the houseless state. ” When he had spoken, the five ascetics said to the Blessed One, “Friend Gotama, by those observances, practices, and austerities you have not been able to obtain power surpassing that of other men. You have not obtained the superiority of full and holy knowledge and insight. Now that you are living in abundance, have given up your exertions, and have turned to an abundant life, how will you be able to obtain power surpassing that of men? How will you obtain the superiority of full and holy knowledge and insight? ”… [15] The five ascetics spoke to the Blessed One a second time as before. The Blessed One replied to them a second time as before. Then they spoke to the Blessed One a third time as before. When they had spoken thus, the Blessed One said to them, “Do you admit, monks, that I have never spoken to you in this way before this day? ” They said, “You have never spoken so, Lord. ” “The Tathagata, O monks, is the holy, abso- lute Sambuddha. Listen to me, monks. ” The Blessed One was finally able to convince the five ascetics. They listened willingly to the Blessed One. They gave ear, and fixed their mind on the knowledge which Buddha imparted to them. [There follows here a statement of the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path.] “O monks, as long as I did not possess with perfect purity this true knowledge and insight into these four Noble Truths. I knew that I had not yet obtained the highest, absolute Sambodhi in the world of men and gods, among all beings, gods and men. But when I possessed with perfect purity this true knowledge and insight into these four Large Group 1.6.10, 11 –16, 27 –30, 32, 34, 37. 54Adapted from T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann Oldenberg,trans., Vinaya Texts , part 1 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1881), pp. 91 –102. 55Sambuddha: One who has reached the higher stages of arhatship. ORGANIZATION |Founding of the Monastic Order 95CopEditorial re Noble Truths, then I knew that I had obtained the highest, universal Sambodhi in the world of men and gods. This knowledge and insight arose in my mind; this emancipation of my mind cannot be lost. This is my last birth; I shall not be born again! ” Thus the Blessed One spoke. The five were delighted, and they rejoiced at the words of the Blessed One. When this exposition was given, the venerable Kondanna obtained this pure and spotless truth: “Whatever is subject to origina- tion is also subject to cessation. ”[32] The vener- able Kondanna overcame uncertainty, dispelled all doubts, and gained full knowledge. He was dependent on nobody else for knowledge of the doctrine of the teacher. He said to the Blessed One, “Lord, let me receive the pabbajja and upa- sampada ordinations 56 from the Blessed One. ” “Come, ”said the Blessed One, “because the doctrine is well taught. Lead a holy life for the complete extinction of your suffering. ”Then this venerable person received the ordinations …. Then [the other monks] spoke to the Blessed One: “Lord, let us receive the pabbajja and upa- sampada ordinations from the Blessed One. ” “Come, ”said the Blessed One, “for the doc- trine is well taught. Lead a holy life for the sake of the complete extinction of suffering. ”Thus these venerable persons received the two ordinations. [47] Thus the Blessed One spoke. The five men were delighted, and rejoiced at the words of the Blessed One. When this exposition had been given, the minds of these five became free from attachment to the world, and were released from the Asavas. 57 Then there were six arhats in the world. imageBROKER/Alamy Life in a Buddhist Monastery Young monks shave their heads at a stream in a monastery in Myanmar. 56pabbajja and upasampada ordinations: As a novice (proba- tionary) and full-fledged monk, respectively. It is a mark of their advanced spiritual state that they can receive these twoordinations at the same time. 57Asavas: Mental defilement; the four Asavas are sensuality, lust for life, false views, and ignorance. 96 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re Founding of the Order of Nuns This selection from the Small Group of sutras ( Cullavagga ) 10.1 –6 narrates the story about how women were admitted into the monastic order as nuns, here referred to as “the homeless state. ”The Buddha was at first very reluctant to admit them, but he finally relented, giving special rules for an order of nuns. Nuns have historically played a much smaller role in Bud- dhism than the order of monks. Nuns and other Buddhist women struggling for a greater degree of liberation still must contend with patriarchal interpretation of this passage. 58 At that time the Blessed Buddha was staying among the Sakyas in Kapilavatthu. And Maha- pajapati the Gotami 59 went to the place where the Blessed One was. When she arrived there, she bowed down before the Blessed One, and remained standing to one side. She said to the Blessed One, “It would be well, Lord, if women should be allowed to renounce their homes and enter the homeless state under the doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata. ” The Buddha replied, “Enough, Gotami! Let it not please you that women should be allowed to do so. ”A second and a third time Maha-pajapati made the same request in the same words, and received the same reply. Then Maha-pajapati was sad and sorrowful that the Blessed One would not allow women to enter the homeless state, and she bowed down before the Blessed One. She departed weeping and in tears. She cut off her hair and put on orange-colored robes. 60 Sad and sorrowful, weep- ing and in tears, she took her stand outside under the entrance porch. The venerable Ananda saw her standing there, and said to her, “Why do you stand there outside the porch weeping and in tears? ” “Because, Ananda, the Blessed One does not allow women to renounce their homes and enter the homeless state under the doctrine and disci- pline proclaimed by the Tathagata. ” Then the venerable Ananda went up to the place where the Blessed One was. Bowing down before the Blessed One, he took his seat on one side. And, so sitting, the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One: “Lord, Maha-pajapati is standing outside under the entrance porch. She is sad and sorrowful, weeping and in tears, because the Blessed One does not allow women to renounce their homes and enter the homeless state under the doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Blessed One. It would be well, Lord, if women be permitted to do as she desires. ” The Buddha replied, “Enough, Ananda! Let it not please you that women should be allowed to do so. ”A second and a third time Ananda made the same request, in the same words, and received the same reply. Then the venerable Ananda thought, “I will now ask the Blessed One in another way. ”Ananda said, “Lord, can women —when they have gone forth from the household life and entered the homeless state, under the doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Blessed One — can they gain the fruit of conversion, or of the second Path, or of the third Path, or of Arhatship? ” “They are capable (of all these), Ananda. ” “Lord, Maha-pajapati has proved herself of great service to the Blessed One, when as aunt and nurse she nourished him and gave him milk, and on the death of his mother she nursed the Blessed One at her own breast. It would be well, Lord, that women should have permission to go Small Group 10.1 –6. 58Adapted from Rhys Davids and Oldenberg, Vinaya Texts , part 3, pp. 320 –326. 59the Gotami: A relative of Gotama, and his nurse when he was an infant.60She cut off her hair and put on orange-colored robes: She took the appearance of a monk. ORGANIZATION |Founding of the Order of Nuns 97CopEditorial re forth from the household life and enter the home- less state, under the doctrine and discipline pro- claimed by the Tathagata. ” The Buddha said, “Ananda, if Maha-pajapati takes upon herself these Eight Chief Rules, let that be reckoned as her initiation. 1. Even if a woman has been a nun for a hun- dred years, she shall make salutation to a monk, shall rise in his presence, shall bow to him, and shall perform all proper duties to him, even if he is only just initiated. 2. A nun is not to spend the rainy season 61 in a district in which there is no monk. 3. Every two weeks a nun is to await from the monks two things: the request about the date of the Uposatha 62 ceremony and the time when the monk will come to give the (speech of) exhortation. 4. After keeping the rainy season, the nun is to inquire whether any fault can be laid to her charge before both orders — of monks and of nuns — with respect to three matters: what has been seen, what has been heard, and what has been suspected. 5. A nun who has been guilty of a serious offense is to undergo the manatta discipline 63 toward both orders. 6. When a nun, as novice, has been trained for two years, she is to ask permission for full ordina- tion from both orders. 7. A nun is never to revile or mistreat a monk. 8. From this time on, nuns are forbidden to admonish monks, but the official admonition of nuns by monks is not forbidden. ”… Then the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One, “Lord, Maha-pajapati has taken upon herself the Eight Chief Rules; the aunt of the Blessed One has received the upasampada initiation. ” Then the Buddha said, “Ananda, if women had not received permission to go out from the household life and enter the homeless state, then the pure religion would have lasted long. The good law would have stood fast for a thousand years. But since women have now received that permission, the pure religion will not now last so long, and the good law will now stand fast for only five hundred years. Houses in which there are many women but only a few men are easily vio- lated by robbers. In the same way, Ananda, under whatever doctrine and discipline women are allowed to go out from the household life into the homeless state, that religion will not last long. So, Ananda, in anticipation [of this] I have laid down these eight chief rules for the nuns, never to be transgressed for their whole life. ” The Rules of Defeat for Monks and Nuns In this scripture from the Vinaya Pitaka, the Parajika Dhamma 1–4, the “rules of defeat ”for monks are given and explained. “Defeat ”means expulsion from the order, with no possibility of return. These rules govern the life of nuns as well as monks, but there are twice as many rules of defeat for nuns as for monks. Notice at the end of the passage the ritual for confession of these faults in the monastery, the basic method of which is similar for confession of all 61rainy season: The monsoon rains that last for two months in south Asia, when rains are so heavy that little outdoor activity takes place. Monks and nuns in both Buddhism and Jainismlive in permanent housing during this time and do not travel from place to place.62Uposatha ceremony: The Uposatha is a Buddhist day of rest and rededication occurring about twice a month; the cere- mony held on that day involves formal reciting of the majorrules for monks and nuns. 63Manatta discipline: A six-day period of penance. Teaching on Rules of Defeat 1–4. 98 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re other faults. The four prohibitions here —against sexual intercourse, theft, killing, and lying — also form the basis of Buddhist morality for the laity. The only qualification is that the prohi- bition of sexual intercourse is modified for laity to a prohibition of intercourse outside marriage. 64 [Rules for Monks] The four rules concerning those acts that cause defeat now come into recitation. 1. If any monk shall have sexual intercourse with anyone, even with an animal, he has fallen into defeat; he is no longer in communion. 2. If any monk shall take anything not given — what men call “theft ”— he has fallen into defeat; he is no longer in communion. 3. If any monk shall knowingly deprive a human being of life, or shall seek out an assassin against a human being, or shall utter the praises of death, or incite another to suicide, he has fallen into defeat; he is no longer in communion. 4. A monk, without being clearly conscious of possessing extraordinary knowledge, may perhaps pretend that he has gained insight into the knowl- edge of the noble ones, saying, “Thus I know, thus I perceive. ” At some subsequent time, whether being pressed or without being pressed, he may feel guilty and may want to be cleansed from his fault. He shall say, “Brothers, when I did not know, I said that I knew; when I did not see, I said that I saw — telling a fruitless falsehood. ” Then, unless he spoke through undue confidence, he has fallen into defeat; he is no longer in communion. Venerable Sirs, the four conditions of defeat have been recited. When a monk has fallen into one or other, he is no longer allowed to reside with the monks. As before, so afterwards, he is defeated; he is not in communion. I ask the venerable ones [fellow monks], “Are you pure in this matter? ”A second time I ask, “Are you pure in this matter? ” A third time I ask, “Are you pure in this matter? ”The venerable ones are pure. Therefore they keep silence. Thus I understand. [Rules for Nuns] 1. If any nun willingly engages in the sexual act, even with a male animal, she is defeated and no longer in communion. 2. If any nun, in the manner of stealing, takes what is not given from an inhabited area or from the wilderness, she is defeated and no longer in communion. 3. If any nun intentionally deprives a human being of life, or searches for an assassin for her, or praises the advantages of death, or incites her to die … or should in various ways praise the advan- tages of death or incite her to die, she is defeated and no longer in communion. 4. If any nun, without direct knowledge, boasts of a superior human state, a truly noble knowledge and vision as present in herself, saying, “Thus do I know; thus do I see, ”such that regard- less of whether or not she is cross-examined on a later occasion, she —being remorseful and desir- ing purification — might say, “Fellow nuns, not knowing, I said I know; not seeing, I said I see — vainly, falsely, idly, ” unless it was from over- estimation, she is defeated and no longer in communion. 5. If any nun in lust consents to a lusting man ’s rubbing, rubbing up against, taking hold of, touching, or fondling (her) anywhere below the collar-bone and above the knees, she is defeated and no longer in communion. 6. If any nun, knowing that (another) nun has fallen into an act (entailing) defeat, neither accuses her herself nor informs the group, and then she [the first nun] should say, “Even before, ladies, I knew that this sister is of such-and-such a sort, and I didn ’t accuse her myself nor did I inform the group, ”then she [the first nun] is defeated and no longer in communion. 7. If any nun follows a monk suspended by a community (of monks) acting in harmony, in line with the dhamma, the nuns should admonish her thus: “Lady, that monk has been suspended by a 64Adapted from Rhys Davids and Oldenberg, Vinaya Texts , part 1, pp. 3 –6. ORGANIZATION |The Rules of Defeat for Monks and Nuns 99CopEditorial re community acting in harmony, in line with the dhamma …. Do not follow him, lady. ”And should that nun, admonished thus by the nuns, persist as before, the nuns are to rebuke her up to three times so as to desist. If while being rebuked up to three times she desists, that is good. If she does not desist, then she is defeated and no longer in communion. 8. If any nun in lust consents to a lusting man ’s taking hold of her hand, or should she stand with him or talk with him or go to a rendez- vous with him, or should she consent to his approaching her, or should she enter a hidden place with him, or should she give her body to him for the purpose of that unrighteous act, then she is defeated and no longer in communion. Rules Requiring Formal Meetings of Monks The next set of monastic rules from the Teaching on Rules Requiring Meetings of the Monks (Samghadisesa Dhamma ) covers thirteen matters for which at least two formal meetings of the order are required. The precise punishment, to be decided at a meeting of the whole monastic assembly, amounts to something less than permanent expulsion, often suspension of privileges and special duties for one month. All the rules are given here. 65 The thirteen things which in their earlier and in their later stages require formal meetings of the order now come into recitation. 1. If a monk intentionally emits his semen, except while sleeping. 2. If a monk, being degraded with perverted mind, comes into bodily contact with a woman by taking hold of her hand or her hair, or by touch- ing her body. 3. If a monk, being degraded with perverted mind, addresses a woman with wicked words, exciting her passions as young men do to young women. 4. If a monk, being degraded with a perverted mind, praises service to himself in the hearing of a woman, saying, “This, sister, would be the noblest of services, that to so righteous and exalted a reli- gious person as myself you should serve by that act, ”meaning sexual intercourse. 5. If a monk acts as a go-between for a woman to a man, or for a man to a woman, or for a wife, or for a mistress, or even for a prostitute. 6. If a monk, at his own request, has a hut put up on a dangerous site, without the required open space around it, or does not bring the monks to approve the site, or exceeds the due measure. 7. If a monk has a large house made on a dangerous site, without the open space around it, or does not bring the monks to the place to approve the site. 8. If a monk, in harshness, malice, or anger, harasses another monk by a groundless charge of having committed an offense, thinking “Perhaps I may get him to fall from this religious life, ”and then later the case turns out to be groundless, and the monk confesses his malice. 9. If a monk, in harshness, malice, or anger, harasses another monk by a groundless charge of having committed an offense, supporting himself by some point or other of no importance in a case that really rests on something of a different kind, Teaching on Rules Requiring Meetings of the Monks 1–13. 65Adapted from Rhys Davids and Oldenberg, Vinaya Texts , part 1, pp. 7 –14. 100 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re and thinking to himself, “Perhaps I may get him to fall from this religious life, ”and then later the case turns out to rest on something of a different kind, and that monk confesses his malice. 10. If a monk causes division in a community, or persists in calling attention to some matter cal- culated to cause division, that monk should be addressed by the monks, “Sir, do not go around causing division in a community that is unified. ”If that monk, when he has thus been spoken to by the monks, should persist as before, then let that monk be [formally] admonished about it by the monks as a body, even to the third time, to the intent that he abandon that course. If, while being so admonished up to the third time, he abandons that course, it is well. If he does not abandon it, the order must meet (about it). 11. Now other monks, one, two, or three, may become adherents of that monk, and may raise their voices on his side: “Do not say, sirs, anything against that monk! That monk speaks according to the dhamma, and he speaks accord- ing to the Vinaya. ” Then let those monks be addressed by the other monks in this way, “Do not say this, sirs! That monk does not speak according to the dhamma, nor does he speak according to the Vinaya. Do not let division in the community be pleasing to you! ” If those monks, when they have thus been spoken to by the monks, should persist as before, those monks should be formally judged by the monks as a body, even to the third time, so that they abandon that course. If they abandon it, it is well. If they do not abandon it, the order must meet. 12. A monk may allow nothing to be said to him, objecting, “Say nothing to me, sirs, either good or bad; and I will say nothing, either good or bad, to you. Be good enough, sirs, to refrain from speaking to me! ” Then let that monk be addressed by the monks, “Do not, sir, make your- self a person who cannot be spoken to. Make yourself a person to whom we can speak. The society of the Blessed One grown large by mutual discussion and by mutual help. ” If that monk, when he has thus been spoken to by the monks, should persist as before, then let that monk be formally judged by the monks as a body as many as three times, so that he may abandon that course. If he abandons that course, it is well. If he does not abandon it, the order must meet. 13. If a monk dwells near a certain village or town, and leads a life hurtful to the laity and devoted to evil, and the families led astray by him are seen and heard, let that monk be spoken to by the monks. The monks must say, “Your life, sir, is hurtful to the laity, and evil … .Besogood, sir, as to depart from this residence; you have lived here long enough. ” If that monk, when thus spoken to by the monks, should persist as before, that monk should be formally judged by the monks as a body as many as three times, so that he abandon that course. If he abandons it, it is well. If he does not abandon it, the order must meet. RITUAL The Relics of the Buddha One of the most important features of Buddhist worship has been veneration of the relics (physical remains, mostly bones) of the Buddha. To a Buddhist, these are the holiest physical objects in the world. This selection from the Book of the Great Decease (Mahaparinirvana Sutra of the Great Decease 6.58 –60. RITUAL |TheRelicsoftheBuddha 101CopEditorial re Sutra ) 6.58 –60 tells the story of how the followers of the Buddha settled arguments about how the relics of the cremated body of the Buddha should be distributed. 66 When they heard these things, the Mallas of Kusi- nara 67 spoke to the assembled brothers. “The Blessed One died in our village. We will not give away to others any remains of the Blessed One! ” When they had thus spoken, Dona the Brahmin addressed the assembled brothers. He said, “Hear, reverend sirs, one word from me. Our Buddha was accustomed to teach modera- tion. It is unseemly that strife should arise, and wounds, and war, over the distribution of the remains of him who was the best of beings! Let us all unite in friendly harmony to make eight portions. Let stupas 68 arise in every land so that humanity may trust in the Enlightened One! Brothers, divide the remains of the Blessed One equally into eight parts, with fair division. ” “Let it be so, sir! ” the assembled brothers said in assent to Dona. He divided the remains of the Blessed One equally into eight parts, with fair division. He said to them, “Give me, sirs, this vessel, 69 and I will set up over it a sacred memo- rial mound, and in its honor I will establish a feast. ” And they gave the vessel to Dona the Brahmin. Tyrone Siu/Reuters Installing a Buddha Relic Workers position a case containing a bone relic of the Buddha during a welcoming ceremony in Hong Kong, China, in 2012. 66Adapted from Rhys Davids, Buddhist Suttas , pp. 133 –134. 67Mallas of Kusinara: See footnote 29. 68stupas: A house of worship enshrining relics of the Buddha. 69this vessel: The iron casket in which the Buddha ’s body was cremated. 102 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re Mindfulness in Meditation Buddhist monks must have a powerful concentration in order to fix their minds on the abstract processes and products of meditation. This passage from an influential Theravada meditation scripture, the Sutra on the Establishment of Mindfulness (Satipatthanasutta ),discusses the way to full mindfulness, or high-level awareness of the state of one ’s own mind and body. 70 Monks, there is one road, one path for beings to purify themselves, to transcend sorrow and grief, to overcome suffering and melancholy, to attain the right way, to realize Nirvana: that is the four- fold establishment of mindfulness. What are the four mindfulnesses? They are the mindful contem- plation of the body, the mindful contemplation of the feelings, the mindful contemplation of thoughts, and the mindful contemplation of the elements of reality. How does a monk practice the mindful con- templation of the body? In this way: He goes to the forest, or to the foot of a tree, or to an empty room. He sits down cross-legged, keeps his back straight, and directs his mindfulness in front of him. He breathes in mindfully and breathes out mindfully. Breathing in a long breath, he knows “I am breathing in a long breath ”; breathing out a long breath, he knows “I am breathing out a long breath. ”Breathing in a short breath, he knows “I am breathing in a short breath ”; breathing out a short breath, he knows “I am breathing out a short breath. ”71 … Thus a monk practices mindfully contemplating his body … . Also, a monk is fully mindful of what he is doing, both going and coming, looking straight ahead and looking away, holding out his bowl or retracting it, putting on his robes, carrying his bowl, eating, drinking, chewing, tasting, defecat- ing, urinating, moving, standing, sitting, sleeping, waking, talking, or being quiet. Thus a monk practices mindfully contemplating his body. A monk also considers his body itself, from the soles of his feet upward and from the top of his head downward, wrapped as it is in skin and filled with all sorts of impurities. He reflects, “In this body, there are hair, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, colon, intestines, stomach, feces, urine, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, lymph, saliva, and snot. ”Thus a monk practices mindfully contemplating his body. A monk consid- ers his body with regard to the elements that com- pose it. He reflects, “In this body, there are earth, water, fire, and air. ”He should think of these ele- ments that make up the body as though they were pieces of the carcass of a cow that a butcher had slaughtered and displayed in a market. Also, if a monk should see a corpse abandoned in a ceme- tery, dead one day or two or three, swollen, turning blue, and beginning to rot, he should con- centrate on his own body and think, “This body of mine is just like that one; it has the same nature, and it will not escape this fate. ”Thus a monk keeps mindfully contemplating his body. How, monks, does a monk practice the mind- ful contemplation of feelings? Experiencing a pleasant feeling, he knows “I am experiencing a pleasant [emotional] feeling ”; experiencing an unpleasant feeling, he knows “I am experiencing an unpleasant feeling. ” Experiencing a pleasant physical feeling, he knows “I am experiencing a pleasant physical feeling ”; experiencing a pleasant spiritual feeling, he knows “I am experiencing a pleasant spiritual feeling. ”Thus a monk practices mindfully contemplating his feelings. How, monks, does a monk practice the mindful contemplation of thoughts? He knows a Sutra on the Establishment of Mindfulness 10.1 –9. 70Adapted from V. Trenckner, The Majjhima-nikaya, vol. 1 (London: Pali Text Society, 1888), pp. 55 –63. 71Mindfulness of breathing is important because breathing properly and knowingly helps one to calm the body. RITUAL |Mindfulness in Meditation 103CopEditorial re passionate thought to be a passionate thought; he knows a passionless thought to be a passionless thought; he knows a hate-filled thought to be a hate-filled thought; he knows a hate-free thought to be a hate-free thought. He knows a deluded thought, an undeluded thought, an attentive thought, a distracted thought, a lofty thought, a lowly thought, a mediocre thought, a supreme thought to be the thoughts that they are. Thus a monk practices mindfully contemplating his thoughts. How, monks, does a monk practice the mind- ful contemplation of the elements of reality? In this way: He practices the mindful contemplation of the elements of reality in the things that hinder him. How does he do that? When there is within him sensual excitement, he knows that “sensual excitement is occurring within me ”; when there is within him no sensual excitement, he knows that “sensual excitement is not occurring within me. ”When there is within him some ill will, he knows that “ill will is occurring within me ”; when there is within him no ill will, he knows that “ill will is not occurring within me. ” Similarly he knows the presence and the absence within him- self of the other hindrances: laziness and lethargy, agitation and worry, and doubt. Thus he practices mindfully contemplating elements of reality within himself, he practices mindfully contemplating ele- ments of reality outside of himself, and he prac- tices mindfully contemplating elements of reality as they arise and as they pass away. Thinking that “this is an element of reality, ” he is concerned with it only insofar as he needs to be for the sake of knowledge and recognition; so he abides free from attachment and does not cling to any- thing in this world. A monk also practices the mindful contempla- tion of the elements of reality with regard to the five aggregates of attachment. How does he do that? He reflects “Such is physical form, such is the origin of physical form, such is the passing away of physical form. Such is feeling, such is the origin of feeling, such is the passing away of feeling. Such is perception, such is the origin of perception, such is the passing away of perception. Such are karmic constituents, such is the origin of karmic constituents, such is the passing away of karmic constituents. Such is consciousness, such is the origin of consciousness, such is the passing away of consciousness. ” A monk also practices the mindful contempla- tion of the elements of reality with regard to the seven factors of enlightenment. How does he do that? When the first factor of enlightenment, mindfulness, is within him, he knows it to be pres- ent; when it is not within him, he knows it to be absent. And similarly, he knows the presence and absence within himself of the other factors of enlightenment: the investigation of dharma, ener- getic effort, enthusiasm, serenity, meditative con- centration, and calm self-control. A monk also practices the mindful contempla- tion of the elements of reality with regard to the Four Noble Truths. How does he do that? He knows suffering the way it really is, and he knows the origination of suffering the way it really is. He knows the cessation of suffering the way it really is, and he knows the way leading to the cessation of suffering the way it really is. A Mahayana View of the Merit of Making Images Another prominent feature of Buddhist worship —much more widespread than relic veneration — is using statues of the Buddha to focus one ’s thoughts toward enlightenment. In this passage from book 16, “Diverse Sutras, ”in the Taisho Revised Canon (the Taisho Shinshu Daizokyo ,the Japanese edition of the Chinese Buddhist canon) ,the Buddha is said to lavish great merit on Taisho Revised Canon 16.694. 104 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re those who make his images. They will enjoy heavenly blessings when they die; if they are reincarnated, their soul will go into a fine body; and someday they will end the cycle of rebirth and become buddhas themselves. The belief that the Buddha gives his gracious blessing to those who seek it is a prominent theme in Mahayana Buddhism. 72 The Blessed One sat upon his lotus throne, upon the terrace of enlightenment; and each person in the four assemblies thought to himself: “Truly we wish to hear the Blessed One teach us the merito- rious virtue of making images of the Buddha. ”… The Buddha said to the bodhisattva Maitreya: “Listen attentively! Listen attentively, and always bear in mind what I shall explain to you. “Let a son of good family or a daughter of good family but be pure and faithful, and fix his mind solely upon the virtues of the Buddha, and meditate unceasingly upon his awe-inspiring vir- tue and majesty. Let him see how every single pore of the Buddha ’s body glows with measureless multicolored brilliant light, with immensities of surpassing blessings and adornments and accom- plishments, with measureless insight and perfect enlightenment, with measureless meditation and forbearance, with measureless magic and spiritual power. “Let him meditate upon the infinitude of all the virtues of the Buddha, upon his far removal from all the hosts of error, and upon his splendor unequaled in the world. And let him fix his mind in this manner, and awaken deep faith and joy, and make an image of the Buddha with all its signs. Then he gains merit which is vast, and great, and measureless, and limitless, and which can be neither weighed nor counted. “Maitreya, should a man draw and adorn an image with a host of varied colors; or cast an image of silver, or bronze, or iron, or lead, or tin; or carve an image of fragrant sandalwood; or cover an image with pearls, or shell, or well-woven and embroidered silk; or cover a wooden image with red earth and white lime plaster; or build an image to the best of his ability, even if it be so small as the size of a finger, as long as those who see it can see that it is in the form of the Blessed One —I shall now tell you what his blessed reward will be, and how he will fare in his next life. “A man who does these things may be born again into this world, but he will not be born into a poor family, nor will he be born in a barbarian border kingdom, nor into a lowly clan, nor as an orphan. He will not be born stupid or fierce, nor as a merchant or peddler or butcher. He will not be born into any low mean craft or impure caste, into any heretical practices or heretical views. By the power of his intention he has cast aside the cause for such rebirth, and he will not be born into such states. Rather, he will always be born into the household of a universal emperor, having powerful clansmen, or perhaps into the household of a Brahmin of pure practices, rich and honor- able, lordly and without error. “The place where he is born will always be where buddhas are served and worshipped; and perhaps there he shall be a king, able to maintain and establish the dharma, teaching the dharma which converts those of evil practices; and perhaps he shall be a universal emperor, having the seven jewels, bringing forth a thousand sons, and mounting into the sky to convert the four corners of the world …. “He will always be born as a man. He will not take on the body of a woman, or of a eunuch, or of a hermaphrodite. 73 The body which he takes will be without defect or deformity: neither one- eyed nor blind; his ears not deaf; his nose not bent or twisted; his mouth not large or crooked; his lips not hanging down or wrinkled or rough; his teeth not broken or missing, not black or yellow; his tongue not slow; the back of his neck without tumor or boil; his form not hunched; his color not splotched; his arms not weak; his feet not large. He will be neither too short nor too tall, neither too fat nor too thin … . 72From Stephan Beyer, The Buddhist Experience: Sources and Interpretations (Belmont, CA: Dickenson Publishing Com- pany, 1974), pp. 47 –50, 54 –55. Copyright © 1974, Dickenson Publishing Company. Used by permission of Wadsworth Publishing Company, Inc. 73hermaphrodite: A person with a mixture of male and female sexual organs. RITUAL |A Mahayana View of the Merit of Making Images 105CopEditorial re “Maitreya, if there is a man who, in the midst of this world, can awaken his faith and build an image of the Buddha, then between his having done so and his not having done so the difference is great: for anywhere this man is born, he is purified and free of all his past sins, and by all his skill may gain liberation even without a teacher. The virtue of the Blessed Buddha is without limit or measure, and it cannot even be thought or expressed in words. And that is why, if a man awakens his faith and builds a Buddha image, every single one of his evil deeds will be exhausted and annulled. From the store of the Buddhas he gains meritorious virtue without limit or measure, until he himself gains Buddhahood, and himself saves other beings from all their suffering and woe forever. ” Tibetan Scripture to Gu ide the Soul after Death Probably the most famous Tibetan scripture is the Bardo Thodol (or Bar-do thos-grol ), most often known as the “Tibetan Book of the Dead ”but more accurately translated “Listen and Be Liberated from the Intermediate State. ”It provides texts to be read at and after death to guide the soul of the deceased through the intermediate ( “Bardo ”) state to a happy reincarna- tion. This key reading at the point of death first speaks of the “clear light ”of pure Nirvana; the person cannot reach it, and guidance is given to lead the soul through demonic nightmares to shelter in the womb of a being who will later give birth to the dead person ’s reincarnation. 74 “Noble person, (his/her name), now the time has come for you to seek a path [through the Bardo state]. After your breath has almost ceased, that which is called the Clear Light of the first phase of the intermediary state will dawn upon you. Its meaning was explained to you by your lama. It is existence as such, empty and bare like the sky; it will appear to you as the stainless and bare mind, clear and empty, without limitations or a center. At this moment you should recognize this and remain therein. I shall guide you to this insight. ” Before the physical breath has totally ceased one should repeat this close to the dying person ’s ear many times so that it is imprinted on the mind …. “Noble person, (name), listen! The intrinsic light of true being will now become apparent to you. This you must recognize! Noble son, the innate being of your present cognition is this very naked voidness, which does not exist as a thing, phenomenon, or color; it is mere voidness. This is the absolute reality of the female buddha Samantabhadra. 75 As your cognition consists in voidness, don ’t let this opportunity become mean- ingless …. The nature of your own mind is void of an inherent being and of any substance, but your intelligence is crystal clear. This nature of your mind is inseparable from your intelligence; together they are the true being, the buddha. The nature of your mind, equally clear and void, consists in a mass of light, and because of being free of becoming and decaying, it is the buddha of boundless light. This you must recognize! … “Noble person, for three and a half days you will be unconscious. When you awake you will think: “What happened to me? ”For this reason, you have to recognize that you are now in the intermediate state. At this time, when you depart from the world, all things will appear to you as light, and as celestial beings. The entire sky will shine with bright blue …. Tibetan Book of the Dead 1.1 –2. 74From H. Coward, E. Dargyay, and R. Neufeldt, Readings in Eastern Religion (Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier Univer- sity Press, 1988). Copyright © 1988 Wilfrid Laurier University Press. Used by permission. 75Samantabhadra: As in Buddhist tantric texts, the feminine here represents perfect wisdom. 106 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re “You should yearn for the blue light, which is so brilliant and clear; and fall of devotion you should address Vairocana 76 with this prayer which you should repeat after me: “Alas! At this time I am wandering through the world because of my great ignorance. I beg you, Vairocana, to guide me on the bright path of the primordial wisdom of the sphere being-as-such, the right path. May the divine mother, Akashesvari (Protector of the heavens) protect me from behind. I beg you, res- cue me from the abyss of the intermediate state and guide me to perfect Buddhahood. ” “Noble person, (name), hear me! You have not understood me even though I have directed you toward the right insight according to the instructions of this text. When you can ’t close the womb, 77 the time has truly come when you have to acquire a new body. There is more than only one profound and authentic instruction for closing the door of the womb. Remember them, be not distracted; imprint them on your mind. “Noble person, although you are reluctant to go, torturers —which are evil deeds —chase you. Powerless, you have to go where you don ’t want to. Torturers and executioners pull you and you feel as if you are running away from darkness, tornadoes, cries of war, snow, rain, hail, and bliz- zards. In your anxiety you are looking for a ref- uge, and you escape and hide. You ask yourself whether they will get you there. If they detect me here, then everything is lost, you think, and while questioning whether you have escaped you cling to this spot. If they take you from there you are afraid of being overcome by the anxieties and terrors of the intermediate state. Therein you seize a bad body that did not exist before, and you will suffer from various ills. This is a sign that the devils and demons have prevented your escape. “Listen and memorize this instruction suit- able for such an occasion! When the torturers chase you into a state of helplessness, or when fear and anxiety threaten you, then you should visualize a wrathful deity who destroys all these forms of threat. Quickly perfect your vision of the deity with all his limbs …. Through their bless- ing and compassion you will rid yourself from the torturers and will have the strength to close the door of the womb. This profound and accurate instruction you should keep in mind! ” A Collection of Tibetan Magical Formulas Magic has been used extensively in almost all parts of the Buddhist world, by both monks and laypeople, and magical texts have been a prominent genre of Buddhist literature. This famous collection of ritual magic invokes the power of the goddess Kurukulla, who likely was an ancient Indian tribal deity assimilated into the Hindu and then the Buddhist divinities. Her name derives from her residence on Mount Kurukulla in northern India, and she is particularly associated with rituals to induce fascination and/or subjugation. This short collection of magical-religious spells is from an Indian ritual manual written about 900 C.E., and later trans- lated into Tibetan and used widely in Tibet. 78 76Vairocana: A Buddha closely associated with the historical Gotama Buddha; he is one of the five chief Buddhas in Tibetan Buddhism. His name in Sanskrit means “shining light, ”which the dying person seeks in this passage. 77close the womb: A Buddhist expression for ending the cycle of rebirth; a person “closes the womb ”to her or his own rebirth by achieving enlightenment. Rituals of the Goddess Kurukulla 3.76. 78Adapted from Stephan Beyer, The Buddhist Experience: Sources and Interpretations (Encino, CA and Belmont, CA: Dickenson Publishing Company, 1974), pp. 137 –139. Used by permission of Cengage Learning, Inc. RITUAL |A Collection of Tibetan Magical Formulas 107CopEditorial re For a woman to subjugate her husband. On white birch bark, or on a cloth stained with menstrual blood, draw a seven petal lotus and write the seven syllables OM KU RU KU LLE SVA-HA 79 on the seven petals. In the center of the lotus … write the name of the person to be subjugated. Then roll it up into a little ball and fasten it upon your upper arm. The husband will become the wife ’s slave, and even a king will become his wife ’s servant. But only a woman who is pure and virtuous may apply this mantra. An amulet of protection. Draw a four petal lotus flower on a piece of birchbark. On the eastern petal draw an arrow, on the southern petal a bow, on the western petal a hand in the fearless gesture, and on the northern petal a lotus flower. Draw a moon in the center of the four petals and write thereon the name of the person to be protected, surrounded by the seven seeds OM KU RU KU LLE SVA-HA. Draw a garland of lotus flowers all around the amulet and fasten it upon the upper arm. Whether you are a child or an old man or a youth, this mag- ical amulet will protect you …. Cowrie shell practices. If on a Tuesday you find a cowrie shell 80 lying on its back, place it in the palm of your hand and recite the basic [Kurukulla] mantra eight hundred thousand times. Then if you play at dice you will be victorious over your opponents. Take a cowrie seashell, bathe it, and make offerings before it for eight or twelve days, recit- ing the basic manta one hundred and eight times. Then wrap it up in silk and bind it on your upper arm. By doing so you will become a great lord of wealth …. To find treasure. Recite the mantra fifty times and then place your feet upon the ground. Wherever your feet begin to tremble, you know that there is buried treasure. If the upper part of your foot trembles, you are getting near; if the sole of your foot trembles, you are moving away from it. It is just as clear as if you were told where the treasure is, for he who holds this mantra sees beneath the earth as if it were day. To walk on water. Take the milk of a [lactating] black dog and mix it with fresh butter. Spread it gradually upon your boots and you will be able to walk upon the water. To keep gray hair away. After every meal, snuff up water through your nose while you recite the mantra, and you will never have prematurely gray hair. A Collection of Zen Koans Zen (Chinese: Chan ) Buddhism seeks immediate enlightenment beyond study, sense percep- tion, and rationality. As an aid to this, Zen masters developed the koan , a difficult question that cannot be rationally answered. Famous koans include such gems as these: “What is the sound of one hand clapping? ”and “What did your face look like before your parents were born? ”This classic Zen Buddhist collection of forty-nine koans with commentary dates from 1228. 81 79OM KU RU KU LLE SVA-HA : Mantra of praise to Kuru- kulla, whose name can be seen in the second through fifth syllable of this mantra.80cowrie shells: mollusk shells, often prized for their shape and glistening surface. The Gateless Gate 37–40. 81Adapted from Huikai, also known as Mu-mon, The Gateless Gate , translated by Nyogen Senzaki and Paul Reps (Los Angeles: J. Murray, 1934). Copyright © 1934, J. Murray; not renewed. 108 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re 37. Meeting a Zen Master on the Road Goso said: “When you meet a Zen master on the road you cannot talk to him and you cannot face him with silence. What are you going to do? ” Mumon ’s comment: In such a case, if you can answer him intimately, your realization will be beautiful, but if you cannot, you should look about without seeing anything. Meeting a Zen master on the road, Face him neither with words nor silence. Give him an uppercut, And you will be called one who understands Zen . 38. An Oak Tree in the Garden A monk asked Joshu why Bodhidharma came to China. Joshu answered: “An oak tree in the garden. ” Mumon ’s comment: If one sees Joshu ’s answer clearly, there is no Shakyamuni Buddha before him and no future Buddha after him. Words cannot describe everything. The heart ’s message cannot be delivered in words. If one receives words literally, he will be lost, If he tries to explain with words, he will not attain enlightenment in this life . 39. Ummon ’s Sidetrack A Zen student told Ummon: “The Brilliance of Buddha illuminates the whole universe. ” Before he finished this Ummon asked: “You are reciting another ’s poem, are you not? ” “Yes, ”answered the student. “You are sidetracked, ”said Ummon. Afterwards another teacher, Shishin, asked his pupils: “At what point did that student go off the track? ” Mumon ’s comment: If anyone perceives Ummon ’s particular skillfulness, he will know at what point the student was off the track, and he will be a teacher of humans and spirits. If not, he cannot even perceive himself. When a fish meets the fishhook If he is too greedy, he will be caught. When his mouth opens His life already is lost. 40. Tipping Over a Water Vase Hyakujo wished to send a monk to open a new monastery. He told his pupils that whoever answered a question most ably would be appointed. Placing a water vase on the ground, he asked: “Who can say what this is without calling its name? ” The chief monk said: “No one can call it a wooden shoe. ” Isan, the cooking monk, tipped over the vase with his foot and went out. Hyakujo smiled and said: “The chief monk loses. ”And Isan became the master of the new monastery. Mumon ’s comment: Isan was brave enough, but he could not escape Hyakujo ’s trick. After all, he gave up a light job and took a heavy one. Why, can ’t you see, he took off his comfortable hat and placed himself in iron stocks. Giving up cooking utensils, Defeating the chatterbox, Though his teacher sets a barrier for him His feet will tip over everything, even the Buddha. GLOSSARY Abhidhamma [AHB -hee-DAHM-muh] Pitaka “Special Teaching Basket ”; the third basket of the Thera- vadin canon; it contains seven treatises based on the teachings of Buddha (Sanskrit: Abhidharma ). Arhat [AHR-haht] “Worthy One ”; a title given to a person who achieves enlightenment (Sanskrit: Arhant). Glossary 109CopEditorial re bodhisattva [BOHD -hee-SAHT-vuh] Person who comes very close to achieving Buddha nature (enlightenment) but postpones it for the sake of helping others to achieve it. Buddha [BUHD-ah, rhymes with “could-a ”] Person who has reached enlightenment; although Gotama is the Buddha par excellence, the term applies to all individuals who attain this state. buddhavacana [BUHD -ah-vah-KAHN-uh] “The words of the Buddha, ”the Buddhist term that comes closest to “scripture. ” dhamma [DAH-muh] Teaching, path, way (Sanskrit: dharma). Jatakas [JAH-tah-kuhs] “Lives ”; the book of tales of Gotama Buddha ’s previous lives. sutta [SUH-tuh] A writing (Sanskrit: sutra). Sutta Pitaka “Discourse Basket ”; the second basket of the Pali canon; it features the basic teachings of Buddhism (Sanskrit: Sutra Pitaka ). Tathagata [tah-THAH-gah-tuh] “One who has come [or “gone ”] thus ”; a person who has achieved enlightenment. Tipitaka [TIH -pee-TAH-kuh] “Three Baskets ”; the main internal divisions of the Theravadin canon (Sanskrit: Tripitaka ). Vinaya [vih-NIGH-yuh] Pitaka “Discipline Basket ”; the first basket of the Theravadin canon; it deals with the rules of monastic life. QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION 1. What are the main features of the Theravadin scripture canon? 2. How is the life of Gotama Buddha an example for all Buddhists? Is it true to say that most of Bud- dhism is founded on the life of Gotama? 3. In what sense are the Four Noble Truths the essence of Buddhism? 4. What main characteristics of monasticism are described in Buddhist scripture? 5. To what degree is Buddhism a religion made for monastics? 6. How is the role of women in Buddhism described in its scripture? Consider especially the role of nuns. 7. In what ways do the scriptures reflect the basic differences and similarities between southern (Theravada) and northern (Mahayana) Buddhism? Consider both canon and content. 8. Based on your understanding of Buddhist scrip- ture, how would you describe Nirvana? 9. What are some basic similarities and differences between Hinduism and Buddhism? SCRIPTURES IN FILM Although the life of Gotama Buddha has great meaning as a narrative for Buddhists and for many other people, no feature film has been made of his life. Martin Meissonier ’s 2001 film, Life of Buddha , is a blend of documentary and drama. For a film that tells the story of Buddha in tandem with a search for a new Tibetan leader that leads to the United States, see Little Buddha (1993, rated PG), directed by Bernardo Bertolucci and starring Keanu Reeves. Two films made in 1997 and rated PG-13 tell the story of the current Dalai Lama. The better one, from both cinematic and religious-studies points of view, is Kundun, directed by Martin Scorsese. The other is Seven Years in Tibet, directed by Jean-Jacque Annaud. What ’s Love Got to Do With It (1993, rated R), directed by Brian Gibson, deals with singer Tina Turner ’s conversion to Nichiren Buddhism. Finally, Milarepa (2006, not rated), directed by the Tibetan monk Neten Chokling, tells the eleventh-century story of the main founder and leading lama in Tibetan Buddhism. MindTap is a fully online, highly personalized learning experience built upon Cengage Learning content. MindTap combines student learning tools —readings, multimedia, activities, and assessments —into a singular Learning Path that guides students through their course. 110 CHAPTER 3 |BuddhismCopEditorial re CHAPTER FOUR Jainism Puja at Shravanabelagola A Jain worships by reading scriptures and offering flowers beneath the colossal statue of Gommateshvara in Shravanabelagola, India. –111 –CopEditorial re Among the religions scholars typically call “world religions, ”Jainism is small in num- bers but large in influence. This influence arises from the strong dedication that most Jains have to the rigorous teachings and practices of their faith. Here are a few examples: A Jaina man makes his way into a temple in Kolkata, India. He stands reverently before a life-sized statue of a naked man who in ancient times attained Nirvana. There are no statues of gods in the temple because Jainism emphasizes humans, not supernatural beings, who find full salvation as examples to believers. As other worshippers walk respectfully around the statue several times, he stands still at its base and reads from the Jaina scriptures. A group of Jaina nuns walks slowly and carefully down a dirt road in northern India. Dressed in white, they have cloths over their mouths to keep out flying insects. They use small brooms to gently sweep the ground in front of them as they walk, looking for even the smallest visible creatures. They are practicing the first and most important of their vows as recorded in Jaina scriptures, noninjury to any living thing. Not killing creatures avoids prematurely sending the souls within them into the painful cycle of reincarnation. Although this may seem to us an overly strict effort at noninjury, this teaching as applied to humans has had a large impact on the world, as we will see later in the chapter. In the streets of Mumbai, India, two men come along carrying between them a light cot alive with bedbugs. They stop before the door of a Jaina household and shout, “Who will feed the bugs? ”Someone tosses a coin from a window, and one of the men places himself carefully on the bed, offering himself as a living grazing ground to his fellow beings, the bedbugs. The donor of the coin gains karmic credit, and the man on the cot gains the coin. INTRODUCTION Jainism was founded by Mahavira ( “Great Hero ”) in the sixth century B.C.E. Mahavira taught a strict version of the Hindu Upanishadic way, giving special emphasis to ahimsa [ah-HIM-suh], “noninjury ”to all living beings. Rejecting belief in a supreme god, or at least a god who is more important than Mahavira and other Jain founders, Jains seek release from endless reincarnation through a life of strict self-denial. Four million Jains in India have had an influence far larger than their comparatively small numbers would ordinarily give them. Gandhi, for example, drew strongly from their teaching of nonviolence, and through Gandhi, this teaching affected the struggle for civil rights in North America, South Africa, and many other places. Jains are among the most well educated and prosperous of Indians today and are carefully devoted to their faith. The Jaina scriptures afford an excellent glimpse into this tenacious religion, especially its main teachings and monastic life. Overview of Structure Jaina scripture is known in religious scholarship as the Agama [ah-GAH-muh], “Tradition. ”Most Jains call it the Siddhanta [sid-DAHN-tuh], “Doctrine. ”The two main branches of Jainism —the Shvetambaras and the Digambaras —share a few books but for the most part have widely different canons. Shvetambara ( “white-clothed ” 112 CHAPTER 4 |JainismCopEditorial re monks) is the larger group. It teaches that a woman can achieve Nirvana without having to be reborn as a man; thus, this group has an order of nuns and scripture to guide their monastic life. The other main branch —Digambara ( “sky-clothed, ”naked monks) — teaches that women cannot achieve Nirvana. The Shvetambara canon is commonly said by Western scholars to have forty-five books in six sections: Angas [AHN-guhs] ( “Limbs ”), Upangas (“Smaller Limbs ”), Prakirnakas (“Mixed Texts ”), Cheda Sutras (“Authority and Discipline Texts ”), Culika Sutras (“Appendix Texts ”), and Mula Sutras (“Basic Texts ”). The Angas are the oldest part of the canon. The first Anga is the Acaranga Sutra, containing the most reliable Jaina story of Mahavira. It also contains Mahavira ’s laws for monks and nuns. The second Anga is the Sutrakritanga, which contains the main Jaina teachings. The best-known Mulasutra is the Uttaradhyayana Sutra, which contains teachings Jains believe to be the last words of Mahavira. Besides these books, Jains also say that their original and pure teachings were contained in fourteen Purvas (“Foundations ”), now mostly lost. The difficulties between the two sects and within each sect ’s canon are traced to the loss of these books. (The smallest of the Jaina sects, the Sthanakavasis, denies the existence of any scripture.) The Digambaras accept as canonical the fragments of ancient Purvas that survive. They accept a small number of Shvetambara books, such as Mulacara (on conduct), the Samayasara (on doctrine), the Pravancanasara (on teaching), and the Aradhana (on religious accomplishments). They also treat as scripture many scholastic commen- taries on the scriptures, which range from the first to the ninth centuries C.E. Both Jaina groups accept the important Tattvarthadhigama Sutra (“Book for Attaining the Mean- ing of Principles ”) by Umasvamin, the first work on Jaina philosophy to be written in Sanskrit. (For a chart of the Shvetambara and Digambara canons, see Table 4.1.) The fixing of the number of Shvetambara texts at forty-five, and their subdivision into six groups, was largely the work of the nineteenth-century German scholar Georg Buhler. Since the 1970s, this partition has been called into question as simplistic and not reflecting actual Jaina usage. Kendall Folkert, for example, states, “When one asks contemporary Jains what their scriptures are, one receives widely varying answers, responses that vary not because of ignorance, but because there does not appear to be a wholly accepted body of scripture that is of equal value to the entire community. ” Folkert also notes that despite their differences over the Jaina canon, Digambaras sometimes use Shvetambara texts. 1 In sum, the Agama encompasses a number of subjects in books written by many Jaina leaders over a long period. Some of it is in prose, some in verse, and some in mixed prose and verse. Its content, though frequently repetitious, at times is succinct and is always systematic. Despite their differences over their canon, most Jains believe that their scriptures express reliably the heart of Jainism. Historical Origin and Development, and Contemporary Use Jains believe that when Mahavira achieved Nirvana, he emitted a “sacred sound ”that his followers translated into words. Thus, the authority for the most ancient scriptures of both Jaina sects is Mahavira himself, but (in typical Indian fashion) he is not thought to have written these scriptures himself. Some of them claim to be speeches 1K. Folkert, “The ‘Canons ’of ‘Scripture, ’” in M. Levering, ed., Rethinking Scripture (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989), p. 175. Introduction 113CopEditorial re given by Mahavira to Gautama Indrabhuti, whose disciple Sudharman gave them in turn to his pupil Gambusvamin. The scriptures developed over time, all of them handed on orally in the monastic community until about 500 C.E., when they were edited and written down on traditional palm-leaf manuscripts. In the early 1970s C.E., a new scripture called the Saman Suttam was written by a committee of monks and scholars representing each of the major Jain sects. As its title, which means “Common Sutra, ” suggests, this scripture was written in an effort to bring Jains together. This was a notable success, because soon after it was com- pleted, it became the first text to be recognized by all Jain groups in almost two thousand years. At a gathering of Jains in December 1974 it was approved by all the groups. This text includes forty-four chapters covering most of the important doctrines of Jainism —for example, auspiciousness, the nature of the soul, and the path to liberation. Jainism has put monks in control of the development and use of its scriptures. Mahavira gave the holy teaching as an ascetic. He gave it to his monk followers, who passed it down for a thousand years until other monks wrote it down. Therefore, Jaina scripture is dominated by monastic teachings, ideals, and rules. The Agama was always intended not for a popular audience but for monks and, to a much lesser degree, nuns. These monastics have the time to learn it and teach it to one another. Typically, a monk studies the four Mula Sutras at the beginning of his career. If he masters them, he goes on to other more difficult texts and can become one of the highly respected monks who teach scripture in the monastery. (As we saw in the previous chapter, TABLE 4.1 The Shvetambara and Digambara Canons of Jain Scripture Name Translation Date Content/Size Shvetambara Canon Tradition 500 B.C.E.–300 C.E. Purvas Foundations (considered lost) 14 books Angas Limbs 11 books Upanga Sutra Secondary Books 12 books Cheda Sutra Reduction of Rank (monastic rules) 6 books Mula Sutra Root/Basic Texts 4 books Prakirnaka Sutra Miscellaneous Texts 10 books Culika Sutra Appendix Texts 2 books Digambara Canon 500 B.C.E.–800 C.E. Purvas Foundations (considered fragmentary) 14 books Shatkhand-agama Scripture in Six Parts 6 books Kasay-pahud Chapters on the Kashayas 1 book Pratham Anuyoga Religious Stories 4 books Charn Anuyoga Conduct 3 books Ganit Anuyoga Description of the Universe 4 books Dravy Anuyoga Philosophy 6 books 114 CHAPTER 4 |JainismCopEditorial re Buddhism shares this distinction between “study monks ”and “teaching monks. ”) Study of scripture is commanded in the rules for monks, and knowledge derived from the sacred books is typically the first step to release. This monastic orientation of the scriptures explains largely their repetition and the numerous lists of various items that make them especially difficult for the layperson to comprehend. Nevertheless, the Jaina laity uses the scriptures extensively. Jains tend to be better educated than the average Indian, and their high literacy rates have made their scrip- tures accessible to believers, who sometimes read and reflect upon them in houses of worship. Usage at festivals is also striking. For example, the Kalpa Sutra is formally read aloud at Paryusana, the end-of-the-year festival of confession and rededication. HISTORY The Life of Mahavira This passage from Chapter 2 of the Acaranga Sutra tells the story of Mahavira as an example for believers, and especially for monks and nuns, of one who has achieved Nirvana. Mahavira renounced the world, gave away his property, pulled out his hair, and finally starved himself to death. The gods who see and admire these feats are not supreme gods, and Mahavira shows himself superior to them as a jina [JEE-nuh], a “conqueror ”who has achieved Nirvana. (Jainism gets its name from “jina. ”) The Kalpa Sutra contains a story of Mahavira with more legendary touches than this. 2 [2.15.6] In that period, in that age, once upon a time, after the lapse of nine complete months and seven and a half days, in the first month of summer … on its thirteenth day … the Kshatriya 3 woman Trisala, perfectly healthy herself, gave birth to a perfectly healthy boy, the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira. In that night when the Kshatriya woman Trisala gave birth to the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, there was a great divine, godly luster originated by descending and ascending gods and goddesses. 4In the meeting of the gods their bustle amounted to confusion. In that night, the gods and goddesses rained down a great shower of nectar, sandal powder, flowers, gold, and pearls. In that night the gods and goddesses per- formed the customary ceremonies of auspicious- ness and honor, and anointed Mahavira as a Tirthankara [tihr-TAHN-kah-ruh]. 5… [14] Then the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, after his intellect had developed and his childhood had gone, lived in the enjoyment of the allowed, noble fivefold joys and pleasures: sound, touch, taste, color, and smell. … Acaranga Sutra 2.15.6 –9, 14, 16 –20, 22 –25, 27. 2All scripture selections in this chapter are adapted fromHermann Jacobi, Jaina Sutras, vols. 22, 45 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1884, 1895).3Kshatirya: A Hindu, and member of the ruling caste. 4gods and goddesses : Spiritual beings, but not supreme beings. 5Tirthankara: “Ford-maker ”; a person who goes across the river of the world ’s misery to Nirvana. Jains believe that Mahavira was the culmination of twenty-four “Ford-makers. ” HISTORY |TheLifeofMahavira 115CopEditorial re [16] The Venerable Ascetic Mahavira ’s par- ents were worshippers of Parshva 6and were fol- lowers of the Sramanas. 7For many years they followed the Sramanas, and protecting the six clas- ses of lives they observed, repented, confessed, and did penance for their sins. 8Lying on a bed of woven grass, they rejected all food. Their bod- ies were dried up by their last mortification of the flesh, which ends in death. Thus they died in the proper month and, leaving their bodies, were born as gods in Adbhuta Kalpa. Descending after the end of their allotted length of life [as gods], with their departing breath they will reach absolute perfection. They will reach wisdom, liberation, final Nirvana, and the end of all misery. 9 The Venerable Ascetic Mahavira lived thirty years among the householders under the name of Videha. After his parents had gone to the worlds of the gods, he gave up his gold and silver, his troops and chariots. He distributed, portioned out, and gave away his valuable treasures consist- ing of riches, plants, gold, and pearls. He gave them to those who wanted to give them as pre- sents to others. Thus he gave away his possessions for a whole year. In the first month of winter, in the first fortnight, in the dark fortnight of Marga- siras, on its tenth day, while the moon was in con- junction with Uttaraphalguni, he decided to retire from the world. … Then the four orders of gods awakened the best of Jinas, the Venerable Mahavira, saying, “Arhat [AHR-haht]! 10 Spread the religion which is a blessing to all creatures in the world! ”When the gods and goddesses … had become aware of the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira ’s intention to retire from the world, they assumed their pro- per form, dress, and banners. They ascended their own vehicles and chariots with their proper pomp and splendor, together with their whole ret- inue. Rejecting all large matter, they retained only tiny matter. 11 Then they rose up, and with that excellent, swift divine motion of the gods, they came down again. They crossed numberless con- tinents and oceans till they arrived in Gambudvipa at the northern Kshatriya part of the place called Kundapura. In the northeastern quarter of it they suddenly halted. … At that period, in that age, in the first month of winter … on its tenth day … fasting three days without taking water, having put on one garment, the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira with a train of gods, men, and Asuras 12 left the northern Ksha- triya part of the place Kundapura by the high road for the park called Gnatri Shanda. There, just at the beginning of night, he caused his royal vehicle to stop quietly on a slightly raised untouched ground. He quietly descended from it, sat quietly on a throne with the face toward the east, and took off all his ornaments and finery. 13… When the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira had adopted the holy conduct which produced that state of soul in which the reward of former actions 14 is temporarily counteracted, he reached the knowledge by which he knew the thoughts of all thinking beings. … Then he formed the follow- ing resolution: “I shall for twelve years neglect my body and abandon the care of it. I shall with a right disposition bear, undergo, and suffer all calamities that may arise from divine powers, humans or animals. ” The Venerable Ascetic Mahavira formed this resolution. Neglecting his body, he arrived in the village Kummara when only one division of the day remained. Neglecting his body, the Vener- able Ascetic Mahavira meditated on his Self 15 in blameless lodgings and in blameless wandering. 6Parshva: An ascetic who attainted Nirvana some two centuries before Mahavira, becoming the twenty-third “Ford-maker. ” 7Sramanas: Monks. 8protecting six classes of lives … sins: That is, they were careful followers of the teaching of being harmless to all living creatures.9Descending … misery: They will achieve Nirvana in their next incarnation and be reborn no more.10Arhat: “Worthy One, ”another name for a person who has reached Nirvana. 11large matter … tiny matter: The gods change their form to a more spiritual and less physical state.12Asuras: Spirits, not gods. 13took off … finery: He is not naked, because he wears a cloth underneath. This reflects the Shvetambara orientation of thisbook.14reward of former actions: Karma. 15Self: In contrast to Theravada Buddhism, with which it shares many similarities, Jainism teaches the existence andimportance of the Self as an eternal soul. 116 CHAPTER 4 |JainismCopEditorial re He meditated in restraint, in kindness, in avoid- ance of sinful influence, in a chaste life, in pati- ence, in freedom from passion, in contentment, in control, and in correctness. All the while he practiced religious postures and acts. He walked the path of Nirvana and liberation, which is the fruit of good conduct. With right disposition he endured, sustained, and suffered all calamities aris- ing from divine powers, humans, and animals. With undisturbed and unaffected mind, he was careful in body, speech, and mind. The Venerable Ascetic Mahavira spent twelve years in this way of life. During the thirteenth year in the second month of summer, on its tenth day, on the northern bank of the river Rigupalika, in the field of the householder Samaga, in a north- eastern direction from an old temple, not far from a Sal tree, in a squatting position with joined heels exposing himself to the heat of the sun, with the knees high and the head low, in deep meditation, in the midst of abstract meditation, he reached Nirvana. He reached the full, unobstructed, unim- peded, infinite, and supreme knowledge and intu- ition called Kevala. 16 [25] When the Venerable One had become an Arhat and Jina, he was a Kevalin, fully knowing everything [in the universe] and comprehend- ing all objects. He knew all conditions of the world, of gods, men, and demons. He knew where they come from, where they go, whether they are born as men or animals, or become gods or demons. He knew their food, drink, doings, desires, open and secret deeds, their conversation and gossip, and the thoughts of their minds. He saw and knew all conditions in the whole world of all living Beings. … [27] When the Venerable Ascetic Mahavira had reached the highest knowl- edge and intuition, he reflected on himself and the world. First he taught his religion to the gods, and then to humans. 17 Dinodia Photo/Stockbyte/Jupiter Images Jain Symbol of the Wheel A sculpture of the Jain wheel, symbolizing the entire teaching of Jainism, adorns the roofline of a Jaintemple in Rajasthan, India. TEACHING The Causes of Sin This reading from the beginning of the Acaranga Sutra, the main scripture of Jainism, teaches the understanding of all that hurts other beings and renunciation of it. The first section deals with reincarnation, the second with ahimsa as the path out of it. 16Kevala: Knowledge that frees a person from the cycle of rebirth. 17First he taught his religion to the gods, and then to humans:The state that Mahavira reaches in Nirvana surpasses the spirit- ual state of the gods and all humans. Acaranga Sutra 1.1 –2. TEACHING |TheCausesofSin 117CopEditorial re O long-lived Gambusvamin! I Sudharman 18 have heard the following discourse from the venerable Mahavira: Many do not remember whether they have descended in an eastern direction when they were born in this world, or in a southern, or in a western, or in a northern direction. … Similarly, some do not know whether their soul is born repeatedly or not. They do not know what they were before, or what they will become after they die and leave this world. One should know how one entered the world, either by one ’s own knowledge or through the instruction of the high- est [that is, a Tirthankara], or having heard it from others. Similarly, some know that their soul is born repeatedly, that it arrives in this or that direction, whatever direction that may be. [5] He believes in the soul, believes in the world, believes in reward, and believes in action (acknowledged to be our own doing in such judgments as these): “I did it ”;“I shall cause another to do it ”;“I shall allow another to do it. ”In the world, these are all the causes of sin, which must be comprehended and renounced. A man who does not comprehend and renounce the causes of sin is born repeatedly in many births, experiencing all sorts of painful feelings. … He who understands and renounces these causes of sin is called a karma-knowing sage. Thus I say. [21] The living world is afflicted, miserable, difficult to instruct, and without insight. In this world full of pain, with beings suffering by their different acts, benighted people cause great pain. See! There are beings individually embodied. 19 See! Some men control themselves, while others only pretend to be houseless. 20 One destroys this earth-body 21 by bad and injurious acts. He hurts many other beings besides, by doing acts relating to earth. About this the Revered One 22 has taught the truth. For the sake of the splendor, honor, and glory of this life, for the sake of birth, death, and even final liberation, for the removal of pain, man acts sinfully toward earth. He causes others to act so, and allows others to act so. This deprives him of happiness and perfect wisdom. He is informed about this when he has understood or heard the true faith, either from the Revered One or from the monks. Some truly know this injuring to be bondage, delusion, death, and hell. A man is longing for this when he destroys this earth-body by bad, injurious acts. He destroys many other beings as well, through his deeds relating to earth. Thus I say. The Road to Final Deliverance This passage from Chapter 28 of a leading scripture, Uttaradhyayana Sutra, presents a sum- mary of the way to salvation. The four main steps are by knowledge, faith, conduct, and ascetic practice ( “austerities ”). Notice the Indian penchant to number things, useful in monas- tic teaching and learning. 18Gambusvamin: The pupil of Sudharman , both followers of Jainism and disciples of the historical Mahavira. 19beings individually embodied: Individual souls exist as abso- lute realities, not as a part of one world-soul.20pretend to be houseless: Unfaithful monks. 21earth-body: All lives composed of the elements of the earth. 22the Revered One: Mahavira. Uttaradhyayana Sutra 28. 118 CHAPTER 4 |JainismCopEditorial re Learn the true road leading to final deliverance, which the Jinas have taught. It depends on four causes and is characterized by right knowledge and faith. Right knowledge, faith, conduct, and austerities —this is the road taught by the Jinas who possess the best knowledge. Beings who fol- low this road will obtain blessedness. Right knowledge is fivefold: (1) knowledge derived from the Sutras; (2) perception; (3) supernatural knowledge; (4) knowledge of the thoughts of other people; (5) the highest, unlim- ited knowledge. This is the fivefold knowledge. The wise ones have taught the knowledge of sub- stances, qualities, and all developments. … Dharma, adharma, 23 space, time, matter, and souls are the six kinds of substances. They make up this world, as has been taught by the Jinas who possess the best knowledge. Dharma, adharma, and space are each one substance only; but time, matter, and souls are an infinite number of sub- stances. The characteristic of dharma is motion, that of adharma immobility, and that of space, which contains all other substances, is to make room [for everything]. [10] The characteristic of time is duration. … The characteristic of soul is knowledge, faith, conduct, austerities, energy, and realization of its developments. The characteristic of matter is sound, darkness, luster, light, shade, sunshine, color, taste, smell, and touch. The characteristic of development is singleness, separateness, number, form, conjunction, and disjunction. The nine truths are (1) soul; (2) the inanimate things; 24 (3) the binding of the soul by karma; 25 (4) merit; (5) demerit; (6) that which causes the soul to be affected by sins; (7) the prevention of error by watchfulness; (8) the annihilation of karma; (9) final deliverance. He who truly believes the true teaching of the fundamental truths pos- sesses righteousness. Faith is produced by ten things: (1) nature; (2) instruction; (3) command; (4) study of the Sutras; (5) suggestion; (6) comprehension of the meaning of the sacred lore; (7) complete course of study; (8) religious exercise; (9) brief exposition; (10) the Law [Dharma]. He who believes by nature truly comprehends by a spontaneous effort of his mind the nature of the soul, inanimate things, merit, and demerit. He puts an end to sinful influences. He who sponta- neously believes the four truths (explicitly men- tioned in the last verse), which the Jinas have taught, thinking they are of this and not of a dif- ferent nature, believes by nature. But he who believes these truths, having learned them from somebody else, either a Khadmastha 26 or a Jina, believes by instruction. [20] He who, because he has been ordered to do so, has gotten rid of love, hate, delusion, and ignorance, and believes, believes by command. He who obtains righteous- ness by the study of the Sutras, either Angas or other works, believes by the study of Sutras. He who by correctly comprehending one truth arrives at the comprehension of more —just as a drop of oil expands on the surface of water — believes by suggestion. He who truly knows the sacred lore, namely the Angas, the Prakaranas , and the Drish- tivada, believes by the comprehension of the sacred lore. He who understands the true nature of all substances by means of all proofs and nayas, 27 believes by a complete course of study. [25] He who sincerely performs all duties implied by right knowledge, faith, and conduct, by asceticism and discipline, and by all samitis and guptis, 28 believes by religious exercise. He who holds no wrong doctrines though he is not versed in the sacred doctrines nor acquainted with other systems, believes by brief exposition. He who believes in the truth of the realities, the Sutras, and conduct, as it has been explained by the Jinas, believes by the Law. 23Dharma, adharma: Good and evil, respectively. 24the inanimate things: Things in this world with no soul embodied in them.25karma: Fruit of evil deeds, a physical accretion on the soul. 26Khadmastha: A person who is advanced in knowledge but not to the full knowledge of Nirvana.27nayas: Literally, “leadings, ”probably referring to logical arguments.28samitis and guptis: The five samitis, chief rules for monks, are how to walk in a way that is not injurious to other beings, especially outdoors; how to speak; how to beg for food; how to excrete bodily wastes in a manner not injurious to small beings; and how to use the few possessions allowed a monk.The three guptis regulate thought, speech, and the body. TEACHING |TheRoadtoFinalDeliverance 119CopEditorial re Right belief depends on the acquaintance with truth, on the devotion to those who know the truth, and on the avoiding of schismatic and heretical tenets. 29 There is no right conduct with- out right belief, and it must be cultivated for obtaining right faith. Righteousness and conduct originate together, or righteousness precedes con- duct. [30] Without faith there is no knowledge, without knowledge there is no virtuous conduct, without virtues there is no deliverance, and with- out deliverance there is no perfection. The excellence of faith depends on the fol- lowing eight points: (1) that one has no doubts (about the truth of the teachings); (2) that one has no leanings toward heretical teachings; (3) that one does not doubt its saving qualities; (4) that one is not shaken in the right belief be- cause heretical sects are more prosperous; (5) that one praises the pious; (6) that one encourages weak brethren; (7) that one supports or loves the confessors of the Law; (8) that one tries to exalt it. Conduct that produces the destruction of all karma is of five types: (1) the avoidance of every- thing sinful; (2) the initiation of a novice; (3) purity produced by peculiar austerities; (4) reduction of desire; (5) annihilation of sinfulness according to the precepts of the Arhats. Austerities are twofold, external and internal. Both external and internal austerities are sixfold. By knowledge one knows things, by faith one believes in them, by conduct one gets freedom from karma, and by austerities one reaches purity. Having destroyed their karma by austerities, great sages go on to perfection and get rid of all misery. Thus I say. ETHICS Ahimsa This selection from the Kritanga Sutra 1.7.1 –9 details the duty of noninjury, the first vow of monks. Noninjury is one of the leading duties of the laity as well. For example, observant Jains do not cook food or eat after sunset because they are less able to see any insects then. These three classes of living beings have been declared by the Jinas: (1) earth, water, fire, wind; (2) grass, trees, and plants; and (3) the moving beings, both the egg-bearing and those that bear live offspring, those generated from dirt and those generated in fluids. 30 Know and understand that they all desire happiness. By hurting these beings, people do harm to their own souls and will repeat- edly be born as one of them. Every being born high or low in the scale of the living creation, among movable and immov- able beings, will meet with death. Whatever sins the evildoer commits in every birth, for them he must die. In this world or in the next the sinners suffer themselves what they have inflicted on other beings, a hundred times, or suffer other punish- ment. Living in the Samsara 31 they always acquire new karma and suffer for their misdeeds. 29schismatic and heretical tenets: Beliefs held by opposing Jains and beliefs held by Buddhists, Hindus, etc., respectively. Kritanga Sutra 1.7.1 –9. 30those generated in fluids: This category includes human beings. 31Samsara : The wheel of rebirth. 120 CHAPTER 4 |JainismCopEditorial re [5] Some leave their family to live as ascetics, but they use fire. Mahavira says, “People who kill beings for their own pleasure are wicked. ” He who lights a fire kills living beings; he who extin- guishes it kills the fire. Therefore a wise man who well considers the Law should light no fire. Earth contains life, and water contains life; jumping or flying insects fall in the fire; dirt-born vermin and beings live in wood. All these beings are burned by lighting a fire. Plants are beings that have a natural develop- ment. Their bodies require nourishment, and they all have their individual life. Reckless men who cut them down for their own pleasure destroy many living beings. By destroying plants, whether the plants are young or grown up, a careless man harms his own soul. Mahavira says, “People who destroy plants for their own pleasure are wicked. ” Rules for Monastic Life Rules for both conduct and thought govern the life of a monk or a nun. Although the passage from the Uttaradhyayana Sutra , Chapter 35, speaks of “compassion for living things ”as a motivation for non-injury, the main motivation is less altruistic —to avoid as much as possible one ’s collection of karma. Learn from me, with attentive minds, the road shown by the wise ones. This road leads a monk who follows it to the end of all misery. Giving up the life of a householder, and tak- ing the vow to wander, a sage should know and renounce those attachments that take hold of men. A restrained monk should abstain from kill- ing, lying, stealing, and sexual intercourse, and from desire, love, and greed. Even in his thoughts, a monk should not long for a pleasant painted house filled with the fra- grance of garlands and frankincense, secured by doors, and decorated with a white ceiling-cloth. [5] For in such a dwelling a monk will find it diffi- cult to prevent his senses from increased desire and passion. He should be content to live in a ceme- tery, in a deserted house, below a tree, in solitude, or in a place that had been prepared for somebody else. A well-controlled monk should live in a pure place that is not too crowded, and where no women live. He should not build a house, nor cause others to build one. Many living beings both movable and immovable, both tiny and large, are killed when a house is being built. Therefore, a monk should abstain from building a house. [10] The same holds good with the cooking of food and drink, or with causing them to be cooked. Out of compassion for living beings one should not cook or cause another to cook. Beings which live in water, in plants, or in earth and wood are destroyed in food and drink. Therefore, a monk should cause nobody to cook. Nothing is so dangerous as fire, for it spreads in all directions and is able to destroy many beings. One should not light a fire. Even in his thoughts a monk should not long for gold and silver. Indifferent to both dirt and gold, he abstains from buying and selling. If he buys, he becomes a buyer; if he sells, he becomes a merchant. A monk is not to engage in buying and selling. [15] A monk who is to live on alms should beg and not buy. Buying and selling is a great sin; but to live on alms is befitting. He should collect his alms in small parts according to the Sutras and to avoid faults. A monk should contentedly go on his begging-tour, whether he gets alms or not. Uttaradhyayana Sutra 35. ETHICS |Rules for Monastic Life 121CopEditorial re A great sage should eat not for the sake of the pleasant taste of the food but only for the suste- nance of life. He should not be dainty or eager for good food; he should restrain his tongue and be without desire. Even in his thoughts he should not desire to be presented with flowers, to be offered a seat, to be eloquently greeted, to be offered presents, or to get a magnificent welcome and treatment. 32 He should meditate on true things only, committing no sins and having no property. He should walk about with no care for his body until his end draws near. [20] Rejecting food when the time of his death is near, and leav- ing the human body, he becomes his own master and is liberated from misery. Without property, without egoism, free from passions … he obtains absolute knowledge and reaches eternal blessed- ness. Thus I say. ORGANIZATION The Five Great Vows A monk or nun entering the life of renunciation takes these solemn, final vows. Notice in this reading from the Acaranga Sutra 2.15.1 –4 that the vow of ahimsa comes first. The ideals of these vows are also influential among the laity, and they take “Lesser Vows ”modeled on the full monastic vows but not as strict. Because of faithfulness to their vows, Jains have a strong reputation in India for truthfulness (vow 2) and honesty (vow 3). The Venerable Ascetic Mahavira, endowed with the highest knowledge and intuition, taught the five great vows, with their clauses … to the Sra- manas and Nirgranthas, 33 to Gautama, 34 etc. The first great vow is this. I renounce all killing of living beings, whether tiny or large, whether movable or immovable. I myself shall not kill living beings nor cause others to do it, nor consent to it. … The second great vow is this. I renounce all vices of lying speech arising from anger or greed or fear or even in jesting. I shall neither myself speak lies, nor cause others to speak lies, nor con- sent to the speaking of lies by others. … The third great vow is this. I renounce all tak- ing of anything not given, either in a village or a town or a wood, either of little or much, of small or great, of living or lifeless things. I shall neither take myself what is not given, nor cause others to take it, nor consent to their taking it. … The fourth great vow is this. I renounce all sexual pleasures, either with gods or men or animals. I shall not give in to sensuality, nor cause others to give in, nor consent to their giving in. … The fifth great vow is this. I renounce all at- tachments, whether little or much, small or great, living or lifeless. I myself shall not form such attachments, nor cause others to do so, nor con- sent to their doing so. As long as I live, … I remove myself [from these]. 32presents … treatment: These come when a monk visits lay- folk in public or in their homes. Acaranga Sutra 2.15.1 –4. 33Sramanas and Nirgranthas : Jaina monks. 34Gautama: This is a claim for the superiority of Jainism over Buddhism. 122 CHAPTER 4 |JainismCopEditorial re GLOSSARY Agama [AH-gah-muh] “Tradition ”; the name of the Jaina canon. ahimsa [ah-HIM-suh] “Noninjury ”; doing no harm to any living being. Angas [AHN-guhs] “Limbs ”; the first and main sec- tion of the Shvetambara canon. Arhat [AHR-haht] “Worthy One ”; a person who has reached Nirvana. jina [JEE-nuh] “Conqueror ”; a person who has reached Nirvana. Siddhanta [sid-DAHN-tuh] “Doctrine ” or “Teach- ing ”; the name that Jains use for their scripture. Tirthankara [tihr-TAHN-kah-ruh] “Ford-maker ”;a person who has traveled from the misery of this world across the river of existence to liberation, and who enables others to do so by teaching and example. QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION 1. Compare the lives of Mahavira and Siddhartha Gotama (the Buddha). How are they remarkably alike, and what might their dissimilarities be? 2. One scholar has called Jainism the “unhappy face of Buddhism. ”Judging from the Jaina scriptures, would you agree or disagree? Why? 3. Discuss the division between the Shvetambara and Digambara sects on the place of women as monastics. To what degree may this issue be reflected in arguments over the role of women in the monastic orders or clergy of other faiths? 4. Discuss the basic idea of ahimsa in Jainism. Why has it been influential in the wider Indian tradition? How might it be applicable to the peoples of other, non-Indian faiths? MindTap is a fully online, highly personalized learning experience built upon Cengage Learning content. MindTap combines student learning tools —readings, multimedia, activities, and assessments —into a singular Learning Path that guides students through their course. Questions for Study and Discussion 123CopEditorial re CHAPTER FIVE Sikhism Mohamad Ridzuan Abdul Rashid/ Reading the Sikh Scriptures An official reader prepares to turn a page as he recites the Sikh holy book, the Adi Granth , in a Sikh temple. –124 –CopEditorial re In its high veneration and extensive use of scripture, Sikhism is unsurpassed among world religions. These two vignettes illustrate this. A turbaned man walks down a bridge to the gate of the Golden Temple of Amritsar, India. Once inside, he approaches the central and only object of vener- ation, the large scripture book called the Adi Granth. Placed on cushions on a raised platform under a richly ornamented canopy, the Granth is read by an offi- cial reader as an attendant waves a ceremonial whisk over it. The Sikh visitor to the temple bows reverently before the book with folded hands, listening to the melo- dious reading. Sikhs in their local temple see, in quick succession, three life-cycle ceremonies. First, a baby is brought in for naming; as the Adi Granth is opened at random, the first letter on the left-hand page becomes the first letter in the child ’s first name. Second, a young couple comes to be married; during the ceremony, the couple circles the Granth several times to the accompaniment of verses from its marriage hymns. Third, the relatives of a recently deceased Sikh come for the conclusion of funeral rites; a prominent feature is the continuous reading of the entire Granth, and the relatives are present for the solemn conclusion of the reading. INTRODUCTION The Sikh religion was founded about 1500 C.E. by Guru Nanak. Its home is the Punjab region of northern India, but it has spread throughout India and Sri Lanka (see Map 3, “Sikh Population in India and Sri Lanka, ”in the map section). Sizable Sikh communities are also found in Canada and Great Britain, and the worldwide total of Sikhs is around 23 million. Designed to appeal to Hindus and Muslims, Sikhism contains elements of both faiths. With Hinduism, it shares mysticism and devotion; with Islam, a rigid monotheism. Yet it rejects some key elements of both these reli- gions, including their scriptures and rituals. Sikhism grew through a line of ten gurus until it reached its present form as expressed in its scripture, which believers consider the successor of the tenth guru. Overview of Structure The Adi Granth [AH-dee GRAHNTH], or “first/original book ”of Sikhism, is 1430 large-sized pages long, all of them handwritten to be identical. It has three main parts arranged in order of their importance. First and most important is the Japji [JAHP-jee], a poem that the faithful consider a summary and capstone of Sikhism. The term itself means “honored recitation. ”Written by Guru Nanak, the Japji dif- fers from the rest of the Adi Granth by having no hymn tune. Appended to the Japji are fourteen hymns; all of them appear later in the Adi Granth. The second main part of the Adi Granth, by far the longest, is the collection of ragas [RAH-guhs], “tunes, ” thirty-nine in all. Each raga is divided by different poetic meters and lengths, which are subdivided by guru author, proceeding chronologically through the line of gurus. Each guru calls himself “Nanak, ”usually at the conclu- sion of the hymn, but the different guru authors are identified by the numbered use of the term Mahala [ma-HAH-luh]. Mahala 1 denotes the compositions of Guru Nanak, Mahala 2 of Guru Angad, and so on, up to Mahala 5 for Guru Arjan. Introduction 125CopEditorial re The third main part of the Adi Granth is a mixed collection of twenty-six small books, most elaborating on the ragas. It also features hymns of many Hindu saints and Sufi Muslim mystics, which early Sikhs found congenial. Sikhs have always seen this inclu- siveness as proof of the universality of their tradition. As it now stands, the Adi Granth ’s material ranges in time from the hymns of Jaidev (not a Sikh guru) in the 1100s the hymns of the ninth guru, Tegh Bahadur, who died in 1675. (See Table 5.1.) The Adi Granth states in hymnic form the main beliefs of the Sikhs. The Adi Granth rejects what it perceives as the ritualism and formalism of Islam and Hinduism, arguing for moral purity as the chief basis of religion. Hindu caste structure is repeat- edly rejected; all men are to live as equals. Karma and reincarnation are accepted, but the practice in Sikhism will release believers from rebirth and lead to blessedness in heaven. Above all, the Adi Granth promotes the strict doctrine of one God and mystical devotion to his name. This loving God offers salvation by his grace to those who meditate on him and live in his truth. The non-Sikh reader looks in vain for stories about the life of the founder or other gurus. These have been collected instead into the janam-sakhis [JAH-num SAH-kees], or “birth stories. ”These janam- sakhis are traditional and legendary narratives that have semicanonical status among devout Sikhs. The main language of the Adi Granth is Punjabi. The text also shows strong traces of influence from Hindi and from several other north Indian languages. The Adi Granth employs the Sadhukari (or Sant-Basha) dialect of Punjabi, which was used by religious poets in north India in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Its language is complicated enough to require special training for every granthi [GRAHN-thee], official reader, but most observant Sikhs can understand the scripture well enough to read it on their own. Contemporary Use All Sikh usage of the Adi Granth is steeped in an attitude of profound respect. Devout Sikhs generally refer to the Adi Granth by a fuller, more venerable name, the Sri Guru Granth Sahib (Guru Granth for short), or “Revered Teacher Granth. ”This name is based on the origin of the Sikh scripture. Sikhs believe that each of their ten gurus had the same soul, the soul of Nanak. They also believe that the last guru, Gobind Singh, bestowed this soul and its guru status on the Granth, which thus became the book embodiment of the soul of the gurus, the statement of the essence of Sikhism, and the final authority for the religion ’s continuing life. TABLE 5.1 Contents of the Adi Granth Division Content Date Size Mul Mantar and Japji Poems by Guru Nanak 1500 C.E. 1 chapter; 14 supplementary hymns attached Poems of the Sikh gurus Main body 1500 –1675 C.E. 31 ragas, numbered 1 –5 by the Sikh gurus Poems of Saints Devotional hymns 1150 –1500 C.E. 26 small books divided into 31 ragas, subdivided by chronological order of the saints 126 CHAPTER 5 |SikhismCopEditorial re Sikhs also call the Adi Granth the “living embodiment of the Guru. ”One of their leading theologians has claimed, “This is the only scripture of the world which was compiled by one of the founders of a religion himself and whose authenticity has never been questioned. ”1Moreover, the Adi Granth has served for almost 300 years as a force for unity in Sikhism. Doctrinal disputes are traditionally ended by consulting it, at random if need be. Sikhs have a strong mystical feeling for the Granth and treat it as an icon. No doubt the musical nature of its recitation contributes to its emotive power. Nevertheless, Sikhism also stresses the importance of meditating on and comprehend- ing the meaning of its scripture. The Sikh temple is a shrine for the Adi Granth. Temple officials ceremoniously close the holy book and “put it to bed ”at night. Before dawn, they bring it out again, install it in its place, and open it. All this is done to the accompaniment of hymns from the Adi Granth ’spages. Despite its large size, Sikhs carry it above their heads, wearing gloves. When open, the Granth is draped in fine silk and placed on a special cot under a rich canopy at the focal point of the temple. Sikhs come to walk around it, bow to it, listen to its reading, and sometimes even pray to it. They must never turn their backs on it. Granthis (sometimes mistaken for “priests ” by outsiders) often wear white scarves to cover their mouths as they read so that their breath does not touch the holy book. Sikh men take turns fanning it with a whisk made of horsehair, yak-hair, or peacock feathers, called the chaur [chowr], one of the symbols of Sikhism. This scripture-centered activity goes on every day at the temple; there is no weekly service, except in North America and Europe. At special festivals, a nonstop oral reading by a team of granthis is held, lasting two days and nights. Every life-cycle celebration centers in some way around the Adi Granth. When a copy of the Adi Granth is damaged beyond repair by age or injury, a formal cremation service similar to that done for Sikhs is held to dispose of its “body. ”In sum, it is no exaggeration to say that all the worship of the Sikhs originates in and centers on the Adi Granth. This usage also carries over into the Sikh home. A prosperous Sikh household has a special room solely for the prominent placement and reading of the Granth. Almost every other Sikh household has a gutka [GUHT-kuh], an anthology of the most important passages from the Adi Granth and a few passages from the Dasam Granth. Daily readings are held in the home. Early-morning recitation by memory of the Japji and other long sections is common, often lasting more than an hour. Devout Sikhs commit large portions of the Adi Granth to memory, and it is constantly on their lips during the day and night, especially in the five required daily prayers. A memorable feature of Sikh scripture usage is vak lao [vahk low], “taking [God ’s] word. ”In the home or in the temple, the scripture is always opened at ran- dom, and the reading begins from the top of the left-hand page. Vak lao is thought to hold special significance for the occasion, and Sikhs believe that God guides which page falls open. This is God ’s word for the moment, a word that must be “taken ”into the believer ’s life. Historical Origin and Development The overall structure of the Adi Granth suggests its origins and growth. Guru Nanak (1469 –1539), in a typical Hindu attitude, rejected the authority of the written word and stressed instead interior meditation on the “holy [oral] word. ”The Japji and the 1Gopal Singh, ed., Sri Guru Granth Sahib (Calcutta: M. P. Birla, 1989), p. 1. Introduction 127CopEditorial re various hymns he composed were passed along orally. Guru Angad, whom Nanak made his successor, devised a Punjabi alphabet for the Gurmukhi language, and the Adi Granth was later written in this script. Guru Amar Das, third in the line, compiled a hymnal of his own poems, the poems of his two predecessors, and poems from pre- Sikh mystics. The fifth guru, Arjan, revised this hymnal and compiled the oral and written work of all his predecessors into the Adi Granth in 1603 –1604. Tradition says that Arjan ’s opponents were writing and circulating books falsely attributed to Nanak in an effort to corrupt Sikhism and turn it away from Arjan ’s leadership. In response, Arjan compiled the Adi Granth. The sixth guru, Arjan ’s son Har Gobind, altered the Sikh movement ’s original pacifism to militancy. The tenth and final guru, Gobind Singh, is considered by Sikhs to be, after Nanak, their most important leader. Before his death in 1708, he declared that the line of gurus was complete. From this time on, the only guru of the commu- nity was to be the Adi Granth itself, which Gobind edited into its final, present form. (He himself wrote portions of the Dasam Granth, a book we will treat in the next paragraph.) Thus, the Adi Granth serves as the teacher and authority for Sikhs, quite literally as the book containing the soul of the gurus. The Dasam Granth [DAH-sum GRAHNTH], or “Tenth Book, ”is a secondary scripture work for Sikhs consisting mostly of legendary narratives not found in the Adi Granth. Certain parts of the Dasam Granth are well known and much used among Sikhs, especially the teachings of Gobind Singh. Often quoted is his famous statement: “The temple and the mosque are one; so too are puja [Hindu worship] and [Muslim] prostration. All men are one though they seem to be many. ”Coupled with these more ecumenical sayings are statements of the rising militancy of the Sikhs. TEACHING Selections from the Japji Practicing Sikhs repeat this entire poem from memory every morning during prayers —no small feat because the Japji is almost twice as long as the excerpts given here, twelve verses. Sikhs consider it the essence of their faith. The Japji moves back and forth between several topics: (1) God ’s name, greatness, and power; (2) God ’s creation of the world; (3) the way of salvation by meditating on God ’s name; (4) good and evil; and (5) relations with Hinduism and Islam. The rich sonority of the Japji comes through in this translation. It begins with the Mul ( “root ”) Mantar [mool MAHN-tahr], a confession of faith considered the capstone of the whole composition. 2In the tradition of Indian devotional poetry, the author ’s name is mentioned often, especially at the end of each stanza. Japji 1–3, 5 –6, 9, 15, 17 –18, 20 –22, Epilogue. 2All readings in this chapter are adapted from Max A. Macauliffe, The Sikh Religion: Its Gurus, Sacred Writings and Authors (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1909). 128 CHAPTER 5 |SikhismCopEditorial re There is only one God, whose name is true, The Creator who has no fear or enmity; He is immortal, unborn, self-existent; By the favor of the Guru. 3 Repeat His Name! The True One was in the beginning; The True One existed before time began. The True One is now also, O Nanak; The True One also (forever) shall be. [1] By thinking I cannot obtain a conception of Him, Even though I think hundreds of thousands of times. Though I be silent and keep my attention firmly fixed on Him, I cannot preserve silence. The hunger of the hungry for God does not subside, Though they obtain the load of the worlds. If man should have thousands and hundreds of thousands of devices, Even one would not assist him in obtaining God. How shall man become true before God? How shall the veil of falsehood be torn? By walking, O Nanak, according to the will of the Commander as preordained. By His order bodies are produced; His order cannot be described. By His order souls are infused into them; By His order greatness is obtained. By His order men are high or low; By His order they obtained preordained pain or pleasure. By His order some obtained their reward; By His order others must ever wander in transmigration. All are subject to His order; none is exempt from it. He who understands God ’s order, O Nanak, is never guilty of egoism …. Millions of men give many million descrip- tions of Him, But they fail to describe Him. The Giver gives; the receiver grows weary of receiving. In every age man subsists by His bounty. The Commander by His order has laid out the way of the world …. [5] He is not established, nor is He created. The Pure One exists by Himself. They who worship Him obtain honor. Nanak, sing the praises of Him who is the Treasury of excellences. Sing and hear and put His love into your hearts. Thus shall your sorrows be removed, and you shall be absorbed in Him who is the abode of happiness. Under the Guru ’s instruction God ’s word is heard; 4 Under the Guru ’s instruction its knowledge is acquired; Under the Guru ’s instruction man learns that God is everywhere contained …. [9] By hearing the Name man becomes as Shiva, Brahma, and Indra. 5 By hearing the Name even the low become highly lauded. By hearing the Name the way of yoga and the secrets of the body are obtained. By hearing the Name man understands the real nature of the Shastras, the Smritis, and the Vedas. 6 Nanak, the saints are always happy. By hearing the Name sorrow and sin are no more …. 3By the favor of the Guru: Known through the Guru. 4Guru: The line of gurus that founded Sikhism, and particu- larly the Adi Granth, in which the single soul of the gurus now resides.5Shiva, Brahma, and Indra: Leading Hindu gods. The implicit claim of this stanza is that the spiritual goals of devotional Hinduism can be accomplished in Sikhism.6Shastras, Smritis, Vedas: Hindu scriptures, whose real nature can be found in Sikhism. TEACHING |Selections from the Japji 129CopEditorial re [14] By obeying Him man attains the gate of salvation; By obeying Him man is saved with his family; By obeying Him the Guru is saved, and saves his disciples; By obeying Him, O Nanak, man wanders not in quest of alms — So pure is God ’s name — Whoever obeys God knows the pleasure of it in his own heart … . [17] Numberless are Your devotees, and numberless Your lovers; Numberless Your adorers; Numberless they who perform austerities for You; Numberless the reciters of sacred books and Vedas; Numberless Your yogins whose hearts are indifferent to the world; Numberless the saints who ponder divine knowledge; Numberless Your true men; numberless almsgivers; Numberless Your heroes who face the steel of their enemies; Numberless Your silent devoted ones who lovingly fix their thoughts upon You. What power do I have to describe You? So lowly am I, I cannot even once be a sac- rifice to You. Whatever pleases You is good. O formless One, You are always secure. Numberless are the fools appallingly blind; Numberless are the thieves and devourers of others ’property; Numberless those who establish their sover- eignty by force; Numberless the cut-throats and murderers; Numberless the sinners who pride themselves on committing sin; Nanak thus describes the degraded. So lowly am I, I cannot be a sacrifice to You. Whatever pleases You is good. [21] Pilgrimage, austerities, mercy, and almsgiving — Whoever performs these may obtain some little honor. But he who hears and obeys loves God in his heart; He shall wash off his impurity in the place of pilgrimage within him. All virtues are Yours, O Lord; none are mine …. What the time, what the epoch, what the lunar day, and what the week-day, What the season, and what the month when the world was created, The Pandits 7did not discover; had they done so, they would have recorded it in the Puranas. Nor did the Qazis 8discover it; had they done so, they would have recorded it in the Qur ’an. Neither the Yogi nor any other mortal knows the lunar day, or the week-day, or the season, or the month. Only the Creator who fashioned the world knows when He did so. How shall I address You, O God? How shall I praise You? How shall I describe You? And how shall I know You? Nanak says, “Everybody speaks of You, one wiser than another. ”… Men have grown weary at last of searching for God ’s limits; They say one thing, that God has no limit. The thousands of Puranas and Muslim books tell that in reality there is but one principle. If God can be described by writing, then describe Him; but such description is impossible. O Nanak, call Him great; only God Himself knows how great He is! 7Pandits: Highly learned Brahmins. 8Qazis: Islamic judges. Despite the statement that Islamic judges could “have recorded ”something in the Qur ’an, Mus- lim scripture cannot be supplemented by later material. 130 CHAPTER 5 |SikhismCopEditorial re Art Directors & TRIP/Alamy The Founder of Sikhism Guru Nanak depicted in a traditional painting. Remembering God In Sikhism, the way of salvation is by profound reflection on and commitment to God ’s name. “Remembering ”is not the opposite of “forgetting ”but a way to this reflection and commit- ment. These are the words of Guru Arjan from Gauri Sukhmani of the Adi Granth, often repeated after the Japji in the morning prayer service. This passage begins with words of veneration for the Guru Granth Sahib. I bow to the primal Guru; I bow to the Guru of the primal age; I bow to the true Guru; I bow to the holy divine Guru. Remember, remember God; Gauri Sukhmani , Mahala 5. TEACHING |Remembering God 131CopEditorial re By remembering Him you shall obtain happiness, And erase from your hearts trouble and affliction. Remember the praises of the one all- supporting God. Numberless persons utter God ’s various names. Investigating the Vedas, the Puranas, and the Smritis, Men have made out the one word that is God ’s name. His praises cannot be recounted. Says Nanak, “Save me, O Lord, with those who desire one glance of You. ” The name of God is like ambrosia, bestowing happiness; It gives peace to the hearts of the saints. By remembering God man does not again enter the womb; By remembering God the tortures of Death disappear; By remembering God death is removed; By remembering God enemies retreat; By remembering God no obstacles are met; By remembering God we are watchful night and day; By remembering God fear is not felt; By remembering God sorrow troubles not: Men remember God in the company of the saints. Nanak, by the love of God all wealth is obtained. By remembering God we obtain wealth, supernatural power, and the nine treasures; By remembering God we obtain divine knowledge, meditation, and the essence of wisdom; Remembrance of God is the real devotion, penance, and worship; By remembering God the conception of duality is dispelled; By remembering God we obtain the advan- tages of bathing at places of pilgrimage; By remembering God we are honored at His court; By remembering God we become reconciled to His will; By remembering God men ’s lives are very profitable; They whom He has caused to do so remem- ber Him. Nanak, touch the feet of such persons. 9 Dancing for Krishna Sikhism developed out of devotional Hinduism. In this reading from Rag Gurji of the Adi Granth, Guru Amar Das rejects the Krishnavites ’idea that merit is earned by participation in the dancing for Krishna that occurs at his festivals and stirs up emotional attachment to Krishna. In typical Guru Granth style, Guru Amar Das adapts the practices of other religions to Sikhism by reinterpreting them for the new faith. I dance, but it is my heart I cause to dance; By the favor of the Guru I have effaced myself. He who keeps his mind firmly fixed on God shall obtain deliverance and the object of his desires. 9touch the feet of such persons: Show them respect (in this tradi- tionally Indian way) because you approve of them. Rag Gurji, Mahala 3. 132 CHAPTER 5 |SikhismCopEditorial re Dance, O man, before your Guru; He who dances as it pleases the Guru shall obtain happiness; At the last moment the fear of Death shall forsake him. He whom God causes to dance and whom He loves is a saint. He himself sings, he himself instructs, and puts ignorant man on the right way. He who banishes worldly love shall dance day and night in God ’s house and never sleep. Everyone who dances, leaps, and sings of other gods is lulled to sleep in the house of riches; Such are the perverse who have no devotion. Demigods and men who abandon the world dance in religious works; Munis 10 and men dance in the contemplation of divine knowledge. Strivers and holy men who have acquired wisdom to meditate on God dance in God ’s love. The regions, worlds, beings are endowed with the three qualities They who love You dance. Men and the lower animals all dance, the four sources of life dance. They who please You dance, the pious who love the Word …. He to whom You are gracious shall obtain You by the favor of the Guru. If I forget the True One even for a moment, that moment passes in vain. Remember Him at every breath and He will pardon you from His own grace. They who please You, O God, and who meditate on the Word, really dance. Nanak says, “They to whom You are merciful shall easily obtain bliss. ” The Hindu Thread This Adi Granth passage from Guru Nanak , Asa Ki Var features a strong rejection of Hindu ritual practices. Their spiritual intent seems to be affirmed, but their use is not. Singled out for criticism is the Hindu sacred string, worn directly on the body by Hindus of the three upper castes as a sign that one is a full ( “twice-born ”) Hindu. As in the previous selection, Hindu practice is reinterpreted for Sikhs: “Make a sacred thread for the soul. ” Make mercy your cotton, contentment your thread, continence its knot, truth its twist. That would make a sacred thread for the soul; If you have it, O Brahmin, 11 then put it on me. It will not break, or become soiled, or be burned, or lost. Blest is the man, O Nanak, who has such a thread on his neck. You purchase a sacred thread for four coins, and seated in a square 12 you put it on; 10Munis: Ancient religious seers, much like the rishis in Hinduism. Asa Ki Var, Mahala 1. 11Brahmin: A Brahmin priest typically leads the Hindu reli- gious ceremony in which the string is put on a young man. 12seated in a square: A square drawn on the ground in which the thread ceremony occurs. TEACHING |The Hindu Thread 133CopEditorial re You whisper instruction that the Brahmin is the guru — Man dies, the sacred thread falls, and the soul departs without it. Though men commit countless thefts, countless adulteries, utter countless false- hoods and countless words of abuse, Though they commit countless robberies and villainies night and day against their fellow creatures, Yet the cotton thread is spun, and the Brah- min comes to twist it. For the ceremony they kill a goat and cook and eat it, and everybody then says, “Put on the sacred thread. ” When it becomes old, it is thrown away and another is put on. Nanak, the string does not break if it is strong. By adoring and praising the Name honor and a true thread are obtained. In this way a sacred thread shall be put on which will not break, And which will be fit for entrance into God ’s court. There is no string for the sexual organs to wear, no string for women to wear; There is no string for the impure acts which cause your beards to be daily spat upon. There is no string for the feet, no string for the hands, No string for the tongue, no string for the eyes. Without such strings the Brahmin wanders astray, Twists strings for the neck, and puts them on others. He takes a fee for marrying; He pulls out a paper, and shows the fate of the wedded pair. 13 Hear and see, you people; it is strange That a man who is mentally blind is called wise. ETHICS Prayer for Forgiveness This lyrical prayer by Guru Arjan now found in the Adi Granth ’s Rag Bihagra expresses the moral structure of Sikhism. God is holy and forgives those who confess their sin. The particular sin confessed in this passage is that of greedy attachment to money and other possessions. The prayer ends with an assurance of forgiveness. Hear my supplication, O my Lord God, Though I am full of millions of sins, never- theless I am Your slave. O You Dispeller of grief, merciful, fascinating, Destroyer of trouble and anxiety, I seek Your protection; protect my honor. You are in all things, O spotless One; You hear and behold us; You are with us all, O God; You are the nearest of all to us. O Lord, hear Nanak ’s prayer; save the slave of Your household. 13He pulls … pair: Shows them an astrological prediction writ- ten for the occasion, still an important part of Hindu marriage. Rag Bihagra , Mahala 5. 134 CHAPTER 5 |SikhismCopEditorial re You are ever omnipotent; we are poor beggars. O God, save us who are involved in the love of money. Bound by covetousness and worldly love, we have committed various sins. The Creator is distinct and free from entan- glements; man obtains the fruit of his acts. Show us kindness, You purifier of sinners; We are weary of wandering through many a womb. Nanak testifies, “I am the slave of God who is the support of the soul and life. ” You are great and omnipotent; my under- standing is feeble. You cherish even the ungrateful; You look equally on all. Unfathomable is Your knowledge, O infinite Creator; I am lowly and know nothing. Having rejected the gem of Your name, I have amassed money; I am a degraded and silly being. By the commission of sin I have amassed what is very unstable and forsakes man. Nanak has sought Your protection, O omni- potent Lord; preserve his honor. When I sang God ’s praises in the association of the saints, He united me with Himself, although I had been separated from Him. By ever thoroughly singing God ’s praises, He who is happiness itself becomes known. My couch, when God accepts me as His own, is adorned by Him. Having dismissed anxiety I am no longer anxious, and suffer no further pain. Nanak lives beholding God and singing the praises of the Ocean of excellences. Against the Use of Wine Although the Sikh scriptures contain no formal listing of ethical commands, one of the firmest Sikh commands is the prohibition of alcoholic beverages, which it shares with Islam as a whole, with Hindu ascetics, and with Buddhist and Jain monks. Despite this prohibition, rates of alcohol consumption today are higher in the Sikh homeland than in other areas of India, making this passage as relevant as ever. In this reading from the Adi Granth, Rag Biha- gra, notice once again the reinterpretation of an evil practice: God ’s name should be the “wine ”of Sikhs. Make merits your cakes, good conduct your clarified butter, and modesty your meat. Such things, O Nanak, are obtained by the Guru ’s favor; by partaking of them sins depart. The barmaid is misery, wine is lust; man is the drinker. The cup filled with worldly love is wrath, and it is served by pride. The company is false and covetous, and is ruined by excess of drink. Instead of such wine, make good conduct your yeast, truth your molasses, God ’s name your wine. Rag Bihagra , Mahala 1. ETHICS |Against the Use of Wine 135CopEditorial re ORGANIZATION The Guru This hymn from the Adi Granth, Rag Gauri by Guru Amar Das expresses the characteristic attitude of later Sikhs toward the line of the gurus. Though the Sri Guru Granth Sahib is not explicitly mentioned, Sikhs hearing this hymn would think that everything said about the guru applies to their Guru Granth, in which the soul of the guru is incarnated. Through the Guru a few obtain divine knowledge; He who knows God through the Guru shall be acceptable. Through the Guru there results divine know- ledge and meditation on the True One; Through the Guru the gate of deliverance is attained. It is only by perfect good fortune the Guru comes in one ’s way. The true become easily absorbed in the True One. On meeting the Guru the fire of avarice is quenched. Through the Guru peace dwells in the heart. Through the Guru man becomes pure, spot- less, and immaculate. Through the Guru the Word which unites man with God is obtained. Without the Guru everyone wanders in doubt. Without the Name great misery is suffered. He who is pious meditates on the Name. On beholding the True One, true honor is obtained. Whom shall we call the giver? The One God. If He be gracious, we obtain the Word by which we meet Him. May Nanak meet the beloved Guru, sing the True One ’s praises, And becoming true be absorbed in the True One! God ’s Power in the Sikh Community The final shape of the Sikh community (panth) was established by the tenth guru, Gobind Singh. This hymn by Guru Arjan from the Adi Granth, Rag Gauri contains a line, “Victory be ever to the society of the saints! ”which is very reminiscent of the shout used to close many Sikh services: “The Khalsa [a select society of dedicated Sikhs] shall rule! ” Rag Gauri , Mahala 3. Rag Gauri , Mahala 5. 136 CHAPTER 5 |SikhismCopEditorial re There is none beside Him; in his power are lords and emperors; In his power is the whole world; he has created everything. Address your supplication to the true Guru, that he may arrange all your affairs. His court is the most exalted of all; His name is the support of all the saints. The Lord whose glory shines in every heart Is contained in everything, and fills creation. By remembering Him the abode of sorrow is demolished. By remembering Him Death molests us not; By remembering Him what is withered becomes green; By remembering Him the sinking stone floats. Victory be ever to the society of the saints! God ’s name supports the lives of His servants. Nanak says, “Hear, O God, my supplication; By the favor of the saints, grant me to dwell in Your name. ” RITUAL Hymn for the Installation of the Guru Granth Although the content of this beautiful hymn from the Adi Granth ’s Rag Devgandhari seems unrelated to the Guru Granth, Sikhs in the temple sing it as the holy book is brought out in the morning and put to rest at night. It affirms the Sikh believers ’desire to devote themselves completely to God and the Sikh community. O God, this is the desire of my heart: That You, the Treasure of mercy, the Compassionate, should make me the slave of Your saints; That I should devote my body and soul to their service and sing God ’s praises with my tongue; That I should ever abide with the saints and remember You at every breath I draw. The Name is my sole support and wealth; from it Nanak obtains delight. A Marriage Hymn Here is a hymn from the Adi Granth ’s Rag Asa typically sung at Sikh weddings. Devotion to God and devotion to one ’s spouse are masterfully blended. The believer is represented as the bride, with God as the groom. Rag Devgandhari , Mahala 5. Rag Asa , Mahala 5. RITUAL |AMarriageHymn 137CopEditorial re The stars glitter on a clear night. Holy men, the beloved of my Lord, are awake; The beloved of my Lord are ever awake, and remember His name night and day. They meditate in their hearts on His lotus feet, and forget Him not for a moment. They renounce the sins of pride and worldly love, and efface the pain of wrong-doing. Nanak testifies that the servants of God are always awake. My couch has splendid trappings. In my heart joy has sprung up since I heard that my Lord was approaching. On meeting my Lord I have entered on happiness. I am filled with the essence of joy and delight. He embraced me; my sorrows fled; my soul, mind, and body all bloomed afresh. I have obtained my heart ’s desires by medi- tating on God; The time of my union with Him I account auspicious. Nanak testifies that when he met the Bearer of prosperity, the essence of all pleasure was prepared for him. My companions meeting me asked me to describe my Spouse. I was so filled with the sweets of love that I could not speak. The attributes of the Creator are deep, mys- terious, and boundless; The Vedas have not found His limit. She who meditates on the Lord with devotion and love, who ever sings His praises, And is pleasing to her God, is full of all virtues and divine knowledge. Nanak testifies that she who is dyed with the color of God ’s love shall be easily absorbed in Him. When I began to sing songs of joy to God, My friends became glad, my troubles and my enemies fled away, My happiness and comfort increased, I rejoiced in God ’s name, and He Himself bestowed mercy on me. I clung to His feet, and being ever wakeful I met Him. Happy days came, I obtained peace with all treasures and was blended with God. Nanak testifies that the saints of God are ever steadfast in seeking His protection. SELECTIONS FROM THE DASAM GRANTH Guru Gobind Singh ’s Story Guru Gobind tells not only his own story, but also the story of the one soul of the line of gurus. In telling this story, he offers a stinging critique of Hinduism and Islam. The total rejection of these religions here in the Dasam Granth ’s Vichitar Natak is markedly different from the nuance that the Adi Granth shows toward them. Dasam Granth ,Vichitar Natak 6. 138 CHAPTER 5 |SikhismCopEditorial re I shall now tell my own story, How God brought me into the world as I was performing penance On the mountain of Hem Kunt, 14 Where the seven peaks are conspicuous. There I performed very great austerities; I devoted myself to Great Death. 15 I performed such penance That I became blended with God. My father and mother were devoted to the Unseen One, And strove in many ways to unite themselves with Him. The Supreme Guru was pleased With their devotion to Him. When God gave me the order I assumed birth in this age. I did not desire to come, As my attention was fixed on God ’s feet. God spoke earnestly to me, And sent me into this world with the following orders: “When I created this world I first made the demons, who became enemies and oppressors. They became intoxicated with the strength of their arms, And ceased to worship Me, the Supreme Being. I became angry and at once destroyed them. In their places I established the gods. They also busied themselves receiving sacri- fices and worship, calling themselves supreme beings. Shiva called himself the imperishable God. Vishnu too declared himself to be God; Brahma called himself the supreme Brahma, And nobody thought Me to be God …. Brahma made the four Vedas And caused all to act according to them; But they whose love was attached to My feet renounced the Vedas. They who abandoned the tenets of the Vedas and other books Became devoted to Me, the supreme God. “They who follow true religion Shall have their sins of various kinds blotted out. They who endure bodily suffering And cease not to love Me shall all to go paradise. There shall be no difference between Me and them. They who shrink from suffering, And, forsaking Me, adopt the way of the Vedas and Smritis , Shall fall into the pit of hell, And continually suffer transmigration …. “I then created Muhammad, and made him king of Arabia. He too established a religion of his own, Cut off the foreskins of all his followers, And made every one repeat his name; 16 But no one (among them) fixed the true Name in man ’s heart. I have cherished you as My son, And created you to extend My religion. Go and spread My religion there, And restrain the world from senseless acts. ” I stood up, clasped my hands, bowed my head, and replied: “Your religion shall prevail in the world when You assure me your assistance. ” 14Hem Kunt: A rugged area in northern India. 15Great Death: One of the forms of God, in which the guru worships him. 16repeat his name: In the main Muslim statement of faith, “There is no God but God, and Muhammad is God ’s prophet. ” SELECTIONS FROM THE DASAM GRANTH |Guru Gobind Singh ’sStory 139CopEditorial re On this account God sent me; I took birth and came into the world. As He spoke to me so I speak unto men; I bear no enmity to anyone. All who call me the Supreme Being shall fall into the pit of hell. Recognize me as God ’s servant only: Have no doubt whatever of this. I am the slave of the Supreme Being, Come to behold the wonders of the world. I tell the world what God told me; I will not be silent through fear of mortals. Catherine Jones/ The Sword in Sikhism Sikh boys line up for a Sikh Day parade in New York City. God as the Holy Sword One of the most important developments in the early history of Sikhism was the shift from pacifism to militancy. This famous hymn from the Dasam Granth ’ssection Vichitar Natak expresses this militancy with its personification of the sword as God and its promotion of what Sikhs call the “battle for righteousness. ”Today, a Sikh child is ceremonially washed with water that has been stirred by a two-edged sword, and the dagger between two swords is a prominent symbol of modern Sikhism. I bow with love and devotion to the Holy Sword. Assist me that I may complete this book. You are the Subduer of countries, the Destroyer of the armies of the wicked; In the battlefield You greatly adorn the brave. Your arm is unbreakable, Your brightness resplendent, Your radiance and splendor dazzle like the sun. You bestow happiness on the good, You ter- rify the evil; You scatter sinners, and I seek Your protection. Hail! Hail to the Creator of the world, the Savior of creation, my Cherisher! Hail to You, O Sword! I bow to Him who holds the arrow in His hand; I bow to the Fearless One; I bow to the God of gods who is in the present and the future. I bow to the scimitar, the two-edged sword, the broad-bladed sword, and the dagger. You, O God, always have one form; You are always unchangeable. I bow to the Holder of the mace … ; I bow to the arrow and the musket, I bow to the Sword, spotless, fearless, and unbreakable; I bow to the powerful mace and lance to which nothing is equal. I bow to Him who holds the discus, 17 Who is not made of the elements and is terrible. I bow to Him with the strong teeth; Dasam Granth, Vichitar Natak 6. 17discus: Similar to our discus used in track and field athletic contests, but used as a military weapon. 140 CHAPTER 5 |SikhismCopEditorial re I bow to Him who is supremely powerful, I bow to the arrow and the cannon that destroy the enemy. I bow to the sword and the rapier that destroy evil. I bow to all weapons called “shastar, ”which are held. I bow to all weapons called “astar, ”which are hurled or discharged. GLOSSARY Adi Granth [AH-dee GRAHNTH] “First/original book ”; the main scripture of Sikhism, consisting pri- marily of the words of the first five gurus; also known as the Sri Guru Granth Sahib and the Guru Granth. chaur [chowr] Horsehair, yak-hair, or peacock-feather fan used to venerate the Adi Granth; it is waved over the scripture to cool the book and repel flies. Dasam Granth [DAH-sum GRAHNTH] “Tenth Book ”; secondary scripture consisting mostly of the words of the tenth guru, Gobind Singh. granthi [GRAHN-thee] Official reader of the Adi Granth. gutka [GUHT-kuh] Anthology, for private use, of the most important passages from the Adi Granth and a few passages from the Dasam Granth. janam-sakhis [JAH-num SAH-kees] “Birth stories ”; traditional narratives about the lives of the gurus, especially Nanak. Japji [JAHP-jee] Poem by Guru Nanak expressing the essence of Sikhism; it is the first main section of the Adi Granth. Mahala [ma-HAH-luh] Term in the Adi Granth used to differentiate the compositions of the first five gurus. Mul Mantar [mool MAHN-tahr] “Root Formula ”; the opening confession of faith of the Japji. ragas [RAH-guhs] Thirty-nine basic “tunes ”on which melodies used for singing the Adi Granth are based. vak lao [vahk low] “Taking [God ’s] word ”by opening the Adi Granth at random and beginning the reading from the top of the left-hand page. QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION 1. Describe the main teachings of the Adi Granth. Which do you see as most important and why? 2. “Of all the religions of the world, Sikhism has the best claim to be a ‘religion of the book. ’” Do you agree or disagree? Why? 3. Which attitudes, teachings, and practices of Sikh- ism seem to resemble Hinduism? Which seem to resemble Islam? Which seem to be distinct? 4. How does Sikh tradition, as expressed in its scrip- tures, vary between inclusiveness toward other faiths and exclusiveness? 5. Describe the shift from pacifism to militarism in Sikh tradition. What similar shifts can you think of in other religions? SCRIPTURES IN FILM Sikhs treat their scriptures with such reverence that to make a film from them is unthinkable. One recent film giving good insight into Sikhism in the Western world is Bend It Like Beckham (2002, directed by Gurinder Chadra, rated PG- 13), the story of how the daughter of strict Sikhs living in London rebels against her family ’s strict ways by running off with a British soccer team to Germany. The 2008 drama Ocean of Pearls , directed by Sarab Neelam, deals with issues around distinctive Sikh appearance. When Amrit Singh sees his dreams of becoming chief of surgery at a prestigious transplant center disappear because of his traditional Sikh appearance, he cuts his hair. When his other compromises result in the death of a patient, Amrit reexamines Sikh traditions. MindTap is a fully online, highly personalized learning experience built upon Cengage Learning content. MindTap combines student learning tools —readings, multimedia, activities, and assessments —into a singular Learning Path that guides students through their course. Scriptures in Film 141CopEditorial re CHAPTER SIX Confucianism U.S. Army Photo by Tim Hipps Confucian Scripture at the Olympics Some of the hundreds of performers portraying disciples of Confucius at the opening ceremonies of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China, recite passages from the Analects . The passages are written on bamboo slips tied together, the earliest book format in ancientChina. –142 –CopEditorial re The influence of Confucian scripture has been felt in Chinese religion and culture for more than two thousand years, and, for about the last 200 years, it has been felt around the world. Here are some examples: Throughout North America, the publication of Amy Chua ’s book, Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother , raises a storm of controversy. Chua ’s book details how she raised two daughters with traditionally “tough love ”and “Chinese mother ”parenting, as opposed to what she calls the “lax ”current models of American parenting. She demanded straight A ’s from her daughters and pushed them to excel in everything they did. Many Chinese American parents take the time to guide their children in doing homework and give them more academic work besides what is assigned; children usually respond by taking their studies seriously. This is in line with traditional Confucian values, especially the importance of self-cultivation in service of one ’s family. In Beijing, large celebrations of Confucius ’birthday are carried out annually. The festivities held in his hometown of Qufu are televised nationwide, and thousands of Chinese, including many high-ranking Communist Party members, make a pilgrimage there. The leaders of the party now use Confucian values to counteract social problems such as social incivility, lack of traditional respect for aging par- ents, and a “money first ”mentality. Ironically, these were some of the same problems that prompted Confucius to begin his social and religious reforms more than 2500 years ago. Throughout many cities in southern Asia, a controversy breaks out over a travel- ing exhibit of relics of the Buddha, most of them bits of bone said to be left over from his cremation. Confucianists oppose venerating these relics, calling it super- stitious. Even Tibetan Buddhists are divided over it, with some groups promoting the relics and the Dalai Lama opposing it as “the worship of evil spirits. ”This recalls an ancient controversy in China, when in 819 C.E., the Confucian scholar Han Yu wrote a bold, sharply worded letter to the emperor urging him not to visit a travelling relic of the Buddha. 1 INTRODUCTION Confucianism is the system of religion and philosophy begun by the sage Kong Fuzi, “Master Kong. ”He is mostly known to the Western world and in scholarship by the anglicized form of his name, Confucius (551 –479 B.C.E.), so we will keep to that spelling of his name. Chinese people today most commonly refer to him as Kongzi [KONG-zhee]. Although his teachings had little impact on culture or government during his lifetime, and Confucius thought at the end of his life that his movement would perish with him, his teachings were kept alive by his disciples. (See Map 4, “China in the Sixth Century B.C.E.,”in the map section.) In the second century B.C.E., Confucianism became the official religion of China. Since then, it has been closely identified with the essence of traditional Chinese culture. Confucianism forms the basis of Chinese education, ethics, and statecraft, and it has deeply influ- enced some of the nations surrounding China, especially Korea, Taiwan, and Japan. 1For the text of this letter, see Introduction 143CopEditorial re For example, the study of the Confucian books is required in Taiwanese schools. Although it is no longer a state religion of China since the communist takeover in 1949, Confucianism has experienced a rebirth of sorts in other parts of Asia. As we saw earlier, it is now being revived in China as well. It teaches a personal and social morality that stresses the practice of key virtues such as filiality, humaneness, propriety, and faithfulness. Its full and well-defined scriptural canon provides excellent insight into Confucianism. Overview of Structure Confucianists call their earliest scriptures Classics ,or Jing [in the older Wade-Giles system of spelling, “Ching ”]. In Chinese as in English, the word classic suggests a literary work that has been accepted as authoritative over a long time up through the present. The Confucian canon is divided into two parts: the earlier Five Classics and the later Four Books. The Five Classics form the foundation of the later works written by Confucius and his followers. Hundreds of years before the birth of Confucius, these early books were known, respected, and authoritative. According to some lists of the Confucian canon, the Classics number as many as thirteen (especially during the Tang Dynasty); another commonly seen number is nine. Lists of the Confucian canon vary, but the Five Classics and the Four Books are always their backbone. (For a summary of the Confucian canon, see Table 6.1.) Many Confucianists traditionally believe that Confucius edited all Five Classics and wrote commentaries for some of them. Though this claim is historically doubtful, most scholars do hold that the early Confucian tradition played a strong role in shap- ing and transmitting these books when it took them into its canon. Also, the tradi- tional claim expresses the high value the Confucian tradition placed on the ancient classics. Confucius himself said about three of these books, “By the Poetry the mind is aroused; by the Rites the character is established; by the Music the finish is received ” (Analects 8.8). The oldest of the Five Classics is the Yi Jing [yee jing], the Classic of Changes, a manual of fortune telling that developed over several hundred years beginning around 1000 B.C.E. It contains pairs of eight basic trigrams (combinations of three horizontal lines) that believers have used to provide information about the future and recom- mend a course of action to meet it. The Yi Jing is built on the yin-yang [yihn-yahng, not “ying-yang ”], the balance of great interactive cosmic forces such as passivity and activity, darkness and light, and other opposing pairs. This cosmology has given the book great popularity among educated Chinese. In Confucian history, it was also sometimes used philosophically, especially because of the “wings, ”or additional com- mentary. Of all Chinese literature, the Yi Jing has been the most often translated into English and other modern European languages because of its philosophical appeal rather than as a book of divination; currently, more than thirty English translations are in print. In China, however, the religio-magical use has tended to predominate. (This book is important for Daoists as well and is a prominent part of their canon.) The second of the Five Classics is the Classic of History , sometimes called the Classic of Documents. It consists of royal chronicles, narratives, decrees, and the like from the early Zhou dynasty, around 1000 B.C.E. Confucius viewed the Zhou period as an ideal age, and the History helped to shape his thought. Some of its contents are later, forged additions. 144 CHAPTER 6 |ConfucianismCopEditorial re Third is the important Classic of Poetry. It consists of 305 relatively short poems dating from the tenth to the seventh centuries B.C.E. These poetic songs deal with a wide variety of topics, including love, rituals, family relations, and government. Today, the Poetry is divided into three parts: folksongs, banqueting songs, and sacrificial songs for the veneration of ancestors. By the time of Confucius, the Poetry had become the leading model of Chinese literary expression. The writings of Confucius have numer- ous allusions to it, and Confucius often urges his disciples to study the Poetry closely. Even today, Chinese schoolchildren memorize and recite poems from the Poetry as a key part of their education in Chinese culture. Fourth is the Spring and Autumn Classic. The Chinese expression spring and autumn refers to the entire year, not just to those two seasons. This book is a sober and rather reliable chronological account of events in the state of Lu, Confucius ’home state, from 720 to 480 B.C.E. Its ideas of respect for law and social customs in govern- ment are only implicitly Confucian. Fifth is the Classic of Rites , the Li [lee] Jing . This collection features rituals and ceremonies of ancient China, both public and private. It was probably collected in the second century B.C.E. The word lican be variously translated “ritual, ”“ propriety, ”or “manners, ”and all these ideas are important in the Classic of Rites. The Four Books of the Confucian canon are built on what Confucius and his fol- lowers saw as the main teachings of the earlier Five Classics. These teachings form the heart of Confucianism. First among the Four Books is the Analects (Lunyu, “ordered/ classified sayings ”) of Confucius. The Analects (an English word for “selected say- ings ”) is by far the most important text in the history of Confucianism and our most reliable source for knowledge of Confucius himself. It contains sayings of the Master and occasional anecdotes about him as remembered by his disciples and recorded after his death. The Analects has 12,700 characters (ideogram words) in twenty short books. Like most other collections around the world of wise sayings, the Analects is loosely organized and repetitive at times. It treats well all the important concepts of the Con- fucian tradition: the cardinal virtues of humanity, propriety, respect for parents; becom- ing a superior man; and proper government. TABLE 6.1 The Confucian Canon Division Chinese Name English Name Approximate Date Size Yi Jing Classic of Changes 1000 B.C.E. 64 hexagrams Shu Jing Classic of History 2300 –600 B.C.E. 28 short chapters Five Classics Shi Jing Classic of Poetry 100 –400 B.C.E. 305 poems/songs Chun Qiu Jing Spring & Autumn Classic 722 –484 B.C.E. 16,000 characters Li Jing Classic of Rites 1000 B.C.E. 49 chapters Lunyu Analects 400 B.C.E. 20 short chapters Four Books Mengzi Mengzi/Mencius 250 B.C.E. 28 medium chapters Ta Hsueh Great Learning 300 B.C.E. 11 short chapters Chung Yung Doctrine of the Mean 1000 B.C.E. 1 chapter (from Classic of Rites ) Introduction 145CopEditorial re The second of the Four Books is the Mengzi (Wade-Giles, Meng-tzu , anglicized as Mencius ), named for its author. Mengzi (ca. 371 –ca. 289 B.C.E.) was the most significant person in Confucian tradition after Confucius. His disciples compiled this book of Mengzi ’s teachings after his death. More than twice as long as the Analects, the Mengzi has well-developed treatments of several important topics, especially proper government. Mengzi saw filiality as the greatest of the virtues and held strongly to the teaching of innate human goodness. Third is the Great Learning, a short book that is an excerpt on virtuous govern- ment from the Classic of Rites. Its first, short chapter is held to be the work of Con- fucius. The next ten chapters are a commentary on the first by Zengzi (Wade-Giles, Tseng-tzu), one of Confucius ’disciples. The Great Learning teaches that rulers gov- ern by example. If the ruler is morally good, so will be his government and his sub- jects. If the ruler is not good, his subjects will incline to evil; he will lose the mandate of Heaven , near-divine permission and blessing to govern, and his rule will collapse. Fourth is the Doctrine of the Mean. Like most of the Great Learning, it was originally a chapter in the Li Jing. (“Mean, ”the traditional translation, is better under- stood today as “moderation ”because “mean ”often has a different, negative sense in English.) “Moderation ”is a broad concept, embracing many aspects of virtue: self- control, even-handedness, decorum, and sincerity. The good Confucianist is expected to “keep to the middle ”between emotional and intellectual extremes. It is in the middle that the superior man is formed and comes into harmony with the cosmic “Way ”of life, the Dao [Wade-Giles, Tao; both pronounced “dow ”]. This book was important in the neo-Confucian movement that arose in the twelfth century. Contemporary Use The official use of Confucian scriptures today flows from their adoption as the state literature of China. For more than 2000 years, all education was based either directly or indirectly on them. The first books that boys studied in elementary school were the Four Books, especially the Analects and Great Learning. The rigorous civil service exams that allowed a young man to become a government official at the county, provincial, or national level were also based on the scriptures. Each county in China had a school where the scriptural lore was taught. Men who became unusually expert in the scriptures as applied to government were known as mandarins; the last known mandarin died in 1991. The imperial university in Beijing had five professorial posts in Confucian scripture that were designed to promote the excellence of the whole sys- tem. Confucius ’personal intention was thus fulfilled, not during his lifetime but after it, when the government of China came to be based on his leading ideas. Confucius ’ideal of providing education to all who desired and could master it fell by the wayside as this training for government positions became limited to the upper classes who could pay for it. Although only a small percentage of the population of China has been able to read, the influence of the Confucian scriptures through oral teaching and general cultural transmission has been so thorough that the social rela- tionships and cultural attitudes of most Chinese have become essentially Confucian. It is often remarked that regardless of the specific religion of the Chinese — Buddhist, Daoist, Muslim, Christian, whatever — they are also Confucian. Thus, largely through the influence of its scriptures, Confucianism has taken its place as the leading historic religion of China. Now that communist values are waning in the People ’s Republic of China, educators are returning to Confucian scriptures to provide a core moral edu- cation, especially the values of civility and obedience to law. 146 CHAPTER 6 |ConfucianismCopEditorial re The Confucian approach to scripture is almost exclusively cognitive. Confucius and his first followers rejected mysticism for the most part. In subsequent centuries, the sometimes bitter struggle with the mystical Daoist religion reinforced this cognitive ori- entation. Teacher and student discuss scriptural meaning in an orderly, rational way. The individual scholar often practices “quiet sitting. ”This solitary study involves recitation of the text, meditation on its meaning, and calligraphic reproduction of the text itself. The literary style of the Confucian canon influences this use. Confucian scriptures are written in a literary style known as wen-yen [wuhn-yuhn], roughly translated as “formal-classical. ”This style is known for brief, even compressed composition. Each Chinese ideogram character must be considered carefully to bring out the meaning. This elusive style is one reason Confucianists have generated a massive commentarial literature that seeks to shed more light on their canonical books. In the Confucian tradition, some of these commentaries have become accepted, authoritative works in understanding the canon. Moreover, wen-yen means that translations of Confucian and Daoist scriptures often vary greatly among themselves, more so than translations of the scriptures of other religions. As a result, this compressed style invites the reader of both the Chinese original and the English translation to meditate carefully and deeply about its meaning. Historical Origin and Development The Confucian canon has not come down to us in an easily traceable way. The Analects and the Mengzi/Mencius were probably first written down within a century of the death of their authors. The Great Learning and Doctrine of the Mean were separated from the Classic of Rites and made independent books. Then in 213 B.C.E., Emperor Shi Huangdi, a radical innovator opposed to ancient traditions, ordered all Confucian books to be destroyed. This famous “Burning of the Books ”resulted in the loss of sev- eral versions of the Confucian books, although most of them survived in some form. The Confucian canon was reedited and republished under the next dynasty, the Han (206 B.C.E.–220 C.E.). During the Han, Confucianism was made the official state religion, and the Confucian canon was officially adopted as the basis of thought and conduct — indeed, of all official Chinese culture. In the 1100s C.E., the Four Books were recognized as an independent collection, and they soon became more central to Con- fucian life than the older Five Classics. The Five Classics came to be interpreted through the Four Books. State sanction for the Confucian canon lasted until 1905, when the government of China abolished the civil service system based on the canon. HISTORY The Character of Confucius The Analects depicts Confucius as a model of the “superior man. ”By following his own teach- ing, he became an example to his followers. The first passage, from Analects 2.4, is Confucius ’ Analects 2.4; 7.1 –9, 19 –24; 10.1 –3, 8 –12. HISTORY |The Character of Confucius 147CopEditorial re own summary of his progress in self-cultivation, a key Confucian virtue. The second, from 7.1 –9, 19 –24, describes key elements in his character. The third, from 10.1 –3, 8 –12, gives fascinating detail about some of his daily habits. These habits, especially about his food and clothing, may seem “fussy ”to us today, but they reflect his own commitment to traditional Chinese manners. Throughout the Analects, Confucius is called “The Master. ”2 [2.4, Confucius on his self-cultivation] The Master said, “At fifteen, I had my mind focused on learning. At thirty, I stood firm. At forty, I had no doubts. At fifty, I knew the decrees of Heaven. 3At sixty, my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of truth. At seventy, I could follow what my heart desired without transgressing what was right. ” [7.1, Confucius on his character] The Master said, “I am a transmitter and not a maker. I believe in and love the ancients, and I venture to compare myself with our old Peng. ”4 The Master said, “The silent treasuring up of knowledge; learning without tiring; and instruct- ing others without being wearied — which one of these things belongs to me? ” The Master said, “Leaving virtue without proper self-cultivation; not thoroughly discussing what is learned; not being able to move toward righteousness after I have gained knowledge of it; and not being able to change what is not good — these are the things which cause me much concern. ” When the Master was not occupied with busi- ness, his manner was relaxed, and he looked pleased. [5] The Master said, “My decline is extreme. For a long time, I have not dreamed, as I used to do, that I saw the duke of Zhou. ”5 The Master said, “Let the will be set on the path of duty. Let every attainment in what is good be firmly grasped. Let perfect virtue be followed. Let relaxation and enjoyment be found in the arts. ” The Master said, “I have never refused instruc- tion to any one, from the man bringing his bundle of dried meat 6for my teaching, or more than that. ” The Master said, “I do not open up the truth to one who is not eager to get knowledge. Nor do I help out any of those who are not anxious to explain themselves. When I have presented one corner of a subject to anyone, and he cannot learn the other three [corners] from it, I do not repeat my lesson. ”When the Master was eating by the side of a mourner, he never ate to the full. He did not sing on the same day in which he had been weeping …. [19] The Master said, “I was not born in the possession of knowledge. I am fond of antiquity, and I am earnest in seeking knowledge there. ” [20] The subjects on which the Master did not talk were extraordinary things, 7 feats of strength, disorder, and spiritual beings. The Master said, “When I walk along with two others, they may serve me as my teachers. I will select their good qualities and follow them, their bad qualities and avoid them. ” The Master said, “Heaven produced the virtue that is in me. What can Huan Tui do to me? ”8The Master said, “Do you think, my disciples, that I have any secrets? I conceal nothing from you. I show you everything I do, my disciples. That is my way. ” There were four things that the Master taught: literature, ethics, devotion of soul, and truthfulness. [10.1, Daily conduct and personal habits] Confucius, in his village, looked simple and sin- cere, and as if he were not able to speak. When he was in the prince ’s ancestral temple, 9or in the (governmental) court, he spoke minutely on every point, but carefully. 10 2Unless otherwise noted, all selections from Confucian scrip-tures are adapted from James Legge, The Chinese Classics: The Texts of Confucianism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1893). 3decrees of Heaven: Understood today by most Confucianists as the working of Nature in people and events, not primarily as the working of God.4old Peng: A legendary sage from ancient times. 5duke of Zhou [Wade-Giles, Chou, both pronounced “joh ”]: In Confucius ’view, one of the greatest of the early Chinese sage-kings.6dried meat: The smallest possible payment for instruction. Confucius believed that learning and self-cultivation shouldbe open to all males who desire it. In practice, however, thehigh level of learning necessary to become a master Confu- cianist was available mostly to the upper class. 7extraordinary things: Unexplainable, and perhaps supernatu- ral, events in nature.8Huan Tui: An army officer who had tried to kill Confucius. 9ancestral temple: Family temple where the memorial tablets of the prince ’s ancestors were kept. 10He spoke minutely … carefully: That is, when he spoke to give advice to the ruler in his official role as a minister of agriculture. 148 CHAPTER 6 |ConfucianismCopEditorial re When he was on duty at court, in speaking with officers lower in rank [than he] he spoke freely, but in a straightforward manner. In speak- ing with those of a higher rank, he did so mildly, but precisely. When the ruler was present, his manner displayed respectful uneasiness; he was serious, but self-possessed. When the prince called on Confucius to receive a visitor, his appearance changed, and his legs seemed to move forward with difficulty. He inclined himself to the other officers among whom he stood, moving his left or right arm, as their position required, but he kept the skirts of his robe evenly adjusted. He hastened forward, with his arms like the wings of a bird. When the guest had left, he would report to the prince, “The visitor is not looking back anymore. ” [8] He liked to have his rice finely cleaned, and have his minced meat cut quite small. He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or damp and turned sour, nor fish or meat which was spoiled. He did not eat what was discolored, or what was of a bad flavor, nor anything which was badly cooked, or was not in season. He did not eat meat which was not cut properly, or meat that was served without its proper sauce. Though there might be a large quantity of meat, he would not allow what he took to exceed the due propor- tion for the rice [that he was given]. Only in wine did he have no limit for himself, but he did not allow himself to be confused by it. He did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in the market. He was never without gin- ger when he ate. He did not eat much. When he had been assisting at the prince ’s sacrifice, he did not keep overnight the meat that he received. 11 He did not keep longer than three days the meat of his family sacrifice. When he was eating, he did not converse. When he was in bed, he did not speak. Although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable soup, he would offer a little of it in sacrifice with a serious, respectful air. If his mat was not straight, he did not sit on it. [10] When the villagers were drinking together, after those who carried walking staffs left, he went out immediately. When the villagers were going through their ceremonies to drive away diseases, he put on his court robes and stood on the eastern steps. When he was sending complimentary inqui- ries to anyone in another state, he bowed twice as he escorted the messenger away. When Ji Kang sent him a present of medicine, he bowed and received it, but then he said, “I do not know it. I dare not taste it. ” The stable [at his house] burned down when he was at court. When he returned he asked, “Has any person been hurt? ”He did not ask about the horses. 12 TEACHING The Way The “Way ”(Dao) is an ancient idea in Chinese tradition, and is also prominent in Daoism, where it is understood as the “way of nature. ”In Confucianism, where it forms one of the basic teachings, the Dao is understood as the moral way of Heaven to which the emperor as the “Son of Heaven ”should aspire. If the emperor follows the Dao, his people will also follow 11the meat that he received: Participants in the sacrifice receive “leftovers ”to take with them. 12He did not ask about the horses: Not because he disliked horses, but because of his great feeling of ren (benevolence) for human beings. Analects 16.2. TEACHING |The Way 149CopEditorial re it. In this selection from Analects 16.2, the relationship between the Way and good govern- ment is brought out. Notice the step-by-step structure of this passage, a structure also found in other Confucian scripture passages given in this chapter. Confucius said, “When [the Way of] good gov- ernment prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the Son of Heaven. When bad government prevails in the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions proceed from the princes. When these things proceed from the princes, they usually lose their power in ten gen- erations. When they proceed from the great offi- cers of the princes, they usually lose their power in five generations. When the subsidiary ministers of the great officers hold in their grasp the orders of the state, they usually lose their power in three generations. When the Way and right principles prevail in the kingdom, government will not be in the hands of the great officers. When right prin- ciples prevail in the kingdom, there will be no dis- cussions among the common people. ”13 The Goodness of Human Nature Although Confucius did not discuss the question of good and evil in the human personality, Mengzi took up this topic. He argued the optimistic, but traditionally Chinese, idea that peo- ple are by nature good. Therefore, the ruler must only be good himself and bring out the innate goodness of his subjects to establish his rule. In this selection from Mengzi 6.1, the opposing philosopher Gaozi serves as a foil for the thoughts of Mengzi. The philosopher Gaozi said, “Man ’s nature is like the willow tree, and righteousness is like a cup or a bowl. Fashioning benevolence and righteousness out of man ’s nature is like the making of cups and bowls from the willow. ” Mengzi replied, “Can you, by leaving untouched the nature of the willow, make cups and bowls with it? You must do violence and injury to the willow before you can make cups and bowls with it. According to your principles you must in the same way do violence and injury to humanity in order to fashion from it benevo- lence and righteousness! Your words would cer- tainly lead all men to think that benevolence and righteousness are calamities. ” The philosopher Gaozi said, “Man ’s nature is like water whirling around in a corner. Open a passage for it to the east and it will flow to the east; open a passage for it to the west and it will flow to the west. Man ’s nature is indifferent to good and evil, just as the water is indifferent to the east and west. ” Mengzi replied, “Water indeed will flow indif- ferently to the east or west, but will it flow indif- ferently up or down? The tendency of man ’s nature to good is like the tendency of water to flow downwards. All people have this tendency to good, just as all water flows downwards. Now by striking water and causing it to go up, you may make it go over your forehead, and, by damming and leading it, you may force it up a hill, but are such movements according to the nature of water? It is the force applied which causes these move- ments. When men are made to do what is not good, their nature is dealt with in this way. ”… . Gaozi said, “To enjoy food and delight in colors is natural. Benevolence is internal and not external; righteousness is external and not 13no discussions among the common people: About what is right and wrong. Mencius 6.1.1 –4, 6. 150 CHAPTER 6 |ConfucianismCopEditorial re internal. ”Mengzi asked him, “On what grounds do you say that benevolence is internal and righ- teousness external? ” He replied, “There is a man older than I, and honor his advanced age. It is not that there is first in me a principle of such reverence to age. It is just as when there is a white (haired) man, and I con- sider him white, just as he is so externally to me. On this account, I am speaking of righteousness that it is external. ” Mengzi said, “There is no difference between our pronouncing of a white horse to be white and our pronouncing a white (haired) man to be white. But is there no difference between the regard with which we acknowledge the age of an old horse and that with which we acknowledge the age of an old man? And what is it which is called righteousness? The fact of a man ’s being old? Or that we honor his age? ” Gaozi said, “Take my younger brother as an example —I love him. But the younger brother of a man of Tsin I do not love. The feeling is determined by me, and therefore I say that benevolence is inter- nal. On the other hand, I give honor to an old man of Tsoo, and I also give honor to an old man of my own people. The feeling is determined by the age, and therefore I say that righteousness is external. ” Mengzi answered him, “Our enjoyment of meat roasted by a man of Tsin does not differ from our enjoyment of meat roasted by ourselves. Thus, what you insist on takes place also in the case of such things; will you say likewise that our enjoyment of a roast is external? ”… Mengzi also said, “From the feelings proper to it, human nature is constituted for the practice of what is good. This is what I mean in saying that human nature is good. If men do what is not good, the blame cannot be imputed to their natu- ral powers. The feeling of sympathy belongs to all men; so does that of shame and dislike, of rev- erence and respect, and of approving and dis- approving. The feeling of sympathy implies the principle of benevolence; that of shame and dis- like, the principle of righteousness; that of rever- ence and respect, the principle of propriety; and that of approving and disapproving, the principle of knowledge. Benevolence, righteousness, pro- priety, and knowledge are not infused into us from without. We are certainly furnished with them. And a different view is simply from want of reflection. Hence it is said: ‘Seek and you will find them. Neglect and you will lose them. ’Men differ from one another in regard to them, and it is because they cannot carry out fully their natural powers. The Classic of Poetry says: ‘Heaven, in producing humans, Gave them their various faculties and relations with their specific laws; These are the invariable rules of nature for all to hold, And all love this admirable virtue. ’ “Confucius said, ‘The maker of this poem knew indeed the principle of our nature! ’We may thus see that every faculty and relation must have its law, and since there are invariable rules for all to hold, they consequently love this admirable virtue. ” ETHICS The Virtues of the Superior Man Confucius taught self-cultivation in knowledge and virtue. When one reaches moral and intellectual maturity, he is a “superior man. ”The Chinese phrase for “superior man, ”junzi Analects 1.1 –4, 6 –9, 14; 15.17 –23. ETHICS |The Virtues of the Superior Man 151CopEditorial re (Wade-Giles, chun-tzu; both pronounced “juhn-tzoo ”), literally means “prince ’s son, ”but Confucius taught that, by education, even a common man could become superior. (The non- inclusive language is intentional; women were not until recently —and still in limited circles — expected or encouraged to pursue this self-cultivation.) Confucianism also applies these pas- sages from the Analects to the closely related goal of becoming a sage. [1.1] The Master said, “Is it not pleasant to learn with a constant perseverance? Is it not delightful to have friends coming from far away? Is he not a man of complete virtue who feels no discompo- sure though men may take no note of him? ” The philosopher Yu 14 said, “Few are those who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offending their superiors. No one trying to please one ’s super- iors has been fond of stirring up confusion. The superior man pays attention to the foundation. That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up. Filiality and fraternal submission —are they not the foundation of all benevolent actions? ” The Master said, “Fine words and a sly appear- ance are seldom associated with true virtue. ”The philosopher Tsang said, “I daily examine myself on three points: if I have been faithful in transact- ing business for others; if I have been sincere in dealing with friends; if I have mastered and prac- ticed the instructions of my teacher. ”… [6] The Master said, “A youth, when at home, should be filial, and away from home he should be respectful to his elders. He should be earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and cul- tivate the friendship of good people. When he has time and opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should employ them in the arts. ” Tsze-hsia said, “If a man withdraws his mind from the love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the virtuous; if, in serving his par- ents, he can exert his utmost strength; if, in serv- ing his prince, he can devote his life; if, in his dealings with his friends, his words are sincere — although men say that he has not learned any- thing, I will certainly say that he has. ” The Master said, “If a scholar is not serious, he will not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid. Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles. Have no friends who are not equal to yourself. When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them. ” The philosopher Tsang said, “Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral rites for parents, and let them be followed when parents are gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice [for the dead]. Then the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence. ”… [14] The Master said, “He who aims to be a man of complete virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in his dwelling place does he seek ease. He is earnest in what he does, and careful in his speech. He frequents the company of men of principle so that he may be rectified. Such a person may indeed be said to love learning. ” [15.17, Sayings on the Superior Man] The Master said, “The superior man considers right- eousness to be essential in everything. He per- forms it according to the rules of propriety. He brings it forth in humility. He completes it with sincerity. This is indeed a superior man. ” The Master said, “The superior man is dis- tressed by his lack of ability. He is not distressed by his lack of fame. ” The Master said, “The superior man dislikes the thought of his name not being mentioned after his death. ” [20] The Master said, “What the superior man seeks is in himself. What the inferior man seeks is in others. ” The Master said, “The superior man is digni- fied, but does not wrangle. He is sociable, not a partisan. ” The Master said, “The superior man does not promote a man simply on account of his words, nor does he put aside good words because of the man. ” [Th eMas ter was] asked, “Is there one word which may serve as a guide for all one ’s life? ”He replied, “Is not ‘reciprocity ’such a word? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others. ” 14philosopher Yu: Not a follower of Confucius, but someone whose statements are quoted here as agreeing with Confucius ’ teaching; the same is true of the “philosopher Tsang ”in the next section. 152 CHAPTER 6 |ConfucianismCopEditorial re The Five Relationships Social relationships are key to Confucianism, and their basic pattern is found in this teaching of the Five Relationships from the Classic of Rites 20.8 –9. In each pairing, the lower member has the duty to honor and obey the upper member, and the upper member has the duty to guide the relationship in ways that are just and benevolent. This is an authoritarian system ameliorated with Confucian virtues. In order that the Way [Dao] may be achieved throughout the land, the people must consider five relationships, and for enacting the Way, one must consider three things. The five relationships are between: 1. Ruler and minister; 15 2. Parent and child; 3. Husband and wife; 4. Elder brother and younger brother; 5. Older friend and younger friend. These five things constitute the attainment of the Way throughout the land. Understanding, humanity and courage are the three aspects of attaining virtue throughout the land, and one enacts them with a single- minded oneness. Some people understand all this from birth, others understand it through study, and still others understand it only through painful experience. Nevertheless, once they understand it, those people are all the same [in their attainment of the Way]. Some are able to achieve this with ease; others, with some effort; still others, with strenuous effort. Nevertheless, once they succeed, they are all the same. Benevolence Benevolence ( ren , spelled “jen ”in Wade-Giles but both pronounced “rehn ”), the chief Con- fucian virtue, is treated in Analects 4.1 –6. It denotes humaneness, fellow feeling, even love. Benevolence is the virtue that persons in the more powerful role of a relationship are expected to show to those in the less powerful role. Confucianists, especially those aspiring to become a sage, train themselves in benevolence by reflecting on their lives in the light of the scriptures. The Master said, “Benevolent manners make a neighborhood excellent. If a man in selecting a residence does not choose one where such man- ners prevail, how can he be wise? ” The Master said, “Those without benevo- lence cannot remain long either in a condition of poverty and hardship, or in a condition of enjoy- ment. The benevolent rest in benevolence; the wise desire it. ” The Master said, “It is only the [truly] benev- olent man who can love, or who can hate, others. ” The Master said, “If the will is set Classic of Rites 20.8 –9. 15minister: A government official just below the emperor; sometimes this relationship is worded more broadly “ruler and subject. ” Analects 4.1 –6. ETHICS |Benevolence 153CopEditorial re on benevolence, there will be no practice of wickedness. ” [5] The Master said, “Men desire riches and honors. If they cannot be obtained in the proper way, they should not be held. Poverty and a low condition are what men dislike. If it cannot be obtained in the proper way, they should not be avoided. If a superior man abandons benevolence, how can he fulfill the requirements of that name? The superior man does not, even for the space of a single meal, act contrary to virtue. In moments of haste, he clings to it. In times of danger, he clings to it. ” The Master said, “I have not seen a person who loved virtue, or one who hated what was not virtuous. He who loved virtue would esteem nothing above it. He who hated what is not virtuous would practice virtue in such a way that he would not allow anything that is not virtuous to approach his person. Is anyone able for one day to apply his strength to virtue? I have not seen the case in which his strength would be suf- ficient. If there might be any such case, I have not seen it. ” The Actions and Attitudes of Filiality Filiality ( xiao [show, rhymes with “now ”]), translated as “filial piety ”in the older literature, is reverence for one ’s living ancestors and extends to worship of one ’s dead ancestors. The passage from the Classic of Rites goes into great detail in laying down rules for proper filial conduct. It stresses deference, obedience, and faithfulness to one ’s parents. In the selected verses from the Analects, Confucius stresses not only the actions of filiality, but also much more the attitude with which these acts are carried out. This attitude must be one of piety, the genuine reverence implied by xiao. [Classic of Rites 10.1] The sovereign king orders the chief minister to send down his lessons of vir- tue to the millions of the people … . [4] After getting properly dressed [in the morning], sons and their wives should go to his parents. 16 When they arrive, with bated breath and gentle voice they should ask if their parents ’ clothes are too warm or too cold, whether their parents are ill or pained or uncomfortable in any part. If they are, the sons should proceed rever- ently to stroke and scratch the place. They should in the same way, going before or following after, help and support his parents in leaving or entering the apartment. In bringing in the basin for them to wash, the younger will carry the stand and the elder the water. They will ask to be allowed to pour out the water, and when the washing is con- cluded, they will hand the parents the towel. They will ask whether they want anything, and then respectfully bring it. All this they will do with an appearance of pleasure to make the parents feel at ease. They should bring their parents porridge, thick or thin, spirits or juice, soup with vegetables, beans, wheat, spinach, rice, millet, maize, and glu- tinous millet —whatever the parents want. They should bring dates, chestnuts, sugar and honey to sweeten their dishes; the ordinary or the large-leaved violets, leaves of elm trees, fresh or dry, and the most soothing rice-water to lubricate them; and fat and oil to enrich them. The parents will be sure to taste them, and when they have Classic of Rites 10.1, 4, 7, 10 –11, 13 –15; Analects 2.5 –7; 4.18 –21; 13.18. 16The passage presupposes that one ’s parents have an apart- ment or room in one ’s house, or a house nearby, typically the case in traditional China. 154 CHAPTER 6 |ConfucianismCopEditorial re done so, the young people should withdraw [for the rest of the meal] …. From the time that a son receives an official appointment [to government service], he and his parents occupy different parts of their residence. But at dawn, the son will visit them, and express his affection by the offer of pleasant delicacies. At sunrise he will leave, and he and his father will attend to their different duties. At sundown, the son will pay his evening visit in the same way …. [10] While his parents are both alive, at their regular [family] meals, morning and evening, the eldest son and his wife will encourage them to eat as much as they wish. Then son and his wife will eat what is left. 17 When the father is dead, and the mother still alive, the eldest son should wait upon her at her meals. The wives of the other sons will do with what is left as in the former case. The children should have the sweet, soft, and oily things that are left. When sons and their wives are ordered to do anything by his parents, they should immediately respond and reverently do it. When they go for- ward or backward, or turn round, they should be careful and serious. While going out or coming in, while bowing or walking, they should not pre- sume to belch, sneeze, cough, yawn or stretch, to stand on one foot, to lean against anything, or to look sideways. They should not dare to spit or sniffle, nor if it is cold to put on more clothes, nor if they itch anywhere to scratch themselves. Unless giving attention to something, they should not presume to bare their [parents ’] shoulders or chest. Unless it is in wading, they should not hold up their clothes. They should not display the inside of their clothing. They should not allow the spittle or snivel of the parents to be seen. They should ask permission to rinse away any dirt on their caps or belts, to wash their clothes that are dirty with soap, and to stitch together any tear … . Sons and sons ’wives who are filial and rever- ential should not refuse or delay carrying out any order from his parents. When the parents give them anything to eat or drink that they do not like, they will nevertheless taste it and wait for their further orders. When their parents give them clothes that are not to their liking, they will put them on and wait in the same way. If the parents give them something to do but then employ someone else to take their place, although they do not like the arrangement, they will let that other person do it. When sons and their wives have not been filial and reverential, the parents should not be angry and resentful with them but should try to instruct them. If they will not receive instruction, parents should then be angry with them. If that anger does no good, they can then drive out the son and send the wife away, but they must not pub- licly show why they have treated them so. 18 [15] If a parent has a fault, the son should admonish him with bated breath, a mild appear- ance, and a gentle voice. If the admonition does not take effect, the son must be even more rever- ential and filial. If the father seems pleased [with the admonition, but does not follow it], the son must repeat it. If the father should be displeased with it, rather than allow him to commit an offense against anyone in the neighborhood or countryside, the son should strongly protest. If the parent gets angry and even more displeased, and beats him until his blood flows, the son should not be angry and resentful. Rather, he should be even more reverential and more filial. [Analects 2.5] Mang asked what filiality was. The Master said, “It is not being disobedient … . Parents, when alive, should be served according to propriety; when dead, they should be buried according to propriety; and [after death] they should be sacrificed to according to propriety. ” Mang Wu asked what filiality was. The Master said, “Do not make your parents anxious about anything else than your being sick. ” The Master said, “Filial piety nowadays means the support of one ’s parents. But dogs and horses are also able to do something in the way of support [for other dogs and horses]. Without 17eat what is left: Note that the order of eating goes by the order of authority and respect in the family: the oldest genera- tion first, then the middle generation, and then the young. 18not publicly show … so: In order to preserve the “face ” (reputation) of the family. ETHICS |The Actions and Attitudes of Filiality 155CopEditorial re reverence, what is there to distinguish the one support given from the other? ” [4.18] The Master said, “In serving his par- ents, a son may protest to them, but gently. If he sees that they do not incline to follow his advice, he shows an increased degree of reverence but does not abandon his purpose. Should they punish him, he does not allow himself to murmur. ” The Master said, “While his parents are alive, the son should not leave his home area to live far away. If he does go away, he must have a fixed place to which he goes. ”19 [20] The Master said, “If the son for three years [after his father ’s death] does not alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial. ” The Master said, “The age of one ’s parents should always be remembered, as a reason for joy and for fear. ” [13.18] The duke of Sheh informed Confu- cius, “Some among us here may be called upright in their conduct. If their father stole a sheep, they will report this. ”Confucius said, “Among us, in our part of the country, those who are upright are different. The father conceals the misconduct of the son, and the son conceals the misconduct of the father. This is true uprightness. ” Propriety Li [lee], “propriety, ”a key Confucian virtue, can also be translated as “ritual correctness ”or “good manners. ”This selection from selected verses of book three of the Analects highlights the traditional Confucian connection between propriety in the rites and in everyday life. In typically Confucian style, the Classic of Poetry is quoted to illustrate the point. Confucian rituals carried out in the temples of Korea, Taiwan, and other lands still keep to the meticulous care prescribed here. Just as important, emphasis on li has given Chinese people their highly developed sense of politeness. The Master said, “If a man lacks the virtues proper to humanity [ ren ], what has he to do with the rites of propriety? If a man is without the virtues proper to humanity, what has he to do with music? ” Lin Fang asked about the first thing to be attended to in ceremonies. The Master said, “A great question indeed! In festive ceremonies, it is better to be sparing than extravagant. In the cere- monies of mourning, deep sorrow is better than a minute attention to observances. ”… [8] Shang Tsze-hsia asked, “What is the meaning of the passage, ‘The pretty dimples of her artful smile! The well-defined black and white of her eye! The plain ground for the colors ’?”20 The Master said, “The business of lay- ing on the colors follows [the preparation of] the plain ground. ” Shang asked, “Ceremonies then are a subsequent thing? ” The Master said, “Shang, you can bring out my meaning. Now I can begin to talk about the Poetry with you. ”… [12] He sacrificed to the dead as if they were present. He sacrificed to the spirits as if the spirits were present. The Master said, “I consider my not being present at the sacrifice as if I did not sacrifice. ” [Confucius was] asked, “What is the meaning of the saying, ‘It is better to pay court to the oven 19a fixed place: So his parents know where he is. Analects 3.3 –4, 8, 12 –14, 17 –19. 20A poem from the Classic of Poetry . 156 CHAPTER 6 |ConfucianismCopEditorial re than to the southwest corner ’?”21 He replied, “Not so. He who offends against Heaven has none to whom he can pray. ” The Master said, “Zhou [dynasty] had the advantage of viewing the two past dynasties. How complete and elegant are its regulations! I follow Zhou. ”… . [17] Tzu Kung wished to do away with the sacrifice of a sheep done on the first day of each month. The Master said, “Tzu, you love the sheep; I love the ceremony. ”22 The Master said, “Full observance of the rules of propriety in serving one ’s prince is (wrongly) accounted by people to be flattery. ” The duke of Ting asked how a prince should employ his ministers and how ministers should serve their prince. Confucius replied, “A prince should employ his minister according to the rules of propriety. Ministers should serve their prince with faithfulness. ” The Love of Learning Love of learning is a leading moral quality of anyone who aspires to moral and intel- lectual virtues. It leads to a lifelong effort to gain continuously more knowledge and more wisdom. Here, in Analects 17.8 –9, Confucius explains its relationship to other prominent virtues. The Master said, “Yu, have you heard the six words to which are attached six faults? ” Yu replied, “I have not. ” The Master said, “Sit down, and I will tell them to you. There is the love of being benevo- lent without the love of learning; the fault here leads to a foolish simplicity. There is the love of knowing without the love of learning; the fault here leads to the decline of the mind. There is the love of being sincere without the love of learn- ing; the fault here leads to an injurious disregard of consequences. 23 There is the love of straight- forwardness without the love of learning; the fault here leads to rudeness. There is the love of boldness without the love of learning; the fault here leads to insubordination. There is the love of firmness without the love of learning; the fault here leads to extreme conduct. ” The Master said, “My children, why do you not study the Classic of Poetry ? The poems stimu- late the mind. They may be used for purposes of self-contemplation. They teach the art of soci- ability. They show how to regulate feelings of resentment. From them you learn the more immediate duty of serving one ’s father, and the more remote duty of serving one ’s prince. From them we become acquainted with the names of birds, beasts, and plants. ” 21A traditional saying, meaning that it is better to serve the godswho provide food (the oven ) than the ancestral spirits of the household shrine at the southwest corner of the Chinese house. 22Also translated, “Tzu, you love the sheep, but I love the sacrifice. ” Analects 17.8 –9. 23injurious disregard of consequences: That is, sincerity without knowledge leads to mistakes that are harmful to others and to one ’s self. ETHICS |TheLoveofLearning 157CopEditorial re The Basis of Good Government Confucius is said to be the author of sections 1 –7 of the Great Learning , in which he speaks of the importance of this book. What follows a selection from Confucius is from the ninth chapter of the commentary by the philosopher Zang. The Great Learning, originally a section in the Classic of Rites, was made a scripture by itself as one of the Four Books and has had a great impact on the idea and practice of government in China and other lands influenced by it. [1, 3 –7, said to be from Confucius] The Great Learning teaches how to show illustrious vir- tue, to love people, and to rest in the highest excellence. The ancients, who wished to illustrate illustri- ous virtue throughout the kingdom, first ordered their states well. Wishing to order their states well, they first regulated their families. Wishing to regulate their families, they first cultivated their persons. Wishing to cultivate their persons, they first rectified their hearts. Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts. Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended their knowledge to the utmost. Manzo Niikura orion/Amana/Corbis Chinese Calligraphy A woman writes out formal characters as a meditational exercise. Great Learning 1, 3 –7; 9.1, 3 –5. 158 CHAPTER 6 |ConfucianismCopEditorial re The extension of knowledge is by the inves- tigation of things. [5] When things were inves- tigated, knowledge became complete. Their knowledge being complete, their thoughts were sincere. Their thoughts being sincere, their hearts were then rectified. Their hearts being rectified, their persons were cultivated. Their persons being cultivated, their families were regulated. Their families being regulated, their states were rightly governed. Their states being rightly governed, the whole kingdom was made tranquil and happy. From the Son of Heaven down to the multi- tudes of the people, all considered the cultivation of the person to be the root of everything else. It cannot be, when the root is neglected, that what springs from it will be well ordered. What was of great importance has never been slightly cared for, and at the same time what was of slight impor- tance has never been greatly cared for … . [9.1, from the commentary] “In order rightly to govern the state, it is necessary first to regu- late the family ”24 means this. One cannot teach others when he cannot teach his own family. Therefore, the ruler, without going beyond his family, completes the lessons for the state. There is filiality, with which the sovereign should be served. There is fraternal submission, with which elders and superiors should be served. There is kindness, with which the multitude should be treated … . [3] From the loving example of one family a whole state becomes loving, and from its courte- sies the whole state becomes courteous, but from the ambition and perverseness of the one man [the emperor], the whole state may be led to rebellious disorder. Such is the nature of his influ- ence … . Therefore, the ruler must himself be pos- sessed of good qualities, and then he may require them in the people. He must not have bad quali- ties in himself, and then he may require that they shall not be in the people. Never has there been a man who, not having reference to his own charac- ter and wishes in dealing with others, was able to instruct them effectively. [5] Thus we see how the government of the state depends on the regula- tion of the family. The Mandate of Heaven Although the formal term “mandate of Heaven ”does not occur in this reading from the Shu Jing ,or Classic of History , it is nevertheless its main topic. All rulers are given, at least initially, the permission and the blessing of “Heaven ”to rule. ( “Heaven ”is more of a cosmic power than a divine person, even though the reading can speak of “God. ”)Ifhe rules well, the mandate of Heaven continues; if he rules poorly, the mandate is lost. Bad things then start to happen in his kingdom, and sooner or later he loses power and may be overthrown. This passage was probably composed in the Zhou period, but purports to be advice by the sage Yi Yin to King Tai Jia, the second Shang king and the grandson of the first, around 1753 B.C.E. 24Not a quote from the text of Confucius given earlier but agood statement of an idea that occurs there. Classic of History 4.1 –4. ETHICS |The Mandate of Heaven 159CopEditorial re In the twelfth month of the first year, Yi Yin sacrificed to the [deceased] former king [Zheng Tang, founder of the Shang Dynasty], and pre- sented the new king [Tai Jia] reverently before the memorial shrine of his grandfather. All the princes and royals were present. All the officers, each continuing to discharge his particular duties, were there to receive the orders of the chief min- ister. Yi Yin then clearly described the complete virtue of the Meritorious Ancestor for the instruc- tion of the [young] king. He said, “From old times the former kings of Xia 25 earnestly cultivated their virtue, and there were no calamities from Heaven. Even the spirits of the hills and rivers were tranquil; the birds and beasts, the fish and tortoises all enjoyed their exis- tence according to their nature. But [the former kings ’] descendant did not follow their virtuous example, and great Heaven sent down calamities, employing the agency of the ruler whom it had appointed. The downfall of Xia may be traced to Ming Tiao, 26 but our recovery began in Po. Our king of Shang brilliantly displayed his sagely prowess. For the oppression of his predecessor he substituted his generous gentleness, and the mil- lions of the people gave him their hearts. Now your Majesty is entering on the inheritance of his virtue. Everything depends on how you commence your reign. To set up love, 27 you must love your family; to set up respect, you must respect your elders. This begins in the family, spreads to the whole state, and is consummated in all within the four seas. 28 “The former king began with careful atten- tion to the bonds that hold men together. He listened to wise teaching, and did not seek to resist it. Then he conformed to the wisdom of the ancients. Occupying the highest position, he displayed intelligence; occupying an inferior posi- tion, he displayed his loyalty. He welcomed the good qualities of the men whom he employed, and did not expect them to have every talent. In governing himself, he seemed to think that he could never sufficiently attain (to full wisdom). It was thus he arrived at the possession of the myriad regions. How painstaking he was in these things! “He extensively sought out wise men; this should be helpful to you, his descendant and heir. He laid down the punishments for officers, and warned those who were in authority, saying, ‘If you dare to have constant dancing in your palaces, and drunken singing in your chambers, that is called the fashion of sorcerers. If you dare to set your hearts on wealth and women, and abandon yourselves to wandering about or to the chase, that is called the fashion of extrava- gance. If you dare to despise sage words, to resist the loyal and upright, to put far from you the aged and virtuous, and to seek the company of precocious youths, that is called the fashion of disorder. Now if a high noble or officer be addicted to one of these three fashions with their ten evil ways, his family will surely come to ruin. If the prince of a country be so addicted, his state will surely come to ruin. The minister of state who does not try to correct such vices in the sovereign shall be punished with branding. ’ These rules were minutely inculcated (also) on the sons of officers and nobles in their lessons. “You who now succeed to the throne, revere (these warnings) in your person. Think of them! They are sacred counsels of vast importance, admirable words powerfully put forth! The ways of God do not change. On one who does good he sends down all blessings, and on the evil-doer he sends down all miseries. If you are virtuous … the myriad regions will have cause for rejoicing. If you are not virtuous, it will bring the ruin of your ancestral temple. ” 25Xia (SHEE-ah): The legendary first dynasty of China, tradi- tionally dated from about 2200 –1766 B.C.E. 26Ming Tiao: City where legend states that the last Xia king engaged in orgies, which led to the loss of his virtue and then the loss of the mandate of Heaven.27To set up love: This, and the following to set up respect, refers to bringing these things into all of society.28all within the four seas: All the earth. 160 CHAPTER 6 |ConfucianismCopEditorial re Confidence and Prosperity in Government The Mengzi has much to say about good government by the principles of Confucius and was a key factor in Confucianism eventually gaining the status of the “state religion ”in China. The first excerpt deals with the need of the rulers to keep the confidence of the people. The second deals with the need for some level of economic prosperity so that both ruler and people may flourish. [4.3] Mengzi said, “By benevolence the three dynasties gained the empire, and by not being benevolent they lost it. By the same means are determined the decaying and flourishing, the pres- ervation and perishing, of states. If the emperor is not benevolent, he cannot preserve the empire from passing from him. If the sovereign of a state is not benevolent, he cannot preserve his kingdom. If a high noble or great officer is not benevolent, he cannot preserve his ancestral temple. If a scholar or common man is not benevolent, he cannot pre- serve his four limbs. Hating death and ruin yet delighting in being unbenevolent is like hating to be drunk yet loving to drink wine. ”… Mengzi said, “There is a way to get the empire: Get the people, and the empire is obtained. There is a way to get the people: Get their hearts, and the people are obtained. There is a way to get their hearts: Collect for them what they like, and do not lay on them what they dislike. The people turn to a benevolent rule as water runs downward, and as wild animals run to the wilderness. ” [1.6.20 –24] Mengzi said [to a king] …“ Only men of education are able to maintain a fixed heart without a fixed means of livelihood. As to the people, if they do not have a certain liveli- hood, then they will not have a fixed heart. And if they do not have a fixed heart, there is nothing that they will not do. They will go the way of self- abandonment, of moral deflection, of depravity, and of wild license. When they have been involved in these crimes, to follow them up and punish them is to entrap the people. How can such a thing as entrapping the people be done under the rule of a benevolent man? “Therefore an intelligent ruler will regulate the livelihood of the people, so as to make sure that they shall have enough to serve their parents, and enough to support their wives and children. He ensures that in good years they shall always be abundantly satisfied, and that in bad years they shall escape the danger of perishing. Then he may urge them to what is good, and they will do it, for in this case the people will follow after the good with ease. But now the livelihood of the people is so regulated that they do not have enough to serve their parents and enough to sup- port their wives and children. Even though they may have good years, their lives are continually embittered, and in bad years they do not escape perishing. In such circumstances they only try to save themselves from death, and they are afraid they will not succeed. What leisure do they have to cultivate propriety and righteousness? “If Your Majesty wishes to govern humanely the livelihood of the people, why not turn to that which is the essential step to it? Let mulberry trees be planted about the homesteads with their five sections of land, and persons of fifty years may then be clothed with silk. In keeping fowls and pigs, let not their times of breeding be neglected, and persons of seventy years will eat meat. Let there not be taken away the time that is proper for the cultivation of the farm with its hundred sections of land, and the family of eight that is supported by it shall not suffer from hunger. Let careful attention be paid to education in schools, especially education in the filial and fraternal duties, and gray-haired men will not be seen upon the roads carrying burdens on their backs or on their heads. The ruler of a state where the old wear silk and eat meat, and the young people suffer neither from hunger nor cold, attains to the office of emperor. ” Mencius 4.3, 9; 1.6.20 –24 ETHICS |Confidence and Prosperity in Government 161CopEditorial re RITUAL Divination The Classic of Changes (Yi Jing) has been used for philosophical meditation, but its main use has been in divination. The traditional ceremony with milfoil sticks is often used, but rolling dice or any other method of selecting numbers can be employed. Computer software pro- grams for selecting hexagrams are commonly used today. When the hexagram that matches the numbers thrown is located, it is read and applied to the inquirer ’s situation, giving the inquirer insight into the present and foresight into the future. THE QIAN HEXAGRAM: The Qian [CHEE-ahn] hexagram [represents] what is great and originating, penetrating, advan- tageous, correct, and firm. In the first [or lowest] line, undivided, [we see] the dragon lying hidden in the deep. It is not the time for active doing. In the second line, undivided, [we see] the dragon appearing in the field. It will be advanta- geous to meet with the morally great man. In the third line, undivided, [we see] the superior man active and vigilant all day, and in the evening still careful and apprehensive. There is danger, but there will be no mistake. In the fourth line, undivided, [we see the dragon looking] as if he were leaping up, but still in the deep. There will be no mistake. In the fifth line, undivided, [we see] the dragon flying in the sky. It will be advantageous to meet with the great man. In the sixth [top] line, undivided, [we see] the dragon exceeding the proper limits. There will be occasion for repentance. [The lines of this hexagram are all strong and undivided, as appears from] the use of the number nine. If the host of dragons thus appearing were to lose their heads, there would be good fortune. 29 THE KONG HEXAGRAM: In [the situation denoted by] the Kong hexagram there may [yet be] progress and success. For the firm and correct, the great man, there will be good fortune. He will fall into no error. But if he makes speeches, his words cannot be made good. The first line, divided, shows its subject with bare buttocks in difficulty under the stump of a tree. He enters a dark valley and for three years has no prospect [of deliverance]. The second line, undivided, shows its subject in difficulty amid his wine and food. The red knee- covers [of the ruler] then come to him. It will be well for him [to maintain his sincerity] in sacrific- ing. Active operations [on his part] will lead to evil, but he will be free from blame. The third line, divided, shows its subject in difficulty before a [frowning] rock. He lays hold of thorns. He enters his palace and does not see his wife. There will be evil. Classic of Changes 1, 47, 54. 29The point of the Qian hexagram is that mildness of actionplus firmness of decision lead to good fortune. 162 CHAPTER 6 |ConfucianismCopEditorial re The fourth line, undivided, shows its subject proceeding very slowly [to help the subject of the first line], who is in difficulty by the carriage adorned with metal in front of him. There will be occasion for regret, but the end will be good. The fifth line, undivided, shows its subject with his nose and feet cut off. He is in difficulty by [his ministers in their] scarlet aprons. He is leisurely in his movements, however, and is satis- fied. It will be well for him to be [sincere] in sacrificing [to spiritual beings]. The sixth line, divided, shows its subject in difficulty, as if bound with creepers, or in a high and dangerous position and saying [to himself], “If I move, I shall regret it. ”If he does repent of former errors, there will be good fortune in his going forward. 30 THE GUI MEI HEXAGRAM: The Gui Mei hexagram indicates that action will be evil and in no way advantageous. The first line, undivided, shows the younger woman married off in a position secondary to the real wife. 31 It suggests the idea of a person lame in one leg who yet manages to tramp along. Going forward will be fortunate. The second line, undivided, shows her blind in one eye yet able to see. There will be advantage in her maintaining the firm correctness of a soli- tary widow. The third line, divided, shows the younger woman who was to be married off in an inferior position. She returns and accepts an ancillary position. The fourth line, undivided, shows the youn- ger woman who is to be married off protracting the time. She may be late in being married, but the time will come. The fifth line, divided, reminds us of the mar- rying of a younger woman to a king, when the sleeves of the princess were not equal to those of the [still] younger woman who accompanied her in an inferior capacity. [The case suggests the thought of] the moon almost full. There will be good fortune. The sixth line, divided, shows the young lady bearing the basket of harvest offerings, but with- out anything in it, and the gentleman slaughter- ing the sheep, but without blood flowing from it. There will be no advantage in any way. 32 Songs for Sacrifice These selections from the Classic of Poetry show the deep connection of ritual and virtue in Confucianism. The first song is for a sacrifice to a dead ancestor; here an emperor sacrifices to an imperial ancestor, but much the same language and attitude would be found in less grand settings. The second sacrificial song is a complaint to Heaven about the rule of an unjust king; notice the strong connection between the role of Heaven, the conduct of the king, and the welfare of the people. The last song provides fascinating details about the sacrificial service in the Confucian temple. 30The point of the Kong hexagram is that the person beset byproblems can move out of them with a grasp of the situation and a change of attitude. 31younger woman … real wife: The symbolism here draws on the ancient Chinese custom of a man taking a second wife as a concubine.32The point of the Gui Mei hexagram is that new undertakingsare not advantageous, especially for those who, like the young woman, have difficulty accepting a low social role. Classic of Poetry :Gau 7;Minor Odes 10.1, 3; Minor Odes 5. RITUAL |Songs for Sacrifice 163CopEditorial re SACRIFICIAL ODES OF GAU, ODE 7 They come full of harmony; They are here in all seriousness. The princes are assisting, while the Son of Heaven 33 looks profound. [He says], “O Great and august Father, while I present this noble bull, And they assist me in setting forth the sacrifice, Comfort me, your filial son. “You lived with penetrating wisdom, A sovereign with the gifts of peace and war. You gave rest even to great Heaven, And ensured prosperity to your descendants. You comfort me with the eyebrows of long life; 34 You make me great with many blessings. I offer this sacrifice to my meritorious father, and to my accomplished mother. ” MINOR ODES OF THE KINGDOM, ODE 10.1, 3 Great and wide Heaven, why do you constrict your kindness, Sending down death and famine, destroying everything in the kingdom? Compassionate Heaven, arrayed in terrors, Why do you exercise no forethought, no care? … Leave the criminals alone; They have suffered for their guilt. But those who have done no crime Are indiscriminately involved in ruin. How is it, O great Heaven, That the king will not listen to just words? He is like a man going astray, Who knows not where he is going. Let each of you officers attend to his duties. Why do you not stand in awe of one another? It is because you do not stand in awe of Heaven. MINOR ODES OF THE KINGDOM, ODE 5 Thick grew the prickly plants on the ground, But long ago they cleared them away. Why did they do this in old times? So that we may plant our grain and sacrificial grain; So that our crops might be abundant, and our sacrificial grain luxuriant. When our barns are full and our stacks of grain are tens of thousands, We proceed to make drinks and prepare grain, for offerings and sacrifice. We seat the representatives of the dead, and urge them to eat. 35 Seeking to increase our bright happiness, We are correct and reverent in behavior. The bulls and rams are all pure; we proceed to the autumnal sacrifices. Some arrange the meat; some adjust its pieces. 36 The officiant sacrifices inside the temple gate; All the sacrificial service is complete and excellent. Grandly come our ancestors; Their spirits happily enjoy the offerings; Their filial descendant receives blessing. They will reward him with great happiness, With ten thousand years, life without end. The [servants] attend to the ovens with reverence; They prepare the trays, which are very large — Some for the roast meat, some for the broiled. Wives presiding are quiet and reverent, pre- paring the numerous smaller dishes. The guests and visitors present the cup all around. Every form is according to rule, each smile and word as it should be. 33Son of Heaven: The king or emperor. 34Eyebrows of long life: The eyebrows of adult men are allowed to grow, resulting in very long eyebrows during old age that are called “eyebrows of long life. ” 35We seat … eat: People who, in the ceremony, represent the deceased ancestors are seated, entertained, and fed.36In Confucian sacrifice, the animals are killed and cookedbefore the ceremony, not as a part of it. 164 CHAPTER 6 |ConfucianismCopEditorial re The spirits quietly come, And respond with great blessings, Thousands of years as the fitting reward. We are completely exhausted, having per- formed every ceremony without error. The able officiant announces to the filial descendant, “Your filial sacrifice has been fragrant, And the spirits have enjoyed your drinks and food. They confer a hundred blessings on you, Each as it is desired, each as sure as law. You have been exact and expeditious; you have been correct and careful. The ancestors will always confer on you the choicest favors, In thousands and ten thousands. ” The ceremonies have been completed; The bells and drums have given a warning. The filial descendant goes to his place, And the able officiant announces, “The spirits have drunk to the full. ” The great representatives of the dead then arise, And the bells and drums escort their withdrawal, On which the spirits tranquilly return. All the servants, and the presiding wives, Remove the trays and dishes without delay. The [sacrificer ’s] uncles and cousins all go to the private feast that follows. The musicians all go in to perform, Giving soothing aid at the second blessing. Foods are set forth; There is no dissatisfaction, but all feel happy. They drink to the full, and eat to the full. Great and small, they bow their heads, [saying], “The spirits enjoyed your food and drink. They will cause you to live long. Your sacrifices, all in their seasons, are completely discharged by you. May your sons and your grandsons never fail to perpetuate these rituals! ” Music and Morality Music has played a large role in Chinese culture and religion. One of the ancient Classics dealt exclusively with music. Although that text has unfortunately been lost, some of it proba- bly has survived in the Classic of Rites (Li Jing), from which this reading is taken. Notice here how music expresses the cosmic forces of the universe and how its extensive use in sacrifice furthers the meaning of the ceremony. In framing their music, the ancient kings laid its foundation in the feelings and nature of humans. They examined the notes by the measures for the length and quality of each, and adapted each note to express the meaning of the ceremonies in which it was to be used. They brought it into harmony with the energy that produces life, and to give expression to the performance of the five regular constituents of moral worth. They made it indicate that energy in its yang or phase of vigor, without any dissipation of its power, and also in its yin or phase of remission, without the vanish- ing of its power. The strong phase showed no excess like that of anger, and the weak no shrinking like that of weak-mindedness. These four characteristics blended harmoniously in the minds of men and were similarly manifested in their conduct. Each occupied quietly its proper place, and one did not interfere injuriously with another. Classic of Rites 17.2.10 –11, 15 –16, 18. RITUAL |Music and Morality 165CopEditorial re After this they established schools for teach- ing their music, and different grades for the lear- ners. They marked fully the divisions of the pieces. They condensed the parts and variations, giving beauty and elegance, in order to regulate and increase the inward virtue of the learners. They gave laws for the great and small notes according to their names, and they harmonized the order of the beginning and the end to represent the doing of things. Thus they made the underlying princi- ples of the relations between the near and distant relatives, the noble and inferior, the old and young, males and females, all to appear clearly in the music. Hence it is said, “In music we must endeavor to see its depths. ”… [15] Hence the superior man returns to the good affections in order to bring his will into har- mony with them, and he compares the different qualities of actions in order to perfect his con- duct. Notes that are evil and depraved, and sights leading to disorder and licentiousness, are not allowed to affect his ears or eyes. Immoral music and corrupted ceremonies are not admitted into the mind to affect its powers. The spirit of idle- ness, indifference, depravity, and perversity finds no exhibition in his person. Thus he makes his ears, eyes, nose, and mouth the apprehensions of his mind, and the movements of all the parts of his body follow the course that is correct and do that which is right. After this there ensues the manifestation of the inward thoughts by the modulations of note and tone, the elegant accompaniments of the lutes, small and large, the dances with shields and battle-axes, the ornaments of the plumes and ox- tails, 37 concluding with the pipes and flutes. All this has the effect of exhibiting the brilliance of complete virtue, stirring up the harmonious action of the four seasonal energies, and displaying the true natures and qualities of all things … . [18] Therefore, when the music has full course, the perceptions of the ears and eyes become sharp and distinct. The action of the blood and physical energies is harmonious and calm. Bad influences are removed and manners changed, and all under heaven there is complete calm. GLOSSARY Wade-Giles spelling, where it differs from Pinyin, is given in parentheses before the pronunciation in brackets. This pronunciation applies to both the Pinyin and Wade-Giles spellings. Dao (Tao) [dow] The cosmic “Way ”of life; in Confu- cian scripture, often related to Heaven (for exam- ple, the “Way of Heaven ”). Jing (Ching) [jing] “Classics ”; books that make up part of the early Confucian canon. junzi (chun-tzu) [juhn-tzoo] “Prince ’s son ”; in the teaching of Confucius, a “superior man ”made so by the study and practice of virtue. Li [lee] Jing Classic of Rites , a collection of rituals and ceremonies of ancient China. li[lee] Propriety, or decorum, both in the rites and in everyday life. mandate of Heaven Near-divine permission and bless- ing to govern; if lost, will result in dynastic change. ren (jen) [both pronounced “rehn ”] Virtue of benevo- lence or humaneness. wen-yen [wuhn-yuhn] Formal-classical literary style in which the Confucian scriptures are written. xiao (hsiao) [show, rhymes with “now ”] Filiality; love for and service to one ’s parents and deceased ancestors. Yi Jing (I Ching) [yee jing] “Classic of Changes, ” a diviner ’s manual; earliest of the Confucian scriptures. yin-yang [yihn-yahng, not “ying-yang ”] Cosmic forces such as passivity and activity, darkness and light, and other opposing pairs. 37movements … ox-tails: Elaborate dancing by large troupes of performers often accompanies the important rituals; both military dances (with shields and battle-axes ) and civilian dances (with plumes and ox-tails ) are performed by the dancers. In modern Confucian ceremonies, particularly at theceremonies marking Confucius ’birthday, these dancers are typically schoolchildren especially trained for these dances. 166 CHAPTER 6 |ConfucianismCopEditorial re QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION 1. Compare and contrast the earliest Confucian canon, the Five Classics, with the later canon, the Four Books. What are their commonalities and differences? 2. How do the Confucian scriptures bear witness to the importance of three elements often held to be common to all traditional Chinese religion: heaven, earth, and ancestor worship? 3. Reflect on the lively political issue of the personal character of candidates for public office in contem- porary North America. To what degree does Con- fucius ’counsel about a morally good ruler apply in our society? 4. To what degree may filiality be a prescription for social pressures on the modern Western family? 5. What is the continuing significance of the Confu- cian scriptures in modern life outside China? 6. Do you think, with Mengzi, that human nature is innately good? Why or why not? 7. Apply the standards in the “Music and Morality ” reading (in the Ritual section) to the kinds of pop- ular music you listen to. Do you agree with the results? 8. Having read these Confucian scriptures, what is your own conclusion about this often discussed issue: Is Confucianism a religion or a philosophy? 9. Do you think that the parenting practices of the “Tiger Mother ”Amy Chua (the first vignette in the chapter opening) are consistent with Confu- cian teaching? Why or why not? SCRIPTURES IN FILM Confucian scriptures are illustrated but not directly treated in several highly praised feature films. (This is exactly what we would expect for a religion so deeply identified with Chinese culture.) Confucius (2010, rated PG-13), directed by Mei Hu and featuring action-film star Chow Yun-fat, is a controversial retelling of the story of Confucius. The Last Emperor (1987, rated PG-13), directed by Bernardo Bertolucci, tells the story of Pu Yi, China ’s final monarch; it was filmed in part in the Forbidden City in Beijing. See the “direc- tor ’scut ”DVD for a fuller story that carries the life of Pu Yi through communist “re-education ” camps. Farewell My Concubine (1993, rated R), directed by Chen Kaige, tells the story of two sing- ers in the Beijing Opera. It gives a good sense of the importance of music and dance in Chinese cul- ture. Raise the Red Lantern (1998, rated PG), directed by Zhang Yimou, deals with the life of a traditional Chinese family in 1920, particularly the difficulties posed by second and third marriages. Eat Drink Man Woman (1994, not submitted for rating but probably in the PG-13 to R range) explores family relationships in Taiwan as the Chinese people deal with modern times. Its focus on the life of a restaurant operator also gives some insight into how Chinese cuisine fits into wider Chinese culture. Finally, The Joy Luck Club (1993, rated R), based on the novel by Amy Tan, tells the story of challenging relationships between Chinese immigrant mothers and their adult Chi- nese American daughters. MindTap is a fully online, highly personalized learning experience built upon Cengage Learning content. MindTap combines student learning tools —readings, multimedia, activities, and assessments —into a singular Learning Path that guides students through their course. Scriptures in Film 167CopEditorial re CHAPTER SEVEN Daoism The Founder of Daoism just before Writing the Daode Jing According to legend, Laozi (Lao Tzu) was keeper of the archives at the sixth-century B.C.E. imperial court of China. When he was eighty years old, he set out for the western border of China. At the border, a guard asked Laozi to record his teachings before he left. For three days, he composed a concise book now called the Daode Jing . –168 –CopEditorial re The scriptures of Daoism are vast in number and topics. They range from simple texts on religious teaching to complex texts on religious philosophy and include topics such as alchemy, immortality, and the hidden workings of the universe. Here are some vignettes illustrating the usage of these texts: In a temple in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, a medium known as a “spirit writer ”falls under the possession of the temple ’s god. As he speaks the words of the god in a strange, almost otherworldly voice, a scribe standing nearby writes down the words. These words will be published in the temple ’s magazine and may, perhaps, form the basis of new Daoist scripture. At the Hsing T ’ien Temple in Taipei, Taiwan, the temple courtyard is filled with blue-robed women carrying out the faith healing for which the temple has gained its reputation. They lay hands on people who are sick and even on clothing brought by the families of those too sick to come in person. They carry out an ancient tradition of Daoism as discussed in many of its scriptures, that of healing and longevity. In Hong Kong, China, filmmakers puzzle over the policy of the Chinese govern- ment about not allowing films with certain religious and cultural features from Hong Kong into mainland China. What government censors call “superstitions ” and “cults ” are not allowed in films, and this harms the profits of Chinese- language films featuring such popular staples as child vampires, ghosts, and secret cults with superhuman abilities. Secret societies based on arcane new beliefs have posed perceived threats to China ’s government for centuries. Even though Daoism is now an officially approved religion in China, and although Daoists are often portrayed in films as spiritual “action heroes, ”Daoists worry that the more popular elements of their religion may be suppressed by the government. In New York City, the prominent self-help psychologist Wayne Dyer films a pro- gram to be broadcast on Public Broadcast Service (PBS) television, titled after his new book, Excuses Begone! Like his earlier book, Change Your Thoughts, Change Your Life, this television program focuses on how people can better their lives by adopting the ideas of the main Daoist scripture, the Daode Jing (also known as the Tao Te Ching ).“Stop striving, start arriving, ”Dyer urges, an example of how he restates key Daoist ideas in a pithy paraphrase that has proven helpful for his readers. INTRODUCTION Daoism is, after Confucianism, the most influential native religion of China. It urges following of the Dao (also spelled, in the older Wade-Giles system, “Tao, ”with both pronounced “dow ”),“way ”or “road, ”both the cosmic way of the universe and the way that humans should discern and live by. According to Daoists, their faith was founded by Lao Tzu in the sixth century B.C.E. (See Map 4, “China in the Sixth Century B.C.E.,”in the map section.) Since ancient times, the Daoist tradition has had two interacting parts: philosophical Daoism, rich in cosmological meditation and speculation; and religious Daoism, with its emphasis on telling the future, exor- cism, astrology, and gaining long life or even immortality. Although Daoism [also Introduction 169CopEditorial re spelled “Taoism, ”with both pronounced DOW-ism] has had an important influence through history, its future is cloudy. Some scholars up until recently held it to be a dying tradition, but the recent freeing of religion in mainland China has led to a strong Daoist revival, especially the temples of local deities. Whatever the future may hold for it, the scriptures of Daoism —especially the Daode Jing [DOW-duh jing], “Classic of the Way and Its Working, ”and the Zhuangzi [Wade-Giles, Chuang-Tzu , with both pronounced ZWAHNG-dzeh] — have earned an undying place in the history of the world ’s cultures. They remain influential around the world. Overview of Structure Daoist canon as a whole is known as the Daozang [DOW-zahng], “Canon of the Way. ”Its last full printing, in 1926, consists of 1120 volumes. The total number of books in the Daoist canon is often estimated at 1500. The Daozang has traditionally been grouped into the Three Caverns, reflecting three historic groups within Daoism: the Supreme Clarity School, the Numinous Treasure School, and the Three Sover- eigns School (see Table 7.1). Each “cavern ”is divided into twelve sections. Their names indicate the overall content of the Daoist scriptures. They are: main texts; divine talismans; interpretations; diagrams; chronologies and genealogies; moral codes; cere- monial decorum; rituals; esoteric techniques (alchemy, astrology, exorcism, etc.); lives of past Daoist worthies; hymns; and messages to the dead. Contemporary Use, Historical Origin, and Development Scholarly study of the history of the Daoist canon is in its beginning stages, and the massive size of the canon makes the task especially challenging. Nevertheless, scholars have reached certain conclusions. Probably because of its cryptic quality and wide range of contents, the Daode Jing is scripture that all Daoists have accepted and used. Indeed, it is one of the few scripture books to be extensively used in both philosophical Daoism and religious Daoism. Also, to judge from the frequency with which it has been translated into English (more than 100 times) and other European languages, the Daode Jing has had a significant appeal to peoples of other religions and cultures. The appeal of this book in the United States, for example, is echoed in the titles of more than fifty recent books, all of which begin with The Tao/Dao of and conclude with Parenting; Love and Sex; Spycraft; Coaching; Sales; Golf and even Jesus and Islam. Of course, many of these books are Westernized adaptations of vaguely Daoist ideas, and bear little resemblance to the rich, complicated Daoist teachings on the Dao. Daoists trace the origins of their religion and scriptures to the sixth century B.C.E. founder of their tradition, Lao Tzu, called by most Chinese today Laozi (LAHW- zhee; in Wade-Giles, Lao-tzu). They hold that his disciples wrote down the first and most important work of the canon, the Daode Jing, shortly after his death. Indeed, Daoists often refer to the Daode Jing as the Laozi. Recent critical scholarship, how- ever, has concluded that even though this book may have been started at this time, it is a collection of material from different authors that was assembled in the third century B.C.E. The large, imperially sponsored collection of Daoist writings eventually reached almost 5000 books, very few of which have been translated into English. The original canon was printed by the Daoist emperors of the Song dynasty (960 – 1279 C.E.), but most of these books were destroyed by imperial decree during the Yuan, or Mongol, dynasty that followed the Song. 170 CHAPTER 7 |DaoismCopEditorial re The Daode Jing is the fountainhead of most of the Daoist scripture that followed. Its reflections on the Dao ( “Way ”) and its de [duh] ( “working, power, virtue ”)in eighty-one brief sections are written in a highly compressed poetic style that is difficult to translate. The Chinese original features much parallelism among the lines of poetry and a good deal of rhyme, lost in most translations. It points to a Dao that is cosmic, the origin of heaven and earth. This Dao is part of each individual ’s existence, and it is a social ideal as well. The second most important text of Daoism is the Zhuangzi , named for its author, a fourth-century B.C.E. Chinese philosopher and teacher. This book is far removed from the style and contents of the Daode Jing. Full of anecdote and allegory, it chal- lenges the reader with its provocative style and content. One of its most famous passages contains the question, “Am I a man dreaming I am a butterfly, or I am a TABLE 7.1 The Daoist Canon The almost 1500 texts found in the present Daozang are formally divided into “Three Caverns ”and “Four Supplements. ”The division into Three Caverns apparently dates from around 500 C.E., and may mirror the division into Three Vehicles of Buddhism. Each of the Three Caverns originally included the texts of one scriptural tradition: 1. Authenticity Cavern: texts of the Supreme Clarity School; 2. Mystery Cavern: texts of the Numinous Treasure School; 3. Spirit Cavern: texts of the Three Sovereigns School. Each of the Three Caverns is divided into twelve sections, originally designed to host different kinds of texts: 1. Benwen (Main texts like the Daode Jing and Zhuangzi ) 2. Shenfu (Talismans) 3. Yujue (Commentaries on important Daoist scriptures) 4. Lingtu (Diagrams and illustrations) 5. Pulu (Histories and genealogies) 6. Jielu (Precepts and other wise sayings) 7. Weiyi (Ceremonies) 8. Fangfa (Rituals) 9. Zhongshu (Practices) 10. Jizhuan (Biographies of important early Daoists) 11. Zansong (Hymns) 12. Biaozou (Memorials) The Four Supplements were added to the Three Caverns around 500 C.E. They originally contained works that traced their roots in one major scripture, except the last, which included the texts of an established tradition: 1. Great Mystery, based on the Daode Jing; 2. Great Peace, based on the Taiping Jing, “Book of Great Peace ”; 3. Great Purity, based on the Taiqing Jing, “Book of Great Purity, ”and other alchemical texts. 4. Orthodox One, based on the texts belonging to the identically named tradition, also known as the Way of the Heavenly Masters. Introduction 171CopEditorial re butterfly dreaming I am a man? ”The Zhuangzi stresses the illusory nature of knowl- edge and the difficulty of separating right and wrong. Nevertheless, it does include specific moral guidelines that proceed from the “two great sanctions ”: the moral requirements visible in nature and the inner conviction of what is right and wrong. Both of these guidelines are grounded in the great Dao. Other important Daoist texts can be mentioned here only in passing. The “Trac- tate on Actions and Retributions ”deals with retribution for sin and reward for good. According to this work, the life span of people who live a good life in harmony with the Dao will be lengthened, but those who lead an evil life will die early or have their punishment passed on to their descendants. The “Group of Daoist Rites ”is a book of ceremonies to control demonic forces, both in nature and in the individual, when they result in sickness. The “Annals of the Lord of the Dao, the Sage-to-Come of Shang- ching ”contains information on how certain Daoist masters used respiration tech- niques, alchemy, and other esoteric techniques to draw on astral powers and become immortal or even divine. Many other texts of religious/esoteric Daoism are written in a special script taught only to initiates into special sects, and Daoists have been very secretive about sharing this literature. TEACHING The Nature of the Dao The leading themes in the Daode Jing are the nature of the Dao and how one follows it. These passages present the Dao as unnamable (Chapter 1), female in quality (6), the “mother ”of the universe (25), and accomplishing great things by means of small, even humble things (34). In Chapter 29 of the Zhuangzi, the sage discusses the Dao more philosophically, yet also in the playful and challenging manner typical of this book, second in importance in Daoism only to the Daode Jing. 1 [Daode Jing 1] The dao that can be described Is not the eternal Dao. The name that can be spoken Is not the eternal Name. The nameless is the boundary of Heaven and Earth. The named is the mother of the ten thousand things. 2 Freed from desire, you can see the hidden mystery. By having desire, you can only see what is visibly real. Daode Jing 1, 6, 25, 34; Zhuangzi 29. 1All readings from the Daode Jing are adapted from “Tao Te Ching by Lao-Tzu, complete online text, a translation for the public domain ”by J. H. McDonald, 1996, http:// Accessed 4/15/14. Selections from the Zhuangzi are adapted from James Legge, The Texts of Taoism , vols. 39 and 40 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1891). 2the ten thousand things: A traditional Chinese expression for everything in the world. 172 CHAPTER 7 |DaoismCopEditorial re Yet mystery and reality emerge from the same source. This source is called darkness. Darkness born from darkness — The beginning of all understanding. [6] The spirit of emptiness is immortal. It is called the Great Mother Because it gives birth to Heaven and Earth. It is like a vapor, Barely seen but always present. Use it effortlessly. [25] Before the universe was born, There was something in the chaos of the heavens. It stands alone and empty, Solitary and unchanging. It is ever present and secure. It may be regarded as the Mother of the universe. Because I do not know its name, I call it Dao. If forced to give it a name, I would call it “Great. ” Because it is great means it is everywhere. Being everywhere means it is eternal. Being eternal means everything returns to it. Dao is great. Heaven is great. Earth is great. Humans are great. Within the universe, these are the four great things. Humans follow the earth. Earth follows Heaven. Heaven follows the Dao. The Dao follows only itself. [34] The great Dao flows unobstructed in every direction. All things rely on it to conceive and be born; It does not deny even the smallest of creation. When it has accomplished great wonders, It does not claim them for itself. It nourishes infinite worlds, Yet it does not seek to master even the smal- lest creature. Since it is without wants and desires, It can be considered humble. All of creation seeks it for refuge, Yet it does not seek to master or control. Because it does not seek greatness, It can accomplish truly great things. 3 [Zhuangzi 29] Dung Kwozi asked Zhuangzi, “Where can I find what you call the Dao? ” Zhuangzi replied, “Everywhere. ” Dung said, “Give me an example of it. That will be more satisfactory. ” “It is here in this ant, ”Zhuangzi said. Dung said, “Give me a lower example. ” “It is in this earthenware tile. ” “Is that really the lowest example? ” Zhuangzi said, “It is in that excrement. ”To this, Dung gave no reply. Zhuangzi said, “You should not specify any particular thing (to describe the Dao, because) one single thing does not describe the Dao. So it is with the Perfect Dao. And if we call it the Great Dao, it is just the same. Three terms are often used of it: ‘Complete, ’‘All-embracing, ’and ‘the Whole. ’These names are different, but the reality sought in them is the same. They all refer to the One thing. 4 “Suppose we were to try to roam about in the palace of Nowhere. When we met there, we might discuss the subject without ever coming to an end. Or suppose we were to be together in the region of Effortless Action. Should we say that the Dao is simplicity and stillness? Or should we say that it is indifference and purity, 3Because it does not seek greatness, it can accomplish truly greatthings: The final paradox in this section of the Daode Jing is drawn from the Daoist principle of wuwei, or effortless action. Even the great Dao does its work effortlessly, and humansmust follow its example.4This paragraph is reminiscent of the first chapter of the Daode Jing, about the difficulty of naming the Dao. TEACHING |TheNatureoftheDao 173CopEditorial re or harmony and ease? My will would be aimless. If it went nowhere, I would not know where it had gone; if it went and came back again, I wouldn ’t know where it had stopped; if it went on going and coming, I would not know when the process would end. In vague uncertainty, I would be in the vastest wasteland. Though I en- tered it with the greatest knowledge, I would not know how inexhaustible it was. That which makes things what they are, the Dao, is not limited like things are. The Dao is the limit of the unlimited and the bounds of the unbounded. “We speak of fullness and emptiness, and of withering and decay. The Dao produces fullness and emptiness, but it is neither fullness nor emp- tiness. It produces withering and decay, but it never withers or decays. It produces roots and branches, but it never roots itself anywhere or branches out. It produces growth and spreading, but it never grows or spreads. ” The World The traditional Chinese expression for the world is “Heaven and Earth. ”These passages, Chapters 7, 42, and 52 of the Daode Jing, present the world, composed of the “ten thousand things, ”as proceeding from the Dao and holding to the way of effortless, natural action. The Dao operates with yin-yang , the cosmic principles or dualities such as passive and active, earth and heaven, dark and light, female and male. Wise persons will pattern their lives on the Dao that has made Heaven and Earth. 1890 Yin-Yang The circle represents the universe, both matter and spirit; the light and dark areas represent the balance of opposite cosmic powers. [7] The Dao of Heaven is eternal; The earth is long enduring. Why are they long enduring? They do not live for themselves; Thus they are present for all beings. The Master puts self last, And enters the place of authority. The Master detaches from all things, And therefore is united with all things. The Master gives no thought to self, And is perfectly fulfilled. [42] The Dao gave birth to the One. The One gave birth to the Two. The Two gave birth to the Three. 5 The Three gave birth to the ten thousand things. All things carry Yin, Yet they embrace Yang. They blend their life breath 6 In order to produce harmony. Daode Jing 7, 42, 52. 5The One isqi (also spelled “chi, ”with both pronounced “chee ”) the primordial, cosmic breath; the Two are yin and yang; the Three are the waters under the earth, the earth, and heaven.6breath: Qi, the cosmic breath/wind. 174 CHAPTER 7 |DaoismCopEditorial re People despise being orphaned, widowed and poor. But the noble ones take these as their titles. In losing, much is gained; In gaining, much is lost. What others teach I too will teach: “The strong and violent will not die a natural death. ” [52] The world had a beginning Which we call the Great Mother. 7 Once we have found the Mother, We begin to know what her children should be. When we know we are the Mother ’s child, We begin to guard the qualities of the Mother in us. She will protect us from all danger Even if we lose our life. Keep your mouth closed and embrace a simple life; You will live care-free until the end of your days. But if you try to talk your way into a better life, There will be no end to your trouble. To understand the small is called clarity. Knowing how to yield is called strength. To use your inner light for understanding, Regardless of the danger, 8is to depend on the constant. The Relationship of Daoism to Confucianism Daoism and Confucianism have long been the two major traditions of China. Here is a state- ment from the Daoist side on their relationship, with the endorsement going of course to Daoism. This passage from section 7.5a of the Baopuzi (Wade-Giles, Pao-p ’u tzu, both pro- nounced BOW-poo-zee), a book compiled by Ge Hong (283 –343 C.E.), deals with the ques- tion, “Of Confucianism and Daoism, which is easier? ”9 Confucianism is difficulty in the midst of ease; Daoism is ease in the midst of difficulties. The difficulties [of Daoism] are these: aban- donment of social life and renouncing wife and family; rejection of fame and loss of income; removal of brilliances from one ’s sight and suppres- sion of the tinkling marks of office from one ’s ears; the silence and retirement where one ’s sole profes- sion is the preservation of one ’s own integrity; not to be depressed by criticism nor elated by praise; to look upon honors without desiring them and to dwell humbly without shame. But Daoism also has its attractive [easy] side: no visits of congratula- tion or condolence, and no critical glances and looks at one ’s abode; no troubling of the internal 7Great Mother: The Dao is here symbolized as a feminine thing; the children are the things in the world. 8danger: To one ’s physical life. Baopuzi 7.5a. 9From James R. Ware, Alchemy, Medicine, Religion in the China of A.D. 320: The Nei P ’ien of Ko Hung (Pao-p ’u tzu). Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1966. Copyright © 1966 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Used by permission. TEACHING |The Relationship of Daoism to Confucianism 175CopEditorial re gods with the Seven Classics 10 and never a concern for the [demands of the] calendar; no bother about the advancing of asterisms 11 and no enslavement to a craft or to letters; all annoyances lifted, and an inner harmony that grows of itself; perfect freedom of action and thought; no fear and no grief. There- fore, I describe Daoism as easiness in the midst of difficulties. Everything done in Confucianism is modeled upon precedents. Leaving and staying have their set rules; speech and silence depend upon the hour. If a teacher is desired, he can be found in practically any house. It is a matter of written material, and there are plenty of commentaries to resolve the doubts. This is what is easy in Confucianism. The difficulties [of Confucianism] are these: grasping the profound and rendering present the distant, and also confronting and reconciling the regulations coming from the rulers of old; … acquiring a wide knowledge of all those many things said by the various schools of philosophy; constantly accumulating good works among the people, and giving the last drop of loyalty to one ’s lord; being able to interpret any signs con- ferred by heaven, and giving thought to the mean- ings of winds and clouds; to be considered unsuccessful for not knowing some solitary matter and to have to face criticism for one word of imprecision; to have one ’s every step taken as a model by the world, and to have one ’s every utter- ance repeated by all. This is what I mean by difficulties in the midst of easiness. But to put it honestly, Confucianism is difficult because of its multiplicities, while Daoism is easy with its conciseness. ETHICS Effortless Action The leading ethical ideal of Daoism is wuwei [woo-WAY], a wonderfully ambiguous term that is variously translated “effortless action, ”“ nonaction, ”“ active non-striving, ”or “action with- out intent. ”Literally, “wu ”means “not, without, ”and “wei ”means “action, doing. ”By wuwei, the sage seeks to come into harmony with the great Dao, which itself effortlessly accomplishes all its tasks. This passage from Chapter 7 of the Zhuangzi explains the key points of wuwei. Effortless action makes the person who practices it the lord of all fame. It serves him as the treasury of all plans. Effortless action fits him for the burden of all offices. It makes him the lord of all wisdom. The range of his action is inexhaustible, but there is nowhere any trace of his presence. He fulfills all that he has received from Heaven, but he does not see that he was the recipient of anything. A pure vacancy of all purpose is what characterizes him. When the perfect man employs his mind, it is a mirror. It does nothing and anticipates nothing. It responds to what is before it, but does not retain it. Thus he is able to deal successfully with all things and injures nothing. 10Seven Classics: Traditional Chinese scriptures in the Confu- cian canon.11asterisms: A cluster of stars smaller than a constellation, thought to have a negative impact on human life. Zhuangzi 7. 176 CHAPTER 7 |DaoismCopEditorial re Individual Life in Harmony with the Dao These selections from four key chapters —16, 22, 33, and 44 —in the Daode Jing emphasize the necessity of bringing individual life into accord with the Dao and give advice on how to accomplish this through effortless action and indirection (wuwei). [16] If you can empty your mind of all thoughts Your heart will embrace the tranquility of peace. Watch the workings of the ten thousand things, But contemplate their return to the source. 12 All creatures in the universe Return to the point where they began. Returning to the source is tranquility, Because we submit to Heaven ’s mandate. Returning to Heaven ’s mandate is called being constant. Knowing the constant is called “enlightenment. ” Not knowing the constant is the source of evil deeds because we have no roots. By knowing the constant we can accept things as they are. By accepting things as they are, we become impartial. By being impartial, we become one with Heaven. By being one with Heaven, we become one with the Dao. Being one with the Dao, we are no longer concerned about losing our life; We know the Dao is constant, and we are one with the Dao. [22] If you want to become whole, first let yourself become broken. If you want to become straight, First let yourself become twisted. If you want to become full, First let yourself become empty. If you want to become new, First let yourself become old. Those whose desires are few get them, Those whose desires are great go astray. For this reason the Master embraces the Tao, As an example for the world to follow. Not centered on self, The Master allows others to see the light. Not boasting of self, The Master becomes a shining example. Not glorify self, The Master becomes a person of merit. Wanting nothing from the world, The Master cannot be overcome by the world. When the ancient Masters said, “If you want to become whole, First let yourself be broken, ” They weren ’t using empty words. All who do this will be made complete. [33] Those who know others are intelligent; Those who know themselves are truly wise. Those who master others are strong; Those who master themselves have true power. Those who know they have enough are truly wealthy. Those who persist will reach their goal. Those who keep their course have a strong will. Those who embrace death will not die, but have enduring life. Daode Jing 16, 22, 33, 44. 12The ten thousand … source: That is, all the living things in the world are active, but the wise person sees only their connec- tion with the Dao, which is nonactive. ETHICS |Individual Life in Harmony with the Dao 177CopEditorial re [44] Which is more important, your honor or your life? Which is more valuable, your possessions or your person? Which is more destructive, success or failure? Because of this, great love extracts a great cost. True wealth requires greater loss. Knowing when you have enough avoids dishonor; Knowing when to stop will keep you from danger And bring you a long, happy life. 13 The Superior Man Here, from Chapter 12 of the Zhuangzi , is a characteristically Daoist presentation of the superior man, designed, of course, to provide an alternative to the Confucian idea of superiority. Daoist superiority comes not through self-cultivation in the virtues (the Confucian way) but by tapping into the superiority of the Dao. The full descriptions of the Daoist superior man form a complete list of the type of person that Daoists, especially philosophically oriented ones, seek to become. The Master 14 said, “The Dao covers and sustains all things. How great is its overflowing influence! The superior man ought to remove from his mind all that is contrary to it. Acting without action 15 is what is called Heaven-like. Speech coming forth on its own is what is called a mark of true virtue. Loving people and being a benefit to things is what is called benevolence. Seeing how things that are different still agree is what is called being great. Conduct free from the ambition of being distin- guished above others is what is called being gener- ous. The possession in oneself of many points of difference is what is called being rich. Therefore to hold fast the natural attributes is what is called the guiding line of government; the perfecting of those attributes is what is called its establishment; being in harmony with the Dao is what is called being complete; and not allowing anything exter- nal to affect the will is what is called being perfect. “When the superior man understands these things, he keeps all matters sheathed in himself, showing the greatness of his mind. Through the outflow of his actions all things move and come to him. Being this way, he lets the gold lie hidden in the hill, and the pearls in the deep; he does not consider property or money to be any gain. He keeps aloof from riches and honors. He rejoices not in long life, and grieves not for early death. He does not regard prosperity as a glorious thing, nor is he ashamed of poverty. He would not gain the whole world to hold it as his own private property. He would not desire to rule over the whole world as his own private domain. His dis- tinction is in understanding that all things belong to the one treasury, and that death and life should be viewed in the same way. ” The Master said, “How still and deep is the place where the Dao resides! How clear is its purity! Metal and stone without it would give forth no sound. They have the power of sound in them, but if they are not struck, they do not emit it. Who can determine the qualities that are in all things? “The man of royal qualities holds on to his way unoccupied and is ashamed to busy himself with the conduct of affairs. He establishes him- self in the root and source of his capacity and his wisdom grows to be spiritual. In this way his 13long, happy life: Lines like these in the Daode Jing encouraged later Daoist practices for gaining long life and even immortality. Zhuangzi 12 14The Master: Zhuangzi. 15Acting without action: Wuwei. 178 CHAPTER 7 |DaoismCopEditorial re attributes become more and more great, and when his mind goes forth, whatever things come in his way, it lays hold of them and deals with them. If the Dao did not exist, the body would not have life; without the attributes of the Dao, life would not be seen. He who preserves his body and gives the fullest development to his life, he who establishes in himself the attributes of the Dao and clearly displays the Dao, is possessed of kingly qualities. How majestic is he in his sudden pronouncements, and in his unexpected move- ments, when all things follow him! We call him the man whose qualities fit him to rule. “He sees clearly where there is the deepest obscurity. He hears where there is no sound. In the midst of the deepest obscurity, he alone sees and can distinguish various objects. In the midst of a soundless abyss, he alone can hear a harmony of notes. In his dealings with all things, although he is farthest from having anything, he can give to them what they seek. Although he may hurry to go somewhere, he returns to his resting place; now large, now small; now long, now short; now distant, now near. ” Government The social ethic of Daoism is largely concerned with government. Here, four chapters of the Daode Jing (3, 18, 57, and 64) present a quietist approach, the opposite of the activist ap- proach of Confucianism. By quietly and naturally following the Dao, one can bring about the best state. (Note that in this passage wuwei is rendered by “not-doing. ”) This social ethic has led to several political options for Daoists: withdrawal from public life; mild participation in it; and, rarely, participation in anarchy or revolt, as in the Boxer Rebellion in 1898 –1901. [3] If you esteem talented individuals too much, People will become too competitive. If you overvalue possessions, People will begin to steal. Do not display your treasures Or people will become envious. The Master leads by Emptying people ’s minds, Filling their bellies, Weakening their ambitions, And making them become strong. The Master refers simplicity and freedom from desires, And avoids the pitfalls of knowledge and wrong action. For those who practice not-doing, Everything will fall into place. [18] When the great Dao is abandoned, Benevolence and righteousness appear. 16 When intellectualism arises, Hypocrisy is close behind. When there is strife in the family unit, People talk about “filial piety. ” When the country falls into chaos, Politicians talk about “patriotism. ” [57] Govern your country with integrity. Weapons of war can be used with great cunning, But loyalty is only won by not-doing. Daode Jing 3, 18, 57, 64. 16Benevolence and righteousness appear: These, along with other virtues listed in this Chapter 18 such as “intellectualism, ”“ filial piety, ”and “patriotism, ”are Confucian values that the Daode Jing attacks. ETHICS |Government 179CopEditorial re How do I know the way things are? By these: The more prohibitions, the poorer people will be. The more weapons, the greater the chaos in your country. The more knowledge, the stranger the world will become. The more laws, the greater the number of criminals. Therefore the Master says: I do nothing, And people become good by themselves. I seek peace, And people take care of their own problems. I do not meddle in their personal lives, And the people become prosperous. I let go of all my desires, And the people return to the uncarved block. Use the expected to govern the country, Use surprise to wage war, Use non-action to win the world. How do I know? Like this: The more prohibitions and rules, The poorer people become. The sharper people ’s weapons, The more they riot. The more skilled their techniques, The more grotesque their works. The more elaborate the laws, The more they commit crimes. Therefore the Sage says: I do nothing And people transform themselves. I enjoy serenity And people govern themselves. I cultivate emptiness And people become prosperous. I have no desires And people simplify themselves. [64] Things are easier to control while things are quiet. Things are easier to plan far in advance. Things break easier while they are still brittle. Things are easier to hide while they are still small. Prevent problems before they arise. Take action before things get out of hand. The tallest tree begins as a tiny sprout. The tallest building starts with one shovel of dirt. A journey of a thousand miles starts with a single footstep. If you rush into action, you will fail. If you hold on too tight, you will lose your grip. Therefore the Master lets things take their course And thus never fails. The Master doesn ’t hold on to things And never loses them. By pursing your goals too relentlessly, You let them slip away. If you are as concerned about the outcome As you are about the beginning, Then it is hard to do things wrong. The master seeks no possessions, and learns by unlearning, And is able to understand all things. This gives the Master the ability to help all of creation. On Death This often-quoted story from the Zhuangzi (Chapter 18) is an excellent example of its striking literary features. It affirms what is said earlier in the Zhuangzi —that the sage regards death and life equally. Zhuangzi 18. 180 CHAPTER 7 |DaoismCopEditorial re When Zhuangzi went to Khu, he saw an empty skull, bleached but still retaining its shape. Tap- ping it with his horse-switch, he asked it, “Did you, sir, in your greed of life, fail in the lessons of reason and come to this? Or did you do so, in the service of a perishing state, by the punishment of the axe? Or was it through your evil conduct, reflecting disgrace on your parents and on your wife and children? Or was it through your hard endurance of cold and hunger? Or was it simply that you had completed your term of life? ” Then he took up the skull and made a pillow of it when he went to sleep. At midnight the skull ap- peared to him in a dream and said, “All your words were about the entanglements of men in their life- time. None of those things are found after death. Would you like to hear me tell you about death? ” “I would, ”said Zhuangzi. The skull then said, “In death there are not the distinctions of ruler above and minister below. There are none of the features of the four seasons. Tranquil and at ease, our years are those of heaven and earth. No king in his court has greater enjoy- ment than we have. ” Zhuangzi did not believe it and said, “If I could get the Ruler of our Destiny to restore your body to life with its bones and flesh and skin, and to give you back your father and mother, your wife and children, and all your village ac- quaintances, would you wish me to do so? ” The skull stared intently at him, knitted its brows, and said, “Why would I cast away the enjoyment of my royal court and undertake again the toils of life in the world? ” Scripture Recitation in a Chinese Funeral A Daoist priest in the Sichuan Province of China reads a funeral text, and the men sitting around respond, to enable the soul of the deceased to pass successive judgments on its way to final blessing. Stevan Harrell, from the Image Bank of the Center for the Study of World Religions, Harvard University. Used by permission of Stevan Harrell ETHICS |On Death 181CopEditorial re Reward and Retribution Although the Dao does not have a strongly moral character, the Daoist tradition nonetheless developed the doctrine of reward for virtue (long life) and punishment for evil (shortened life or punishment of descendants). This passage from the first chapter of a key Daoist scripture, the Taishang Gan Ying Pian, or “Treatise of the Exalted One on Reward and Retribution, ”gives a lyrical list of good deeds and excerpts the beginning of an even longer section on evil deeds. 17 There are no special doors for calamity and happi- ness; they come as people themselves summon them. Their recompenses follow good and evil as the shadow follows the substance. In heaven and earth there are spirits that take account of a person ’s transgressions and, accord- ing to the lightness or gravity of one ’s offences, take away from one ’s length of life. 18 When that length is cut short people also become poor, and they meet with many sorrows and afflictions. Other people hate them; punishments and calam- ities attend them; good luck and occasions for happiness shun them; evil stars send down misfor- tunes on them. When their shortened term of life is exhausted, they die. The Spirit-rulers in the three pairs of the stars of the Northern Bushel constellation … record their acts of guilt and wickedness and take away (from their term of life) periods of twelve years or of a hundred days …. In the case of every trans- gression, when they are great, twelve years are taken from his term of life; when they are small, a hundred days. Transgressions, great and small, are seen in several hundred things. Those who wish long life must first avoid these. If a way is right, one should go forward in it; if it is wrong, one should with- draw from it. He [who seeks long life] will not tread in devious byways. He will amass virtue and accumu- late deeds of merit. He will feel kindly toward all creatures. He will be loyal, filial, loving to his younger brothers, and submissive to his elder brothers. He will make himself correct and so transform others. He will pity orphans and have compassion on widows; he will respect the old and cherish the young. Even the insects, grass, and trees he should not hurt. He ought to pity the evil tendencies of others; to rejoice over their excellences; to help them in their difficulties; to rescue them from their perils; and to regard their gains as if they were his own and their losses in the same way. He ought not to publish their shortcomings, nor flaunt his own superiorities. He ought to put a stop to what is evil and exalt and display what is good. He ought to yield much and take little for himself; to receive insult without resenting it and receive honor with an appearance of apprehension; to bestow favors without seeking for a return and give to others without any subsequent regret. This is what is called a good man. All other men respect him; Heaven in its course protects him; happiness and financial rewards follow him; all evil things keep far from him; the spiritual beings defend him. What he does is sure to succeed. He may rightly hope to become Immaterial and Immortal. He who wants to become an Immortal of Heaven ought to give the proof of 1300 good deeds; and he who wants to become an Immortal of Earth should give the proof of three hundred. But if the movements of a man ’sheartare contrary to righteousness, and his conduct is in Treatise of the Exalted One on Reward and Retribution 1. 17This and the following reading are adapted from Tai-Shang Kan-Ying P ’ien , translated by Teitaro Suzuki and Paul Carus (La Salle, IL: Open Court, 1906).18spirits that take account …length of life: A widespread Chinese belief is that the spirit of the hearth in each home travels to heaven once a year to make a report on the conduct of the peo-ple in its home, and their life span is adjusted accordingly. 182 CHAPTER 7 |DaoismCopEditorial re opposition to reason; if he regards his wickedness as a proof of his ability; if he can bear to do what is cruel and injurious; if he secretly harms honest and good people; if he treats his ruler or parents with clandestine slight; if he is disrespectful to his elders and teachers; if he disregards the authority of those whom he should serve; if he deceives the simple; if he slanders his fellow-learners; if he practices deception and hypocrisy, and attacks and exposes his kindred by blood or marriage; if he is hard, violent, and without humanity — in the case of crimes such as these, (the Spirits) presiding over life, according to the lightness or gravity[oftheseevildeeds]takeawaythecul- prit ’s periods of twelve years or of one hundred days. When his term of life is exhausted, death ensues. If at his death there remains any unpun- ished guilt, his judgment [of shortened life] is appliedtohisdescendants. A Visit to Hell One way that many religions strengthen their moral systems is to warn people of the punish- ments that await evil deeds and evil people in hell. This story appended to the “Treatise of the Exalted One on Reward and Retribution ”is mild compared to the paintings on the terrors of hell in some Daoist temples. This story is aimed in particular at scholars and writers, warning them that they will be rewarded or punished for their publications. Chuan Juyu of Puhai was a poor man, but he was never tired of doing every good and charitable work that he could. He also employed himself tire- lessly, although he was often in poor health, in copying many good books to be distributed among his neighbors. When he was asked why he exerted himself so much in spite of his physical weakness, he replied that he was not trying to seek any re- ward, but simply wanted to give relief to his mind, which could not be kept idle for one moment. One day he went to sea, and after encounter- ing a strong gale he was stranded on a lonely island. The scenery was very beautiful and he was full of joy, when suddenly there appeared to him a Daoist scholar who said: “The world delights in hypocrisy, but the Lord on High praises sincerity. You have done good work in distributing sound moral books, and you have done this not for the sake of courting a good opinion of yourself from others, but simply from pure unaffected good-will. This makes your deeds even more praiseworthy in the eyes of our Lord on High. Many scholars are clever enough, yet they do not employ their talents for the true cause; they abuse them in writing immoral, seditious books. Now they are suffering in hell the consequences brought on them by their own acts. I shall take you there and let you see by way of contrast how much better your fate is. ”19 Then they went through space to that strangest of lands. The Daoist explained every- thing they saw there. All kinds of torture were being applied to those immoral writers, who, while in the world, stirred up man ’s beastly nature and allured many good people to an early downfall. The stranger also showed him a stately- looking man in the palace. He had been a good, upright officer when on earth, punishing every crime that disturbed social and political peace, and he was now superintending this department in the world below. Treatise of the Exalted One on Reward and Retribution , Appendix. 19how much better your fate is: The beautiful island on which the scholar was stranded during his life seems to indicate the kind of place he will go after his death. ETHICS |A Visit to Hell 183CopEditorial re When the visit was over, the Daoist scholar brought Chuan back to the same island, where he secured a sailboat and finally succeeded in reaching his home. Ever since, he tells his neigh- bors the horrible things he saw in his visit to hell. RITUAL Methods of Prolonging Life The Baopuzi (Wade-Giles, Pao-p ’u tzu ), or “The Master Who Embraces Simplicity, ”consid- ered one of the most important texts in religious Daoism, stresses esoteric methods of achiev- ing immortality. The first selection discusses the general principles of achieving longevity or immortality; the second points out how scripture texts can aid in this process. 20 [15.6b] If you are going to do everything possible to nurture your life, you will take the divine med- icines. In addition, you will never weary of circu- lating your breath; morning and night you will do calisthenics to circulate your blood and breath and see that they do not stagnate. 21 In addition to these things, you will practice sexual intercourse in the right fashion; you will eat and drink moder- ately; you will avoid drafts and dampness; you will not trouble yourself about things that are not within your competence. Do all these things, and you will not fall sick. On the other hand, you are sure to become ill if you are afraid of not always having your own way in society and of instability in your affairs; also, if laxity and lack of diligence trouble you. If all you have is a heart faithful to God and yet do nothing for your own benefit — your predestined life span being defective and your body threatened with harm —the Three Corpses 22 will take advan- tage of your weak months and perilous days, the hours when your longevity could be interrupted or sickness incurred, to summon vicious vapors and bring in any demons they might be able to find to do you injury. And when this situation intensifies, it produces the various illnesses. But all of this was set in motion by the anxiety that was present in the first place. Accordingly, those who first did something about God in antiquity exercised all the medical arts at the same time to save themselves from mis- fortunes that are ever present, but this principle is unknown to ordinary people who, not under- standing what they have been taught, pay no attention to the prescriptions for treating ill- ness. Further, being unable to break with worldly life and live as hermits, and using only personal remedies to drive away illness, they lack all means for combating it and curing themselves. They are by no means as well off as the people in general who use various infusions … . [19.6b] I heard Cheng Yin say that no Daoist book surpasses San huang net wen and Wu yueh chen hsing tfu in importance. 23 They were the honored secrets of the genies and superior men of antiquity and could be taught only by those Baopuzi 15.6b –7a; 19.6b –7a. 20From James R. Ware, Alchemy, Medicine, Religion in the China of A.D. 320: The Nei P ’ien of Ko Hung (Pao-p ’u tzu). Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 1966. Copyright © 1966 The Massachusetts Institute of Tech-nology. Used by permission.21circulating your breaths … stagnate: The best-known form of this exercise today is Tai Chi.22Three Corpses: Worms in the body causing illness and death. 23Po Ho wrote both these books, which deal with gainingimmortality. 184 CHAPTER 7 |DaoismCopEditorial re bearing the title of genie. Those receiving them transmitted them once after forty years, and in doing so oaths were taken by smearing the lips with the blood of a sacrificed animal, and agree- ments were entered into by the giving of a pres- ent. Writings of this type are to be found in all the famous mountains and the five revered moun- tains, but they are stored in hidden spots in caves. In response to those who have secured the divine process and entered a mountain to give sincere thought to it, the god of the mountain will auto- matically open the mountain and let such persons see the texts, just as Po Ho got his in a mountain, and immediately set up an altar, made a present of silk, drew one ordinary copy, and then left with them. 24 A purified place is always prepared for such texts, and whenever anything is done about them one must first announce it to them, as though one were serving a sovereign or a father. The classic itself states that if San huang nei wen is in a household, it will banish evil and hate- ful ghosts, soften the effects of epidemics, block calamities, and rout misfortunes. If anyone is suf- fering from illness or on the point of death, let someone believing in the process with all his heart give this text to the patient to hold, and he will be sure not to die. If a wife is having trouble in childbirth to the point of possible death, let her hold this text, and her son will be born immedi- ately. If pilgrims wishing to seek fullness of life will hold this text when entering the mountains, it will rout tigers and wolves, and none of the mountain powers, poisons, or evils will dare approach. When crossing rivers and seas, the processors will be able to dispel crocodiles and dragons, and halt the wind and waves with this book. With the method taught in this text it is pos- sible to initiate undertakings positively or nega- tively without inquiring about the correct site or choosing the right day, and one ’s household will be free from calamities. If you wish to build a new house or tomb, write several dozen copies of the Earth Augustus text and spread them on the site. Look at them on the following day, and if a yellow color is seen adhering to them, one may begin the work there and the household will be sure to become rich and prosperous. When the dead are being interred, copy the Man Augustus text and include your own full name written on a folded sheet of paper. Insert this in that person ’s grave without letting others know what you are doing, and you will be free from sudden misfortune and robbers. Anyone plotting against you will be sure to have his harm turned against himself. The Origins of Feng Shui Feng shui [FUNG shway] is the ancient Chinese practice of positioning objects to maximize the good effects of yin-yang and promote the flow of life-giving qi [pronounced “chee ”]. These objects include graves, altars, buildings, and recently, furniture and decorative items. Feng shui originated in burial practices. Good positioning of the body in relation to the earth is believed to lead to a better life in the afterworld for the spirit of the person buried and hence to 24drew one ordinary copy: Made a copy by hand. Zang Shu 1.1 –4, 7 –25, 30 –43. RITUAL |The Origins of Feng Shui 185CopEditorial re more blessing on the dead person ’s living descendants. The Book of Burial by Guo Pu (276 –324 C.E.) laid down the basic principles of feng shui that endure today. 25 [The purpose of] burial is to gain accord with the generative qi. 26 The five qi move within the ground and develop, thus generating the ten thou- sand things. 27 Human beings receive their bodies from their parents; the original bones gain qi and the remaining bones receive the yin. The Book 28 says that qi responds to what it senses, and the good fortune of ghosts extends to the living …. [7] Overall, life is the condensation of qi. That which is coagulated becomes the bone, which remains after death. Therefore, to bury the dead is to obey the principle of returning qi to the bones, thus generating life out of yin. 29 Qi follows the bones of hilly ridges and the branches of hills and mounds. [10] The Book says [that] when qi rides with the wind, it disperses; when it reaches water, it ends. The ancients were able to condense the qi and keep it from dispersion, to move it and to make it cease. Therefore, they called it feng shui (wind-water). The law of feng shui is: getting water is superior; hiding from wind is secondary. The Book says [that] when external qi is blocked, it thus takes forms; when internal qi is stopped, it thus generates life. This is what it refers to. Why is it said thus? When there is abundance of qi, it still remains even though it overflows everywhere; it still condenses in a deep place even though it disperses. [15] Therefore, it is best to bury the dead deep in dry land, and shallow in smooth plains. The Book says [that] once the depth is properly achieved, feng shui will be complete itself. The qi of yin-yang flows out and thus becomes wind; it ascends and thus becomes cloud; it descends and thus becomes rain; and it moves through the ground and thus becomes the generative qi …. The Book says [that] earth takes forms and qi moves along them, and out of this all things are generated. [20] Qi moves through the ground. Its movement depends upon the earth ’s course; its condensation depends upon the cessation of these courses. To bury the dead is to trace the beginning point of qi and to [come into] accord with its cessation. The aspect of the ground follows its pulse and the aspect of mountains follows their bones; they are meandering easily either in east- west or south-north directions. The length of a thousand feet is called “aspect ”; a height of a hun- dred feet is called “form. ” Where the aspect arrives and the form ceases to be, there is what is called the total qi. [25] At the spot of total qi is where you stop and bury the dead …. [30] The accumulated [emerging aspects] ceases and condenses, and the harmonious yang and yin mingle. Where there are high ground and deep water, there are thick grass and dense woods. Such a place has wealth equaling one thou- sand chariots and has riches equaling ten thousand gold pieces. The Book says that where form ends, qi accumulates, transforming to become ten thou- sand things —that is the ultimate ground [in which to bury the dead]. It is most precious if ground is a flat plain; it is most precious if soil is that with secondary ridges. [35] The spot where the second- ary ridges begin, qi consequently originates; where the secondary ridges end, qi consequently termi- nates. The method of detecting secondary ridges is finding the places where they are slightly hidden, and slightly rising like mounds, and where they are metaphysically and subtly connected. That is where good fortune lies. The Book says [that] when the ground contains auspicious qi, the soil rises in consequence; where the secondary ridge carries the ending qi, water flows to lift it up; the 25From Juwen Zhang, A Translation of the Ancient Chinese Book of Burial (Zang Shu) by Guo Pu (276 –324) (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2004), 41 –84. Copyright © 2004 Juwen Zhang. Used by permission.26qi: The primordial, cosmic breath, the power and energy of life; in Wade-Giles, spelled chi. 27the ten thousand things: Traditional Chinese expression for the world and everything in it.28The Book: An earlier volume on this topic, the exact identity of which is unknown. Zhang suggests that it is likely an earlier version of the Book of Burial, perhaps the one version pre- ferred by Wu Cheng (1246 –1331 C.E.), who edited the Book of Burial that we have today. 29generating life out of yin: Not that the bones come back to life, but rather that life-giving energy flows to the spirit of the dead person. 186 CHAPTER 7 |DaoismCopEditorial re aspect goes smoothly with the form, [and] repeats endless cycles. By obeying the principle for burying the dead in such a place, there will be perpetual auspicious- ness and no misfortune. In mountains, there are those that have precipitous aspects. One should obey the principle to bury the dead at the conjoin- ing spot. [It is also necessary] to accord with the location from which it emerges, [40] to examine the location for deficiencies, to choose from what is accommodating, [and] to avoid what is harm- ful. This is how the superior man accomplishes remarkable feats and heavenly advantages; thus the mandated fate of heaven is changed. 30 GLOSSARY Pinyin spelling is given first, then Wade-Giles spell- ing in parentheses before the pronunciation. This pronunciation applies to both the Pinyin and Wade- Giles spellings. Dao (Tao) [dow] The way of the cosmos, and the way that humans should discern and live by. Daode Jing (Tao Te Ching) [dow duh jing] “Classic of the Way and Its Working, ”the leading book of the Daoist scriptures. Daozang [DOW-zahng] Daoist canon. de (te) [duh] Working, power, virtue of the Way. feng shui [FUNG shway] Ancient Chinese practice of positioning objects to maximize the good effects of yin-yang and the flow of spiritual energy. wuwei [woo-WAY] “Effortless action, ”“ active non- striving, ”; the use of the natural power of the Dao in oneself. yin-yang [yihn-yahng, not “ying-yang ”] Cosmic principles or dualities: passive and active, earth and heaven, dark and light, female and male, respectively. Zhuangzi (Chuang-tzu) [jwahng tzoo] Second most important book of the Daoist scriptures. QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION 1. From your reading of these texts, how would you define or describe the Dao? 2. In what ways is the Daode Jing the foundation of subsequent Daoist traditions? 3. Compare and contrast the Daoist idea of the sage/master and the Confucian idea of the super- ior person. 4. Discuss the remarkable feminine imagery used, especially in the Daode Jing , to describe the Dao. Has this carried over into later Daoism in the form of a greater role for women in the religion? If not, why? 5. Discuss the Daoist goal of longevity. How does the pursuit of this goal differ in religious and in philosophical Daoism? 6. How might the perplexing style of the Zhuangzi be particularly well designed to promote its goals? 7. Compare and contrast the Daoist and Confucian ideas of government. How is it possible, as the Daode Jing claims, to govern by wuwei? 8. Contrast philosophical Daoism and religious Daoism. How are their differences and similarities reflected in their scriptures? 9. To what degree is it true that Daoism is a religion of “doing what comes naturally ”? 10. Given the context in Daode Jing 64 (in the Ethics section) of “A journey of a thousand miles starts with a single footstep, ”and knowing what you do about the Daoist ideal of wuwei, is this saying cor- rectly interpreted by most people today as a posi- tive call to begin long-term action? 11. Critique the paraphrase of wuwei by Wayne Dyer, “Stop striving, start arriving. ” 30Zhang remarks, “This may be one of the most important parts in the entire book, in that it shows the positive side of feng shui practice: it is a search for harmony, in which mankind has a positive role in the process of bringing nature into accor- dance with the natural Dao ”(Zhang, Translation of the Book of Burial, p. 85). Questions for Study and Discussion 187CopEditorial re SCRIPTURES IN FILM For the connection between Daoism and martial arts, see especially Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000, directed by Ang Lee; in Mandarin, with English subtitles). This film, which won four Academy Awards including Best Foreign Film, draws on the Wudang Daoist School of medita- tion and martial arts, although this is not made explicit in the film. For a more avant-garde film on Daoist themes, see Koyaanisqatsi (“Life Out of Balance, ” 1982, directed by Godfrey Reggio). Without any characters or conventional plot, this film uses music and film photography to depict the balance in nature that humans should study and adapt to, a key Daoist teaching. MindTap is a fully online, highly personalized learning experience built upon Cengage Learning content. MindTap combines student learning tools —readings, multimedia, activities, and assessments —into a singular Learning Path that guides students through their course. 188 CHAPTER 7 |DaoismCopEditorial re CHAPTER EIGHT Shinto Jens Tobiska/ “Wedded Rocks ”Shrine The “Wedded Rocks ”Shinto shrine near Futami, Japan represents the husband-and-wife relationship that is sacred in Shinto. It also recalls the creation of Japanese islands by Izanagi and his wife Izanami in Shinto myth. The gate on the larger island is a marker of sacredspace and the modern symbol of Shinto. –189 –CopEditorial re INTRODUCTION Shinto, the ancient Japanese national religion, is unique among the religious traditions of Asia and the world. Of all the major faiths based in historically literate cultures, Shinto (from shen-tao, “the Way of the Gods ”) is the only one that has no scripture as modern scholars understand that term. It does have sacred books, but Shinto recog- nizes no book as officially authoritative. It has no canon and no formalized doctrines or ethical systems that could be shaped by a scripture. Therefore, our presentation of Shinto writings takes a format different from the other chapters. Two books in particular do have a special standing in Shinto because of their antiq- uity and unique contents: the Kojiki [koh-JEE-kee], “Record of Ancient Matters, ”and the Nihongi [nih-HAWN-gee], “Chronicles of Japan. ”Written by imperial decree in the eighth century C.E., these books have held a place of honor in Shinto. The Japanese have looked on them as the story of the foundation of Japan. For a thousand years, schoolchildren were taught their stories as an education in patriotism. These books “are regarded as authoritative and provide [Shinto ’s] historical as well as its spiritual basis. ”1 Though not classified as scripture, the Kojiki and Nihongi provide good evidence of the leading ideas of the Shinto tradition. First in importance is the existence of many kami [KAH-mee], or gods and spirits. Second, humanity is the offspring of the kami and is continually supported by their power. Third, the Japanese nation, especially the imperial family, is the center of humanity. Fourth, deep reverence is owed the emperor as the one through whom blessings flow to the nation. These writings were put to a strong patriotic use in the Meiji period, which was a time of Japanese modernization and impe- rial expansion that culminated in World War II (see Map 5 in the map section). Since the disestablishment of Shinto as the official state religion in 1945, the Kojiki and Nihongi have not been taught in Japanese schools. Moreover, as a part of this disestablishment that came after the defeat of Japan in World War II, the emperor of Japan renounced his claim to divinity, which these books were intended to buttress. Nevertheless, much of the traditional high regard for Shinto still lingers. For example, both pride and protests erupted in 1991 when Akihito, the new emperor, spent a night in a specially constructed Shinto shrine, a ritual once thought to bring about the emper- or’s rebirth as a child of the sun-god Amaterasu. So, even though the imperial claims that the Kojiki and the Nihongi were written to support have been officially renounced, these sacred texts continue to provide valuable insight into the historical essence of Shinto and its traditional relationship to the Japanese national character. The Kojiki , finished in 712 C.E., is the oldest surviving book in Japan. The only knowledge we have of its origin comes from the preface by its author Futo Yasumaro (given in the first reading). This preface records that Emperor Temmu, who reigned from 672 –687 C.E., decreed that a new book should correct the falsified genealogical records of the leading Japanese families. In this way, the genealogical myths of the competing clans were incorporated into the genealogical myth of Temmu ’s clan. To do this, the Kojiki draws on two main works of the time: the Teiki (Imperial Sun- Lineage) and the Honji (Ancient Dicta of Former Ages). The first was a source of genealogies and the second a collection of myths, legends, and songs; both were probably oral collections. These two sources, when combined and reworked into the Kojiki , shape its characteristic emphasis on a reliable genealogy that extends 1Sokyo Ono, Shinto, The Kami Way (Rutland, VT: Charles Tuttle, 1962), p. 10. 190 CHAPTER 8 |ShintoCopEditorial re back to the gods. Scholars discern in the Kojiki other revisions to older traditions. For example, early indigenous Japanese ideas about the equality of men and women were modified by Confucian ideas of male superiority; this concern surfaces at key points in the Kojiki, especially its creation myths. The Kojiki itself is divided into three books (see Table 8.1). The first book, a retelling of early Japanese mythology, proclaims that the emperor ’s family is destined to rule Japan because this family is the “offspring of the heavenly gods. ”The second and third books contain stories of the ancient emperors and their exploits, most of them legendary, up to the time of writing. Only a few of these stories have any obvious religious significance. Brand X Pictures Ritual Purity in a Shinto Shrine A woman ceremonially washes her hands at a washing station outside a Shinto shrine in Tokyo, Japan, before going inside. It is often said that Shinto is “long on ceremony and short on doctrine. ” The Nihongi (also known as the Nihonshoki ) was written shortly after the Kojiki, in 720 C.E. Shotoku Daishi, its traditional author, compiled the Nihongi in thirty “books ”that resemble our modern chapters in size. It narrates a closely related version of the stories in the Kojiki, draws on the same sources, and is written in the same Chinese style. Its special concern is to show that the Teika reforms of 645 C.E., which brought Shinto under stricter government regulation, resulted in greater obedience to the way of the kami. Introduction 191CopEditorial re SELECTIONS FROM THE KOJIKI Preface to the Kojiki This preface is the author ’s dedicatory address to Gemmei, niece and daughter-in-law of Emperor Kamu-Yamato (Temmu), who commissioned the work but died before its completion. The preface is a summary of much of the contents of the entire Kojiki. The narrator tells of the creation of the world, the birth of the early gods, and the creation of Japan. The middle sec- tions deal with various emperors, from the first emperor, Jimmu, to Temmu, although the narrative seems to be speaking of Temmu continually throughout this section. His decision to sponsor the writing of the Kojiki is given special attention. The final sections tell the praises of the empress and provide the only information we have about the writing of this book. The significance of the Kojiki is given in this section: Its teaching is “the basis of the country, the grand foundation of the monarchy. ”2 I, Yasumaro, say: When chaos had begun to condense, but force and form were not yet manifest, and noth- ing was named, nothing done, who could know its shape? Nevertheless Heaven and Earth first separated, and the Three Gods began creating. 3 The Passive and Active Essences 4then developed, and the Two Spirits became the ancestors of all things. 5Therefore he entered obscurity and emerged into light, and the washing of his eyes revealed the Sun and Moon. He floated on and plunged into the sea-water, and Heavenly and Earthly Gods appeared through the washings of his person. So in the dimness of the great com- mencement, we, by relying on the original teaching, learn the time of the conception of the earth and of the birth of islands. In the remoteness of the original beginning, we perceive by trusting the former sages the era of the genesis of gods and of the establishment of human life. Truly, we know that a mirror was hung up, 6that jewels were spat out, and that then a hundred kings succeeded each other. We know that a blade was bitten, and a serpent cut in pieces, so that ten thousand gods nourished. By deliberations in the Tranquil River the Empire was pacified; by discussions on the Little Shore the land was purified. Then the August 7 Ho-no-ni-nigi first des- cended to the Peak of Takachi, and the Heavenly Ruler Kamu-Yamato traversed the Island of the Dragon-Fly. A weird bear put forth its claws, and a heavenly saber was obtained at Takakura. TABLE 8.1 TheShintoSacredWritings Name Translation Traditional Author Date Size Kojiki “Record of Ancient Matters ” Futo Yasumaro 712 C.E. Three books Nihongi “Chronicles of Japan ” Shotoku Daishi 720 C.E. Thirty books 2All selections in this chapter are adapted from Basil HallChamberlain, trans., Ko-ji-ki, Transactions of the Asiatic Soci- ety of Japan, supplement to vol. 10 (Tokyo: Asiatic Society of Japan, 1906).3Gods: The Japanese kami is translated “Gods ”throughout. 4Passive and Active Essences: Yin and yang, respectively. 5The Two Spirits from which all creation came are Izanagi (the Male-Who-Invites) and Izanami (the Female-Who-Invites). 6mirror: In many Shinto shrines, a mirror is often the only visible symbol of the kami ’s presence. 7August [aw-GUHST]: This honorific term often used in Shinto divine names means “honored, revered. ” 192 CHAPTER 8 |ShintoCopEditorial re Men with tails obstructed the path, and a great crow guided him to Yeshinu. Dancing in rows, they destroyed the criminals, and listening to a song they vanquished their foes. Being instructed in a dream, he was reverent to the Heavenly and Earthly Gods, and was therefore styled the Wise Monarch. Having gazed on the smoke, he was benevolent to the people, and is therefore remem- bered as the Emperor-Sage. In the august reign of the Heavenly Ruler who governed the Eight Great Islands from the Great Palace of Kiyomihara at Asuka, the Hid- den Dragon 8put on perfection, the Reiterated Thunder came at the appointed moment. Having heard a song in a dream, he felt that he should continue the succession; having reached the water at night, he knew that he should receive the inher- itance. Nevertheless Heaven ’s time was not yet, and he escaped like the cicada to the Southern Mountains. 9 Then both men and matters were favorable, and he marched like the tiger to the Eastern Land. 10 Suddenly riding in the imperial chariot, he forced his way across mountains and rivers. The Six Divisions rolled like thunder, the Three Hosts sped like lightning. The erect spears lifted up their might, and the bold warriors arose like smoke. The crimson flags glistened among the weapons, and the ill-omened crew was shattered like tiles. Before a day had elapsed, the evil influ- ences were purified. Then the cattle were let loose and the horses given repose, and with shouts of victory they returned to the Flowery Summer. The flags were rolled up and the javelins put away, and with dances and chants they came to rest in the capital city. The year was that of the Rooster, and it was the Second Moon. At the Great Palace of Kiyomihara, he ascended to the Heavenly seat. Then the Heavenly Ruler commanded, “I hear that the chronicles of the emperors and like- wise the original words in the possession of the various families deviate from exact truth, and are mostly amplified by empty falsehoods. If these imperfections are not amended now, before many years shall have elapsed, the meaning of the truth, the great basis of the country and the grand foundation of the monarchy, will be destroyed. So now I desire to have the chronicles of the emperors selected and recorded, and the old words examined and ascertained, falsehoods erased and truth determined, in order to transmit [the truth] to later ages. ” At that time there was a retainer 11 whose fam- ily name was Hiyeda; his personal name was Are. He was twenty-eight years old, and so intelligent that he could repeat with his mouth whatever he saw, and remember whatever he heard. Then Are was commanded to learn by heart the genealogies of the emperors, and likewise the words of former ages. Nevertheless time elapsed and the age changed, and the thing was not yet carried out. Lying face down in reverence, I consider how Her Majesty the Empress, having obtained the throne, illumines the empire. Being versed in the Triad, 12 she nourishes the people. Ruling from the Purple Palace, her virtue reaches to the utmost limits of the horses ’hoof-marks. Her influence illumines the farthest distance attained to by ves- sels ’prows. The sun rises, and the brightness is increased; the clouds disperse, neither is there smoke. The chroniclers never cease recording the good omens of connected stalks and double rice- ears. Never for a single moon is the treasury with- out the tribute of continuous beacon-fires and repeated interpretations. In fame she must be pro- nounced superior to Bum-Mei, in virtue more eminent than Ten-Itsu. 13 She regretted the errors in the old words, and wished to correct the misstatements in the former chronicles. So on the eighteenth day of the ninth moon of the fourth year of Wa-do, she com- manded me, Yasumaro, to select and record the 8the Hidden Dragon: The emperor as the crown prince. 9he escaped … Mountains: He renounced ordinary life for a time.10This paragraph tells how the emperor crushed an attempt bya rival to gain the imperial throne by force. 11retainer: A minor court official. 12Triad: Heaven, humanity, and earth. 13Bum-Mei … Ten-Itsu: Ancient Chinese rulers. SELECTIONS FROM THE KOJIKI |Preface to the Kojiki 193CopEditorial re old words learned by heart by Hiyeda Are accord- ing to the Imperial Decree, and dutifully to lift them up to her. In reverent obedience to the con- tents of the Decree, I have made a careful choice. But in high antiquity both speech and thought were so simple that it would be difficult to arrange phrases and compose sentences in [Chinese] char- acters …. Moreover, where the meaning of the words was obscure, I have elucidated their mean- ing. But need it be said that I have nowhere commented on what was easy? Altogether the things recorded commence with the separation of Heaven and Earth, and conclude with the august reign at Woharida. 14 … Altogether I have written three volumes, which I now reverently and respectfully present. I, Yasumaro, with true trem- bling and true reverence, bow my head, and bow my head again. Reverently presented [to the empress] by the Court Noble Futo Yasumaro, an Officer of the Upper Division of the Fifth Rank and of the Fifth Order of Merit, on the 28th day of the first moon of the fifth year of Wa-do. 15 The Creation of Japan In Chapter 1 of the Kojiki, the spontaneous birth of the first gods (with their long names, meant to pay them honor) is described. Although the narration starts at the “beginning of heaven and earth ”the myths of the Kojiki (and the Nihongi as well) are much more stories of the creation of Japan than full-fledged stories of the creation of the world. The reader notices, for example, no mention of the making of humanity in general or of animals. At the end of Chapter 2, the key gods Izanagi (called here the “Male-Who-lnvites ”)and Izanami (the “Female-Who-Invites ”) come into being, and they begin to create islands. Chapters 4 and 5 tell the story of the births of their first children, and we can see a concern for proper male-female relationships. In Chapter 33, the culmination of these myths is reached when the grandson of Amaterasu descends from heaven to rule the land that was to become Japan. [Chapter 1, “The Beginning of Heaven and Earth ”] The names of the gods that were born in the Plain of High Heaven when the Heaven and Earth began were the god Master-of- the-August-Center-of-Heaven, next the High- August-Producing-Wondrous-God, then the Divine-Producing-Wondrous-God. These three gods were all gods born alone, and hid their per- sons. The names of the gods that were born next from a thing that sprouted up like a reed-shoot when the earth, young and like floating oil, drifted about medusa-like, were the Pleasant-Reed- Shoot-Prince-Elder-God and the Heavenly- Eternally-Standing-God. These two gods were like- wise born alone, and hid their persons. The five gods in the above list are separate Heavenly Gods. [Chapter 2, “The Seven Divine Generations ”] The names of the gods that were born next were 14reign at Woharida: The reign of the Empress Suiko, who died in 628 C.E. 15March 10, 712 C.E. Kojiki 1–5, 33 194 CHAPTER 8 |ShintoCopEditorial re the Earthly-Eternally-Standing-God, next the Luxuriant-Integrating-Master-God. These two gods were likewise gods born alone, and hid their persons. The names of the gods that were born next were the god Mud-Earth-Lord, next his youn- ger sister the god Mud-Earth-Lady; next the Germ-Integrating-God, next his younger sister the Life-Integrating-God; next the god Elder-of- the-Great-Place, next his younger sister the god Elder-Lady-of-the-Great-Place; next the god Per- fect-Exterior, next his younger sister the god Oh- Aweful-Lady; next the god the Male-Who-Invites, next his younger sister the god the Female- Who-Invites. From the Earthly-Eternally-Stand- ing-God down to the god the Female-Who-Invites in the previous list are what are termed the Seven Divine Generations. (The two solitary gods above [mentioned] are each called one generation. Of the succeeding ten gods each pair of gods is called a generation.) [Chapter 3, “The Island of Onogoro ”] Then all the Heavenly Gods commanded the two gods His Augustness the Male-Who-Invites and Her Augustness the Female-Who-Invites, ordering them to “make, consolidate, and give birth to this drifting land. ”Granting to them a heavenly jeweled spear, they charged them thus. So the two gods, standing upon the Floating Bridge of Heaven, pushed down the jeweled spear and stir- red with it. When they had stirred the brine until it curdled and drew [the spear] up, the brine that dripped down from the end of the spear was piled up and became an island. This is the Island of Onogoro. 16 [Chapter 4, “Courtship of the Two Gods, the Male-Who-Invites (Izanagi) and the Female- Who-Invites (Izanami) ”] Having descended from Heaven onto this island, they saw to the erection of a heavenly august pillar, and they saw to the erec- tion of a hall of eight fathoms. Then the Male- Who-Invites asked the Female-Who-Invites, “In what form is your body made? ”She responded, saying, “My body is formed with one part not fully formed. ”Then the Male-Who-Invites said, “My body is formed with one part more than fully formed. Therefore, would it not be good to take that part of my body which is more than fully formed and insert it into that part of your body which is less than fully formed, and procreate the land? ”The Female-Who-Invites responded, “That would be good. ”Then the Male-Who-Invites said, “Let us walk in a circle around this heavenly pillar, meet, and have intercourse. ”Then she said, “You go around from the right, and I will go around from the left. ” Then they agreed and went around, and the Female-Who-Invites said first, “What a charming and lovable male! ”Then the Male-Who-Invites said, “What a charming and lovable female! ” When each had finished talking, he said to his wife, “It is not fitting that the woman speaks first. ”17 But they still began procreating, and she gave birth to a leech-child. This child they placed in a boat of reeds, and let it float away. Next they gave birth to the Island of Aha. It also is not reck- oned among their children. [Chapter 5, “The Birth of the Eight Islands (of Japan) ”] Then the two gods took counsel, saying: “The children to whom we have now given birth are not good. It will be best to an- nounce this in the august place of the Heavenly Gods. ”They ascended to Heaven and enquired of Their Augustnesses the Heavenly Gods. Then the Heavenly Gods found out by grand divination, and ordered them, saying: “They were not good because the woman spoke first. Descend back again and amend your words. ” So descending back, they again went round the heavenly august pillar as before. Then the Male-Who-Invites spoke first: “Ah! What a charming and lovely maiden! ” Afterward his younger sister the Female-Who- Invites spoke: “Ah! What a charming and lovely young man! ”When these words were said, they had intercourse as before, and procreated the 16Island of Onogoro: This mythical island, whose name means “spontaneously congealing, ”is traditionally located some- where off the northeastern coast of today ’s Japan. 17It is not fitting that the woman speaks first. To judge from the correction made in the next paragraph, this refers to “What a charming and lovable male, ”not the earlier statement of Izanami that her husband should walk around the pillar to the right, and she to the left. SELECTIONS FROM THE KOJIKI |The Creation of Japan 195CopEditorial re Island of Ahaji, Ho-no-sa-wake. Next they gave birth to the Island of Futa-na in Iyo. This island has one body and four faces, and each face has a name. So the Land of Iyo is called Lovely Princess; the Land of Sanuki is called Prince Good- Boiled-Rice; the Land of Aha is called the Princess-of-Great-Food; the Land of Tosa is called Brave-Good-Youth …. [Chapter 33, “The August Descent from Heaven of the August Grandchild (of Amaterasu) ”] Then the Heaven-Shining-Great-August-God and the High-Integrating-God commanded and charged the Heir Apparent His Augustness Truly- Conqueror-I-Conquer-Swift-Heavenly-Great-Ears [saying: “The Brave-Awful-Possessing-Male-God] says that he has now finished pacifying the Central Land of Reed-Plains. In accordance with our gra- cious charge, descend to, dwell in, and rule over it. ” Then the Heir Apparent His Augustness Truly- Conqueror-I-Conquer-Swift-Heavenly-Great-Ears replied, saying: “While I have been getting ready to descend, there has been born [to me] a child whose name is His Augustness Heaven- Plenty-Earth-Plenty-Heaven ’s-Sun-Height-Prince- Rice-Ear-Ruddy-Plenty. This child should be sent down. [As for this august child, he was aug- ustly joined to Her Augustness Myriad-Looms- Luxuriant-Dragonfly-Island-Princess, daughter of the High-Integrating-God, and begot children: His Augustness Heavenly-Rice-Ear-Ruddy and next His Augustness Prince Rice-Ear-Ruddy-Plenty]. In accordance with these words, they laid their command on His Augustness Prince Rice- Ear-Ruddy-Plenty, charging him with these words, “This Luxuriant Reed-Plain-Land-of- Fresh-Rice-Ears is the land over which you shall rule. ”So [he replied]: “I will descend from Hea- ven according to your commands. ”So when His Augustness Prince Rice-Ear-Ruddy-Plenty was about to descend from Heaven, there was at the eight-forking road of Heaven a god whose glory reached upward to the Plain of High Heaven and downward to the Central Land of Reed-Plains. So then the Heaven-Shining-Great-August-God and the High-Integrating-God commanded and charged the Heavenly-Alarming-Female-God [say- ing]: “Though you are a delicate female, you are a god who conquers other gods. So be the one to go and ask, ‘Since this is the road by which our august child is about to descend from Heaven, who is it that is there? ’” So to this gracious question he replied, saying, “I am an Earth God named the god Prince of Saruta. The reason for my coming here is that, having heard of the [intended] descent of the august child of the Heavenly Gods, I have come humbly to meet him and respectfully offer myself as His Augustness ’svanguard. ” Then joining to him His Augustness Heavenly- Beckoning-Ancestor-Lord, His Augustness Grand-Jewel, Her Augustness Heavenly-Alarm- ing-Female, Her Augustness I-shi-ko-ri-do-me, and His Augustness Jewel-Ancestor, in all five chiefs of companies, they sent him down from Heaven. Thereupon they joined to him the eight-feet [long] curved jewels and mirror that had allured [the Heaven-Shining-Great-August- God from the Rock-Dwelling], and also the Herb-Quelling-Great-Sword, 18 and likewise the god Thought-Includer, the Hand-Strength- Male-God, and the god Heavenly-Rock-Door- Opener of Eternal Night, and charged him, “Regard this mirror exactly as if it were our august spirit, and reverence it as if reverencing us. ” Next they said, “Let the god Thought- Includer take in hand our affairs, and carry on the government. ” These two gods are worshiped at the shrine of Isuzu. The next, the god Luxuriant-Food, dwells in the outer shrine of Watarahi. The next, the god Heavenly-Rock-Door-Opener, another name for whom is the Wondrous-Rock-True-Gate-God, and another name for whom is the Luxuriant- Rock-True-Gate god — this is the god of the August Gate. The next, the god Hand-Strength- Male, dwells in Sanagata. 18jewels, mirror, sword: Objects typically found in Shinto shrines. 196 CHAPTER 8 |ShintoCopEditorial re The Story of Emperor Yuryaku and the Woman Akawi-ko Most of the Kojiki is made up of legendary stories about the Japanese emperors told to extol their own greatness. This bittersweet story of the woman Akawi-ko and the emperor Yuryaku, with the poetic songs that conclude it, is indicative of Japanese literary style. In Chapter 154 of the Kojiki, the old woman Akawi-ko comes before Emperor Yuryaku, the “Heavenly Ruler ”of Japan, to prove her faithfulness to a command he had given her many years before. Once when the Heavenly Ruler was going out for amusement, he reached the River Miwa. A very beautiful girl was washing clothes by the riverside. The Heavenly Ruler asked the girl, “Whose child are you? ” She replied, “My name is Akawi-ko of the Hiketa tribe. ” Then he said to her, “Do not marry a hus- band. I will send for you, ”and [with these words] he returned to the palace. 19 Eighty years passed while she reverently awaited the Heavenly Ruler ’s commands. Then Akawi-ko thought: “While looking for the [Imperial] commands, I have already passed many years. My face and form are lean and withered, so there is no longer any hope for me (to marry). Nevertheless, if I do not show [the Heavenly Ruler] how truly I have waited, my disappointment will be unbearable. ”She caused merchandise to be carried on tables holding a hundred items, and came forth and presented [these gifts as] tribute. Then the Heavenly Ruler, who had com- pletely forgotten what he had formerly com- manded, asked Akawi-ko, “What old woman are you, and why have you come here? ”Then Akawi- ko replied, saying: “Having in a certain month of a certain year received the Heavenly Ruler ’s com- mands, I have been reverently awaiting the great command until this day, and eighty years have passed by. Now my appearance is quite decrepit, and there is no longer any hope for me. Neverthe- less I have come forth in order to show and declare my faithfulness. ” Then the Heavenly Ruler was greatly startled [and exclaimed], “I had quite forgotten the for- mer event! Meanwhile, ever faithfully awaiting my commands, you have vainly let the years of your prime pass by. This is very pitiful. ”In his heart he wished to marry her, but he shrank from her extreme age, and could not make the marriage. However, he conferred on her an august song: “The younger chestnut orchard plain of Hiketa: Would I had slept with her in her youth! Oh! How old she has become! ” Then the tears that Akawi-ko wept drenched the red-dyed sleeve that she had on. In reply to the great august song, she sang this song, “Left over from the piling up of the jewel- wall, Piled up round the august dwelling — To whom shall the person of the god ’s shrine go? ”… Then the old woman was sent back plentifully endowed [with gifts]. So these songs are Quiet Songs. Kojiki 154 19Do not marry … palace: The story implies that the Emperor would take Akawi-ko as a second wife. SELECTIONS FROM THE KOJIKI |Emperor Yuryaku and the Woman Akawi-ko 197CopEditorial re GLOSSARY kami [KAH-mee] Gods or spirits and their sacred power. Kojiki [koh-JEE-kee] “Record of Ancient Matters. ” Nihongi [nih-HAWN-gee] “Chronicles of Japan. ” QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION 1. Describe the basic structure of Shinto polytheism as reflected in Shinto mythology. 2. Why, in your view, do the Japanese myths place so much emphasis on the creation of Japan instead of on the creation of the world? 3. Compare the status of the emperor in Confucian- ism and Shinto. 4. To what degree does the Kojiki reflect the tradi- tional interpersonal customs of Japan? 5. How might the emperor ’s renunciation of divine standing have altered the reading of these texts and their influence in contemporary Japan? SCRIPTURES IN FILM The best recent film that portrays Japan ’s religion and culture is The Last Samurai (2003, rated R), directed by Edward Zwick. Tom Cruise plays an American military adviser in the 1870s who, after he is captured in battle, embraces the samurai cul- ture he was hired to destroy. The film begins with a brief retelling of the creation myth from the Kojiki and reflects its feeling for the land and peo- ples of Japan. The film also illustrates well the Bushido code in action and the interplay between Buddhist tendencies to pacifism and Shinto- samurai militarism. MindTap is a fully online, highly personalized learning experience built upon Cengage Learning content. MindTap combines student learning tools —readings, multimedia, activities, and assessments —into a singular Learning Path that guides students through their course. 198 CHAPTER 8 |ShintoCopEditorial re CHAPTER NINE Zoroastrianism Styve Reineck/ The Symbol of Zoroastrianism The faravahar, the symbol of Zoroastrianism, on the exterior of the Zoroastrian temple in Yazd, Iran. The words written in three spaces summarize the moral codeof Zoroastrianism: “Good thoughts, good words, good deeds. ” –199 –CopEditorial re The Zoroastrian religion has ancient scriptures that have survived only in part. Never- theless, they have exerted a strong influence on Zoroastrian believers. Here are two examples: As he sits on the floor in a Zoroastrian temple in a Chicago suburb, a priest offers a sacrifice for the souls of the dead. In his secular occupation, Kersey Antia is a psychologist specializing in panic disorders. As a Zoroastrian priest, he officiates at the fire ceremonies, feeding sandalwood and frankincense into a blazing fire in an ornate urn. Antia recites prayers from the Zoroastrian scriptures, which he has learned to pronounce by special training in the Avestan language at a school in India. Although Zoroastrians today do not understand many Avestan words, the Zoroastrian god Ahura Mazda does, so the words are still effective. In August 2006, a controversy erupts in Tanzania over proposed celebrations marking what would have been the sixtieth birthday of the rock star Freddie Mercury, the front man of the English rock band Queen, who is considered one of the best rock singers of all time. This controversy was not over Mercury ’s music but over the fact that he had died from AIDS and had “come out ”about his same-sex orientation shortly before his death. Born Farrokh Bulsara to a Zoroastrian family in what is now Tanzania, Mercury composed and sang many hit songs, including the still-popular “Bohemian Rhapsody, ”“ We Are the Cham- pions, ”and “Crazy Little Thing Called Love. ”Although he did not formally observe his ancestral Zoroastrian religion as an adult, his funeral in London was, at Mercury ’s wishes, a traditional Zoroastrian ceremony led by Zoroastrian priests. These rites, conducted entirely in the Avestan language, included prayers and hymns from the Zoroastrian scriptures. INTRODUCTION Begun probably 2500 years ago in ancient Persia (modern Iran) by the prophet Zarathushtra, known to the Western world as Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism became the state religion of both the Persian Empire (sixth through fourth centuries B.C.E.) and the Sassanid Empire (third through seventh centuries C.E.). In these ancient times, Zoroastrians may have numbered as many as 40 million. Today, its numbers are severely reduced, with no more than 200,000 adherents clustered in eastern Iran and especially in Mumbai (Bombay), India, where they are called Parsees , from “Persians. ”Many experts believe that Zoroastrianism may all but die out by the end of this century, and some Zoroastrian leaders fear this may be true. (See Map 6, “The Persian Zoroastrian Empire, ”in the map section.) The scriptures of Zoroastrianism strongly advocate a moral life and maintaining ritual purity in worship and in daily life. Because of their obscure ancient language, troubled history of transmission, and fragmentary state, these scriptures are often difficult to understand. Nevertheless, the main beliefs of Zoroastrianism are clear, and modern Zoroastrians, like earlier believers, are concerned about how the scriptural message is embodied in daily life. Most scholars believe that Zoroastrianism had some significant influence on Judaism, and through Judaism on Christianity and Islam, but the scope of this influ- ence is sharply debated. The leading scholar on Zoroastrianism, Mary Boyce, argued 200 CHAPTER 9 |ZoroastrianismCopEditorial re “Zoroastrianism has probably had more influence on human life, directly and indi- rectly, than any other single faith. ”She also argued that Zarathustra was “the first to teach the doctrines of an individual judgment, Heaven and Hell, the future resurrec- tion of the body, the general Last Judgment, and life everlasting for the reunited soul and body. These doctrines were to become familiar articles of faith to much of man- kind, through borrowings by Judaism, Christianity and Islam; yet it is in Zoroastrian- ism itself that they have their fullest logical coherence. ”1Many scholars hold this position, and it is especially popular on the World Wide Web. Against this position, James Barr (among others) has argued that significant borrowing of Zoroastrian ideas cannot be demonstrated in early Judaism, and that it is therefore unlikely that later Christian and Islamic beliefs drew indirectly from Zoroastrianism. 2The truth may be somewhere between these positions, but the debate continues. Overview of Structure The ancient scriptures of Zoroastrianism are known as the Avesta [ah-VES-tuh]. The meaning of this word is uncertain. Avesta is usually translated “injunction, command, ” but it has also been translated “wisdom, knowledge, ”“ authoritative utterance, ”and as “scripture. ”It probably derives from the Middle Persian word avastaq, “law. ”The “law ”is that of the god Ahura Mazda, the Lord and Creator, through the prophet Zarathushtra. Avesta is broad enough to encompass all the commands of Zoroastrian- ism: to serve good and turn from evil; to be both morally and ceremonially pure; and to worship Ahura Mazda and the good spirits by sacrifice and praise (see Table 9.1). The Avesta has four major divisions, each with ritual content and orientation. The Yasna [YAHZ-nuh], or “Sacrifice, ”the first and most important part, consists of hymns for worship in seventy-two chapters. The Visparad [VEE-spuh-rahd], or “All the [Divine] Lords, ”has twenty chapters of hymns. Within the Yashts [yahshts] or “Hymns ”are songs of praise to sacred beings and heroic humans. The twenty- two-chapter Vendidad [VEN-dih-dahd], or “Law Against Demons, ”contains myths and codes of religious law. We now examine these Avestan books in turn. TABLE 9.1 The Zoroastrian Scriptures, The Avesta Name Translation of Name/Contents Approximate Date Size Yasna “Hymns ”for worship 600 B.C.E. 72 chapters Visparad Hymns to “All the (Divine) Lords ” 500 B.C.E. 23 chapters Vendidad “Law Against Demons, ”purity rules 400 B.C.E. 18 chapters Yashts Hymns to Ahura Mazda and angels 400 B.C.E. 21 formal hymns, 6 blessings Khorda Avesta “Little Avesta, ”a book of prayers 500 B.C.E. 11 short prayers, prayers for each period of the day, and formal prayers 1Mary Boyce, Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979), pp. 1, 29.2J. Barr, “The Question of Religious Influence: The Case of Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Christianity, ” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 53 (1985), pp. 201 –235. Introduction 201CopEditorial re The earliest and most important section of the Yasna is the Gathas [GAH-tuhs], a collection of seventeen hymns. They now occupy five sections of the Yasna. Ortho- dox Zoroastrians believe the whole of the Avesta to be the work of Zarathushtra, but they hold the Gathas as especially his words. Modern scholarship agrees, using the Gathas as the primary source for our knowledge of Zarathushtra. Scholarship has been impeded, however, by the lack of reference in the Gathas to other people or events of the time for which we have independent knowledge. The Gathas are distinguished from the other Yasna hymns by their emphasis on ethics and their lack of attention to ritual concerns. One main topic elsewhere in the Yasna is the haoma ritual, in which the juices of the haoma plant are ground out and mixed with milk and herbs. Also in the Yasna are prayers, a confession of faith, and rules for sacrifices to water. Priests daily recite all seventy-two chapters (from memory!) during Zoroastrianism ’s main sacrificial ceremony, the sacrifice of the haoma in fire. This sacrifice is called the “Yasna, ”from which this part of the Avesta gets its name. About one-sixth as long as the Yasna , the Visparad contains poetic invocations, praises, and sacrifices to all the divine lords of Zoroastrianism. Words from this section of the Avesta are recited at various stages of the Yasna ceremony. Zoroastrians also recite the Visparad during the six holy days that they are obligated to observe, espe- cially New Year ’s Day. The Yashts [yahshts] are hymns of praise to twenty-one divinities, angels, and human heroes of ancient Persia. Among the most important are hymns to Mithra and a hymn to the guardian spirits — Fravashis [frah-VAH-shees] —of the old saints. Much of the material in the Yashts is drawn from pre-Zoroastrian religion and provides an interesting glimpse of how Zoroastrianism adapted older Indo-European religious ideas to its own use. This occurred after the time of Zarathushtra himself; according to the Gathas , the prophet made a clean break with the older religion. The Vendidad begins with two myths about the creation of the world and a primeval flood that tell how divine law came to humans. The remaining sixteen chap- ters form a law code that prescribes purifications and penalties for priests. Chapters 3 and 5, for example, contain regulations for funerals; Chapter 18 deals with the differ- ence between true and false priests. Like the Yashts , the words of the Vendidad are recited during the Yasna ceremony. Contemporary Use As their names imply, the Avesta books are strongly oriented to worship and sacrifice. The scriptures are the hymn texts for sacrifice, and sacrifice is done to the constant accompa- niment of scripture recitation, usually from memory. The use of scripture throughout Zoroastrian history has therefore been almost exclusively performative. Priests use scrip- ture for the enactment of ritual, not for study, meditation, or the formation and teaching of doctrine. The Avestan language used in formal worship and in the traditional main prayers of the faithful is largely unknown to some priests and to most laypersons. Thus, Zoroastrians typically have had little knowledge of what their scriptures actually contain. At the end of nineteenth century, a movement of reform sought to change this age- old use of the Avesta . Under the influence of Western religion and European methods of religious scholarship, reformers claimed that the Gathas are the center and only authentic part of the Avesta and that everything else is to be judged in light of the leading ideas of the Gathas . Rituals were regarded as secondary to moral teachings and were interpreted symbolically, altered, or sometimes disregarded altogether. The 202 CHAPTER 9 |ZoroastrianismCopEditorial re rational, philosophical, and moral elements of the faith were given priority. Tradition- alists opposed making the Gathas the center of Zoroastrianism. This shift from a per- formative to a cognitive use among a minority of Zoroastrians in India and North America is the source of one of the chief internal disagreements in Zoroastrianism. Historical Origin and Development The Avesta begins with Zarathushtra himself. Though a date for the prophet in the sixth century B.C.E. is still accepted by most scholars, some (especially Mary Boyce) push Zarathushtra back to 1400 –1000 B.C.E. The oral tradition that was later written down into the Gathas as we know them can be traced more or less to Zarathushtra for reasons of both style and content. Next to arise, probably over the course of a millennium, were the other poetic sections of the Avesta, which scholars today call the “Younger Avesta. ”The rest of the Yasna and the Yashts are in metrical poetry. Last to be written were the prose portions of the Avesta. The whole process was complete, and the canon of the Avesta was fixed by about 325 C.E. In its original form, the Avesta was probably about four times larger than it is now. Besides the liturgical texts now in the Avesta , it likely treated cosmogony, eschatology, astronomy, natural history, the history of Zarathushtra, and several other topics. The Zand , a later collection of Zoroastrian literature, contains many references to a large loss of Zoroastrian scripture during the invasions of Alexander the Great (fourth cen- tury B.C.E.). What remained from these persecutions was material that was fixed in the memory of the priests —liturgical scripture. A collection was made under the Sassanid Empire in the third and fourth centuries C.E. The Avesta as we know it comes from this period and was probably first written down at this time. Zoroastrianism was the state religion of the Sassanid Empire, and a written text may have been viewed as a tool for promoting uniformity in religious doctrine and practice. In the seventh century C.E., Islam began to press hard on the religion of Ahura Mazda. Although it officially tolerated Zoroastrianism as a monotheistic religion, Islam occasionally sought to end the faith by suppressing its temples and burning its scripture books. Some Zoroastrians fled Muslim intolerance for a more congenial life around Bombay, India, where they were welcomed by the dominant Hindu culture. During this period, the Avesta was reduced to its present size and preserved by the small Zoroastrian community that continues to this day. The oldest manuscript that has survived dates to 1323 C.E.; the entire Avesta collection was printed for the first time in the nineteenth century. HISTORY The Call of Zarathushtra This Gatha from Chapter 29 of the Yasna is a conversation among four main characters: (1) the collective Soul of the Cattle, which represents the means of livelihood for the people of the Yasna 29. HISTORY |The Call of Zarathushtra 203CopEditorial re Zoroastrian faith (note that in pre-Zoroastrian religion, this figure was a god); (2) Asha, or “Righ- teousness ”one of the Immortal Holy Ones; (3) Ahura Mazda, the one God who is Lord and Creator; and (4) Zarathushtra. It closes with Zarathushtra ’s prayer for divine aid; the main point is that Zarathushtra alone can lead humanity to God. Zoroastrians use this passage as a prayer for divine help to destroy the powers of deceit and to promote peace and truth. 3 The Soul of the Cattle 4and the people cried aloud to you, O Ahura and Asha, “For whom did you create me, and by whom did you fashion me? Assaults of wrath and violent power come upon me, with desolating blows and bold insolence. I have no other pasture-giver than you. Teach me good cultivation of the fields, which is my only hope of blessing! ” Then the Creator of the Cattle asked Righ- teousness: “How did you appoint a guardian for the cattle when you made her? How did you secure for her both pasture and a cattle-chief who was skilled and energetic? Did you select one who might hurl back the fury of the wicked? ” The Divine Righteousness answered in his holiness, “We were very perplexed. We could not obtain a leader who was capable of striking back their fury, and who himself was without hate. We cannot know the influences that approach and move the heavenly fires, fires which reveal the favor and the will of God. God is the mightiest of beings. Those who have performed their actions approach him with invocations. He has no need to ask! ” Zarathushtra said, “The Great Creator is most mindful of the commands that have been fulfilled in the deeds of demon-gods and good or evil men. He knows the commands that they will fulfill. Ahura is the discerning judge. It shall be to us as he desires! [5] Therefore we both, my soul and the soul of the mother cattle, are making our requests for this world and the next to Ahura. With hands stretched out in entreaty, we pray to the Great Creator with questions in our doubt. He will answer us. The one who lives righteously will not be destroyed, and neither will the careful farmers of the earth! ” Then the wise Lord, the Great Creator who understands the mysterious grace by his insight, spoke. “We cannot find such a spiritual master among us. Nor can we find a leader moved by righteousness and appointed by its spirit. There- fore I have named you as the leader of the diligent plowers of the ground! ” The Immortal Holy Ones said, “Mazda has created the inspired Word of reason that is a spoken formula of fatness for the offering. The Divine Righteousness consented to Mazda ’s deed. He has prepared food for the cattle and food for the eaters. He is bountiful with his saving doctrine. But who is endowed with the Good Mind, who can give those teachings by word of mouth to mortals? ” Ahura said, “I have found one man, Zar- athushtra Spitama 5, who alone has listened to our words! He desires to recite our teachings, for me the Great Creator, and for Righteousness. Therefore I will give him a good dwelling and the authority to speak for us! ” Then the Soul of the Cattle lamented, “Woe is me, for I have obtained a lord who is powerless to carry out his wish! 6He is only a man, so he is feeble and timid. I desire one who is lord over his will, one who is able to carry out what he desires. ” The Immortal Holy Ones said, “Yes, when shall one who brings strong help to her 7ever appear? ” [10] Zarathushtra said, “O Ahura, O Righ- teousness, grant strength to these our disciples. Grant them the sovereign kingdom of God, which is established in his Good Mind. This kingdom will give them the peaceful amenities of home and quiet happiness, instead of the terrible ravages 3Except where noted, all passages from Zoroastrian scriptureare adapted from J. Darmesteter and L. H. Mills, trans., The Zend-Avesta (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1880 –1887). 4Soul of the Cattle: Although the Persian people are engaged in settled agriculture, hence the talk about “plowers, ”they also prize their cattle, and the “Soul of the Cattle ”is a personified spirit. 5Spitama: The clan to which Zarathushtra belongs. 6Verses 9 –11 show the Cattle ’s reluctance to accept Zarathushtra, Zarathushtra ’s willingness to accept his divine calling, and finally the Cattle ’s acceptance of him. 7her: The (female) Soul of the Cattle. 204 CHAPTER 9 |ZoroastrianismCopEditorial re that they suffer. O Great Creator, I know that You are the provider of these blessings! ” The Soul of the Cattle said, “O Great Creator and Living Lord, when shall the divine Righteousness, the Good Mind of the Lord, and his sovereign power hurry to me? Know me through this mortal one [Zarathushtra]. Give us your aid in abundance! ” A Hymn of Praise to Zarathushtra With this hymn, Zoroastrians venerate the memory of Zarathushtra. Notice the recurring use of “who/he first. ”The end of this selection from Yasht 24:87b –94 recounts a legend of the cos- mic praise offered to the baby Zarathushtra. We worship the piety and the guardian spirit of the holy Zarathushtra. He was the first who thought what is good, the first who spoke what is good, and the first who did what is good. He was the first Priest, the first Warrior, and the first Plower of the ground. He was the first to know and teach [the truth]. He first possessed and first took pos- session of the Bull, of Holiness, of the Word, the obedience to the Word, the dominion, and all the good things made by Mazda, the good things that are the offspring of the good Principle. He first took the turning of the wheel 8from the hands of the evil spirits and cold-hearted men. He was first in the material world to pronounce the praise of Asha, thus bringing the evil spirits to nothing. He confessed himself a worshipper of Mazda, a fol- lower of Zarathushtra. He is one who hates the evil spirits and obeys the laws of Ahura. [90] He was first in the material world to speak the word that destroys the evil spirits, the law of Ahura. He was first in the material world to proclaim the words that destroy the evil spirits, the law of Ahura. He was the first in the material world to declare all the creation of the evil spirits unworthy of sacrifice and prayer. He was strong, giving all the good things of life, and he was the first bearer of the law among the nations. In him was heard the whole Mathra, the word of holiness. 9He was the lord and master of the world. He was the praiser of Asha, who is the most great, most good and most fair. He had a revelation of the Law, that most excellent of all beings. For him the Immortal Holy Ones longed, in one accord with the sun, in the fullness of the faith of a devoted heart. They longed for him as the lord and master of the world, as the praiser of the most great, most good and most fair Asha. He had a revelation of the Law, that most excel- lent of all beings. In his birth and growth the waters and the plants rejoiced. In his birth and growth the waters and the plants grew. In his birth and growth all the creatures of the good creations cried out, “Hail! Hail to us! For he is born, the great priest Spitama Zarathushtra. Zar- athushtra will offer for us sacrifices with drink offerings and bundles of sandalwood. The good Law of those who worship Mazda will come, and it will spread through all the seven parts of the earth. ” Yasht 24:87b –94. 8turning of the wheel: The life of the created world. 9Mathra, the word of holiness: In Zoroastrianism, a mathra is a short formula that is said to sum up key ideas in the religion. Compare the Hindu/Buddhist “mantra, ”to which it is related. HISTORY |AHymnofPraisetoZarathushtra 205CopEditorial re TEACHING AND ETHICS Hymn to Ahura and the Purifying Fire This hymn from Yasna 36 to Ahura Mazda and to the spirit of fire is set in the fire temple. Notice the emphasis on morality in thought, word, and deed. Today, fire is still a symbol of moral purity and the spiritual center of every Zoroastrian temple. We desire to approach you … in this house of your holy Fire, O Ahura Mazda, most bounteous Spirit! If anyone brings pollutions to this flame, you will cover him with pollutions. O most friendly one, O Fire of the Lord, give us zeal! Come to us with the loving blessing of one who is most friendly, with the praise of the one most adored. Yes, come to us and aid us in this great task! You truly are the Fire of Ahura Mazda. Yes, you are the most bounteous one of his Spirit. Therefore yours is the most potent of all names for grace, O Fire of the Lord! Therefore we come to you, O Ahura, with the help of your Good Mind that you implant in us. We come to you with your good Righteousness, and with actions and words implanted by your good wisdom! [5] We bow before you, and we direct our prayers to you with confessions of our guilt, O Ahura Mazda! With all the good thoughts that you inspire, with all the words well said, and the deeds well done, with these we come to you. To your most beautiful body we make our deep acknowledgments, O Ahura Mazda. We acknow- ledge those stars that are your body, and we acknowledge that one star, the highest of the high, as the sun was called. Hymn to Ahura Mazda the Creator This selection from Yasna 37:1 –5 is a beautiful expression of faith and devotion to Ahura Mazda the Creator and to the spirits associated with him. These spirits do Ahura Mazda ’s will in sustaining good thoughts, words, and deeds in believers. We worship Ahura Mazda, who made the Cattle, Righteousness, the waters, the wholesome plants, the stars, the earth, and all existing things that are good. Yes, we worship him for his Sovereign Power and his greatness. They are full of blessing, and have priority among the Yazads who abide beside the Cattle in protection and support. We worship him under his name as Lord, Mazda dear, the most gracious of names. We worship him with our bones and with our flesh. We worship the Fravashis of the saints, of holy men and holy women. We worship Righteousness the Best, the most beautiful, the Bountiful Immor- tal, who is endowed with light in all things good. [5] We worship the Good Mind of the Lord, and his Sovereign Power, and the Good Faith, the good law, and Piety the ready mind within your people! Yasna 36. Yasna 37:1 –5. 206 CHAPTER 9 |ZoroastrianismCopEditorial re The Choice between Good and Evil This selection from Chapter 30 of the Yasna instructs the believer in the basic teachings of Zarathushtra on good and evil. It speaks of the ancient character of good and evil, their role in the creation of the world, their present struggle for domination, and their destiny at the end of history. The believer must constantly choose the good and thereby build up its power in the universe. Most scholars believe that many of these ideas had an influence on Judaism and then, through Judaism, on Christianity and Islam. Now I will proclaim my observations about him who knows all things to you who are drawing near and want to be taught. I will proclaim the praises of Ahura, the sacrifices that spring from the Good Mind, and the blessed meditations inspired by Righteousness. I pray that favorable results may be seen in the lights. Hear then with your ears; see the bright flames with the eyes of the Better Mind. It is a decision about religions, man and man, each individual himself. Before taking up this cause, awake to our teaching! The primeval spirits as a pair combined their opposite strivings, yet each is independent in his action. They have long been famous. One is bet- ter, the other worse, in thought, in word, and in deed. Let those who act wisely choose correctly between these two. Do not choose as evil-doers choose! When the two spirits came together at first, they made life and life ’s absence. They decided how the world shall be ordered at its end. The wicked receive hell, the worst life; the holy receive heaven, the Best Mental State. [5] He who was the evil one chose the evil realm, working the worst possible results. But the more gracious spirit chose the Divine Righteousness. Yes, he who clothes himself with the firm stones of heaven as his robe made this choice. He also chose those who make Ahura happy by their actions, actions performed in accordance with the faith. The Demon-gods and those who worship them can make no righteous choice between these two spirits, since they have been deceived. As they were questioning and debating in their council, the Worst Mind approached them that he might be chosen. They made their fatal decision. Then they rushed to the Demon of Fury, that they might pollute the lives of mortals. Then Aramaiti, the personified Piety of the saints, approached. The Sovereign Power, the Good Mind, and the Righteous Order came with her. Aramaiti gave a body to the spiritual creations of good and of evil; she is the abiding and ever-strenuous one. O Mazda, let that body for your people be at the end like it was when you first created it! At the end the great struggle shall be fought out which began when the evil spirits first seized the Demon of Wrath as their ally, and then just vengeance shall come upon these wretches. Then, O Mazda, your Good Mind within your people shall gain the Kingdom for you. O living Lord, the Good Mind speaks his command to those who will deliver the Demon of the Lie into the two hands of the Righteous Order, like a captive is delivered to a destroyer. May we be like those who bring on this great renovation! May we make this world progress [in goodness], until its perfection is reached. May we be like the Ahuras of Mazda. Yes, may we be like you, in helpful readiness to meet your people, presenting benefits in union with the Righteous Order. Our thoughts will be where true wisdom shall live in her home. [10] When perfection is attained, then the blow of destruction shall fall upon the Demon of Falsehood, and her adherents shall perish with her. But the righteous saints, who walk on earth in good reputation and in honor, will gather Yasna 30. TEACHING AND ETHICS |The Choice between Good and Evil 207CopEditorial re swiftly in the happy home of the Good Mind and of Ahura. Therefore, O mortals, you are learning these religious commands that Ahura gave in our happiness and our sorrow. You are also learning the long punishment of the wicked, and the bles- sings that are in store for the righteous. When these begin their course, salvation will be yours! Judgment of the Soul on Chinvat Bridge In Zoroastrian belief, the soul hovers above the body for three days after death. On the fourth day, it faces a judgment on the Chinvat ( “Requiter ”) Bridge, where the deceased ’s good and evil deeds are weighed. If good actions outweigh evil ones, the soul ascends to heaven; if evil acts outweigh the good, it is dragged off to hell. At the Last Judgment, at the end of time, all bodies are resurrected and reunited with their souls. Then there is a final and universal cleans- ing, from which all people emerge sinless and enter into Paradise. This famous passage from the Menok I Khrat 2.114 –195 is designed, like most depictions of heaven and hell in world scriptures, to motivate believers to live correctly in this life. 10 For three days and nights the soul sits beside the pillow of the body. [115] Accompanied by the blessed Srosh, the good Vay, and the mighty Vah- ram, and opposed by Astvihat (the demon of death), the evil Vay, the demon Frehzisht and the demon Vizisht, and pursued by the active ill- will of Wrath … , the soul on the fourth day after death will reach the lofty and awful Bridge of the Requiter. Every person whose soul will be saved and every person whose soul will be damned must come to this bridge. Many enemies lie in wait here. Here the soul will suffer from the ill-will of Wrath who wields a bloody spear, and from the ill-will of Astvihat who swallows all creation yet is never satisfied. The soul will benefit by the mediation of Hihr, Srosh, and Rashn. [120] Then the soul submits to the weigh- ing of its deeds by the righteous Rashn. He does not tip the scales of the spiritual gods to either side, neither for the saved nor for the damned, not even for kings and princes.. He is no respecter of persons, for he deals out impartial justice to all, from kings and princes to the humblest of men. When the soul of the saved passes over that bridge, the width of the bridge appears to that soul to be one parasang. 11 The soul of the saved goes on, accompanied by the blessed Srosh. [125] His own good deeds come to meet him in the form of a young woman, more beautiful than any on earth. The soul of the saved says, “Who are you? I have never seen a woman on earth more beautiful than you. ” [130] She replies, “I am no woman! I am your own good deeds, O young man whose thoughts and words, deeds and religion were good. When you saw someone offer sacrifice to the demons, you sat apart and offered sacrifice to the gods. When you saw a man do violence and theft, afflict good men and mistreat them, or store up goods wrongfully obtained, you refrained from treating creatures with violence. Instead, you were considerate to good men; you entertained them and offer them hospitality; you gave alms both to the man who came from near and to him who came from afar; and you amassed your wealth in righteousness. [135] When you saw someone Menok I Khrat 2.114 –195. 10Adapted from E. W. West, Pahlavi Texts, part 3 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1885), pp. 16 –26. 11One parasang: About three miles. This broad bridge makes for an easy, pleasant transit of the soul. 208 CHAPTER 9 |ZoroastrianismCopEditorial re who passed a false judgment or took bribes or gave false testimony, you spoke a right and true witness. I am the good thoughts, good words, and good deeds that you said and did. ”… [145] Then with his first step he enters the heaven of good thoughts, with his second the heaven of good words, with his third the heaven of good deeds, and with his fourth step he reaches the Endless Light where is all bliss. All the gods and good spirits come to greet him and ask him how he has been, saying, “How was your passage from those transient, fearful worlds where there is much evil to these eternal worlds in which there is no adversary, O young man whose thoughts and words, deeds and religion are good? ” [150] Then Ahura Mazda says, “Do not ask him how he has been, because he has been sepa- rated from his beloved body and has traveled on a fearsome road. ”They serve him the sweetest of all foods with the butter of early spring, so that his soul may take its ease after the three nights of terror on the Bridge inflicted on him by the demons. They seat him upon a throne everywhere bejeweled …. [157] He dwells blissfully with the spiritual gods forever. But when the man who is damned dies, for three days and nights his soul hovers near his head and weeps, saying, “Where shall I go and in whom shall I now take refuge? ” [160] During those three days and nights he sees all the sins and wick- edness that he committed on earth. On the fourth day the demon Vizarsh comes and binds the soul of the damned in most shameful ways, and despite the opposition of the blessed Srosh drags it off to the Bridge of the Requiter. Then the righteous Rashn makes clear to the soul of the damned that it is damned indeed [by weighing it]. Then the demon Vizarsh seizes the soul of the damned, strikes it and abuses it without pity, urged on by Wrath. [165] The soul of the damned cries out loudly, moans in terror, and makes many piteous pleas; he struggles although his life-breath endures no more. All his struggling and his howling prove of no avail, because no help is offered him by any of the gods or by any of the demons. The demon Vizarsh drags him off against his will into deepest hell. Then a young woman who [who is so ugly that she] does not look like a woman comes to meet him. The soul of the damned says to that ill-favored woman, “Who are you? I have never seen anyone on earth as hideous as you. ” [170] She replies, “I am no woman! I am your deeds — hideous deeds — evil thoughts, evil words, evil deeds, and evil religion. When on earth you saw someone who offered sacrifice to the gods, you sat apart and offered sacrifice to the demons. When you saw someone who entertained good men and offered them hospitality, you treated good men with dishonor. You gave them no alms and you shut your door to them. [175] When you saw someone who passed just judg- ment or took no bribes or bore true witness or spoke up in righteousness, you passed false judg- ment, you gave false testimony, and you spoke unrighteously. ”… [182] Then with his first step he goes to the hell of evil thoughts, with his second to the hell of evil words, and with his third to the hell of evil deeds. With his fourth step he lurches into the presence of the accursed Destructive Spirit and the other demons. [185] Demons mock him and scorn him, saying, “What grieved you about Ahura Mazda the Lord, about the good spirits, and about fragrant and delightful heaven? What grudge or complaint did you have against them that you should come to the demons and this murky hell? We will torment you and have no mercy on you for a long time! ” The Destructive Spirit cries out to the demons, “Do not ask him this, for he has been separated from his beloved body, and he has come through that most evil passageway. Serve him the filthiest food that hell can produce. ” [190] Then they bring him poison and venom, snakes and scorpions and other noxious reptiles that flourish in hell, and they serve him these to eat. Until the resurrection and the final body he must remain in hell, suffering much torment and many kinds of punishment. TEACHING AND ETHICS |Judgment of the Soul on Chinvat Bridge 209CopEditorial re RITUAL The Place of the Gathas This passage, which stands at the end of the Gathas (in Yasna 55:1 –3), shows their high place in the Zoroastrian faith. It offers praise to God for the spiritual light and power that come from the scriptures. As our offering to the bountiful Gathas that rule as the leading chants within the appointed times and seasons of our ritual, we present all our riches of land, and our persons, together with our very bones and tissues. We present our forms and forces, our consciousness, our soul, and Fravashi. The Gathas are our guardians and defenders, and our spiritual food. Yes, they are both food and clothing to our souls. May they be an offering for us. May they give abundant rewards … for the world beyond the present world, after our con- sciousness and our body are separated from each other. May these praises of the offering come forth and appear for us with power and victory, with health and healing, with progress, with growth, with preparation and protection, and with blessing and holiness. May they abound with gifts for those who can understand. Let them appear with free generosity to the enlightened. Let them appear as Mazda, the most beneficial, has produced them. He is the one who is victorious when he strikes. He helps our com- munities advance, and he protects and guards the religious order of the communities; even now they are being furthered. He guards those who will bring salvation to us, and he protects the entire creation of holy and clean things. The Zoroastrian Confession This stately creed of Zoroastrianism from Yasna 12 is called the Faravane. Recited daily by faithful Zoroastrians, it outlines an important Zoroastrian doctrine: dualism , the notion that the cosmos is composed of two competing forces of good and evil. Believers pledge themselves to Mazda and the good, and reject the evil spirits. I drive the evil spirits away. I confess myself a Mazda-worshipper of the order of Zarathushtra. I renounce the evil spirits and devote myself to the lore of the Lord. I am a praiser of the Bounti- ful Immortals. I attribute all things good to Ahura Mazda, the Holy and Resplendent One. To Him belong all things good … and the stars, in whose lights the glorious beings and objects are clothed. I choose Piety, the generous and the good. I loudly condemn all robbery and violence against the sacred Cattle, and all droughts that waste the Mazdayasnian villages. I put away the thought of wandering at will, of pitching my tent freely like a nomad. I wish to remove all wandering from the Yasna 55:1 –3. Yasna 12. 210 CHAPTER 9 |ZoroastrianismCopEditorial re Cattle that abide steadfastly on this land. Bowing down in worship to Righteousness, I dedicate my offerings with praise. May I never be a source of decline, and may I never be a source of withering to the Zarathushtrian villages, not for the love of body or life. I renounce the shelter and headship of the evil spirits, evil as they are. They are utterly empty of good and void of Virtue. They are deceitful in their wickedness. Of all beings they are most like the Demon of the Lie, the most loathsome of ex- isting things. They are completely empty of good. I renounce and renounce again the evil spirits and all possessed by them, the sorcerers and all who use their methods, and every being of the sort. I renounce their thoughts, their words and actions, and the seed that propagates their sin. I renounce their shelter and their headship. I renounce sinners of every kind, who act like demons! Thus indeed might Ahura Mazda have shown to Zarathushtra, answering every question that Zarathushtra asked, in all the consultations that they had. Thus might Zarathushtra have renounced the shelter and the headship of the evil spirits in all the questions, and in all the consultations with which Zarathushtra and the Lord conversed to- gether. And so I myself, in whatever circumstances I may be placed, as a worshipper of Mazda and of Zarathushtra ’s order, also renounce the evil spirits and their shelter. The holy Zarathushtra renounced them the same way in old times. I belong to that religious holiness to which the waters belong, to that holiness to which the plants belong, to that holiness to which the Cattle of blessed gift belong, to that religious holiness to which Ahura Mazda, who made both cattle and holy men, belongs. To that holiness I belong. I am of the creed that Zarathushtra held, which Kavi Vistaspa, Frashaostra, and Gamaspa held. 12 Yes, I am of that religious faith as every Saoshyant 13 who shall yet come to see us, the holy ones who do truly significant things. Of that creed, and of that tradition, am I. I am a Mazda-worshipper of Zarathushtra ’s order. Thus I confess, as a praiser and confessor. I praise aloud the thing well thought, the word well spoken, and the deed well done. Yes, I praise at once the faith of Mazda, the faith that has no saying that fails, the faith that wields the deadly battle-ax, the faith of kindred marriage. 14 I praise the holy Creed, which is the most imposing, best, and most beautiful of all religions which exist, and of all that in the future shall come to be. I praise Ahura ’s faith, the Zoroastrian creed. I ascribe all good to Ahura Mazda, and such shall be the wor- ship of the Zoroastrian belief! The Four Great Prayers These four prayers are the most important in Zoroastrian worship. They are named after their first words, and are remarkable for their brevity and simplicity. Ahuna vairyo: The will of the Lord is the law of righteousness. The gifts of the Good Mind are the deeds done in this world for Mazda. Those who relieve the poor make Ahura Mazda king. 12King Kavi Vistaspa was Zarathushtra ’s royal patron and pro- tector. Frashaostra was an early follower of Zarathushtra; his daughter Hvovi was Zarathushtra ’s third wife. Gamaspa was the chief counselor of King Vistaspa and a friend of the new faith.13Saoshyant [sa-OSH-yant]: “Future rescuer ”; a future savior who will help purify the world.14kindred marriage: The Zoroastrian practice of marriage between distant relatives, who must all be Zoroastrians. The requirement to marry in the faith and a refusal to accept con-verts have acted together to deplete traditional Zoroastrianismin modern times. From the Yasna . RITUAL |The Four Great Prayers 211CopEditorial re Airyema ishyo: May longed-for Airyaman come to the support of the men and women of Zarathushtra, to the support of our good purpose. The Inner Self earns the reward to be chosen. I ask for the longed-for recompense of truth, which the Lord Mazda has in mind. Ashem vohu: Holiness (Asha) is the best of all good; it is also the best happiness. Happy are those who are holy with a perfect holiness. Yenhe hatam: Those Beings, male and female, whom Lord Mazda knows the best for true wor- ship, we worship them all. Disposal of the Dead This passage from the Vendidad, Fargard 6.5, 44 –51 describes the Zoroastrian “towers of silence ”in which the dead are exposed to birds of prey (but not other animals) who consume their flesh but leave the bones so that their ritually defiling bodies may not pollute the sacred earth. First, provision is made for the on-ground exposure of the dead in places where “towers of silence ”cannot be built. On-ground exposure will lead to consumption of the flesh by wild animals, but the body must be carefully secured so that animals do not carry off its bones. Towers of silence are used rarely today, and only in India; most Zoroastrians carry out the aim of these towers by burying their dead in tightly sealed concrete vaults. Towers of Silence Aerial view of the now-unused towers of silence, Yazd, Iran. Vendidad, Fargard 6.5, 44 –51 M.Khebra/ 212 CHAPTER 9 |ZoroastrianismCopEditorial re Zarathushtra asked, “O Maker of the material world, you Holy One! Where shall we bring the bodies of the dead, where shall we lay their bodies, O Ahura Mazda? ”… Ahura Mazda answered, “On the highest summits, where you know there are always corpse-eating dogs and corpse-eating birds, O holy Zarathushtra! There the worshippers of Mazda shall secure the corpse by the feet and by the hair. They shall secure it with brass, stones, or lead, so that the corpse-eating dogs and the corpse-eating birds cannot carry the bones to the water and to the trees. Zarathushtra asked, “If they shall not secure the corpse, so that the corpse-eating dogs and the corpse-eating birds carry the bones to the water and to the trees, what penalty shall they pay? ” Ahura Mazda answered: “They shall be sev- erely punished. They shall receive two hundred stripes with the Aspahe-astra, two hundred stripes with the Sraoshokarana. ”15 Then Zarathushtra asked, “O Maker of the material world, you Holy One! Where shall we bring the bones 16 of the dead, where shall we lay them, O Ahura Mazda? ” [50] Ahura Mazda answered: “Those who worship Mazda shall build a building out of the reach of the dog, of the fox, and of the wolf, and in which rainwater cannot stay. Such a building shall they build, if they can afford it, with stones, mortar, and earth. If they cannot afford it, they shall lay the dead man on the ground, on his car- pet and his pillow, clothed with the light of heaven, 17 and beholding the sun. ” GLOSSARY Avesta [ah-VES-tuh] Variously translated as “injunc- tion, ”“ wisdom, ”and “scripture ”; the name of the Zoroastrian scriptures. dualism Notion that the cosmos is composed of two competing forces of good and evil. Fravashis [frah-VAH-shees] Guardian spirits. Gathas [GAH-tuhs] Collection of seventeen hymns in the Yasna , which Zoroastrians hold to be the words of Zarathushtra. Parsees [PAHR-sees] Name of Zoroastrians in India. Saoshyant [sa-OSH-yahnt] “Future rescuer, ” savior who will help purify the world. Vendidad [VEN-dih-dahd] “Law Against Demons, ”a division of the Avesta containing myths and codes of religious law. Visparad [VEE-spuh-rahd] “All the [Divine] Lords, ”a twenty-chapter collection of hymns in the Avesta. Yashts [yahshts] “Hymns ” in the Avesta praising twenty-one divinities, angels, and human heroes of ancient Persia. Yasna [YAHZ-nuh] “Sacrifice, ”hymns for worship; the first and foremost division of the Avesta . QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION 1. What, to judge from the Gathas , were the main religious ideas of the prophet Zarathushtra? 2. What sort of changes occurred in Zoroastrian reli- gion after the passing of Zarathushtra? For your answer, compare the Gathas with the rest of the Avesta. 3. Explain how Zarathushtra is venerated by means of these scriptures. 15The same type of whip is probably meant here, so that thetotal number of lashes would be 200. This could result in death from blood-loss in many cases. 16Bones: bodies. 17clothed with the light of heaven: Naked. Exposed to the birds of prey, the body will undergo the same ritual disposal ascorpses put in towers of silence. Questions for Study and Discussion 213CopEditorial re 4. How do the striking funeral rituals reproduced here testify to the strong connection made in Zoro- astrianism between ritual purity and moral purity? 5. When rock star Freddie Mercury died (see the sec- ond vignette at the opening of this chapter), his body was cremated after an otherwise traditional Zoroastrian funeral. Explain how this method to dispose of a body is not in accord with traditional Zoroastrian practice. 6. What to you are some of the strengths and weak- nesses of the argument that Judaism borrowed a good deal from Zoroastrianism? MindTap is a fully online, highly personalized learning experience built upon Cengage Learning content. MindTap combines student learning tools —readings, multimedia, activities, and assessments —into a singular Learning Path that guides students through their course. 214 CHAPTER 9 |ZoroastrianismCopEditorial re CHAPTER TEN Judaism Reading Torah at a Bat Mitzvah A young woman uses a silver pointer to follow the words as she reads Hebrew scripture out loud from the Torah scroll, a high point of the bat mitzvah ceremony in which she becomes an adult. The sacred cabinet in which the scrolls are kept is visible behind her. –215 –CopEditorial re The influence of the Jewish scriptures stems primarily from careful Jewish adherence to them over more than 2500 years. This is suggested by these four vignettes: In New York City, Joe Levin, a private detective, carries out his work of investi- gating people his clients suspect of doing wrong. Levin is no ordinary detective; he is a member of one of the well-known Hasidic groups in Brooklyn. As an observant Orthodox Jew, he is completely familiar with the laws of the Hebrew Bible and the Jewish Talmud , and he is hired at times to find out if other Ortho- dox Jews are following these laws. For example, he sometimes investigates people who are about to enter an Orthodox marriage to check on their backgrounds and their level of religious observance. Jewish demonstrators surround the parliament building in Jerusalem as the parlia- ment debates withdrawing Jewish settlers from predominantly Arab areas and giv- ing their land to the Palestinian Authority. Several of the signs carry references to “Eretz [the land of] Israel, ”the size of Israel promised by God to Abraham in Genesis 15:18 –21. Some Israeli rabbis have threatened to excommunicate any sol- diers who participate in transferring this land to Palestinian control. The insistence by a small but politically powerful group on keeping “Eretz Israel ”has complicated the peace process for more than four decades and shows no signs of ending. In London, a prominent Jewish rabbi criticizes pop singer Madonna ’s practice of the Jewish mystical belief and practice known as the Kabbalah. Rabbi Yitzchak Schochet strongly objects to Madonna ’s use of the Kabbalah, arguing that it tarnishes Judaism when people who do not observe Jewish law practice Jewish mysticism. Madonna ’s interest in the Kabbalah began with her 1998 Ray of Light album and persists today. Public fascination with her use of the Kabbalah also remains strong; an Internet search of “Madonna ” and “Kabbalah ” returned more than 695,000 hits in February 2015. In New York City, a new version of the Haggadah , the book Jews have read for centuries as they celebrate Passover, was published in 2013. Entitled The Bronfman Haggadah after its late author Edgar Bronfman, it is the first Haggadah to be marketed as an app. It features narration of the Haggadah story by male and female actors, performances of Passover songs, and video interviews with the author and the illustrator. Now Jewish families can use their electronic devices at the Passover table to re-enact this biblical story. INTRODUCTION Judaism is founded on a belief in one personal God who was revealed in the early history of the Jewish people, calling them to serve God and spread divine love and justice in the world. Ancient Jews recorded and interpreted their religion in an extensive body of scriptures, which then helped to guide their continuing life. The Jewish scriptures are also the foundation of the Christian and the Islamic scriptures, so that many of its teachings have carried over into the lives of the world ’s two largest religions. Even though some of the impact of the Jewish scriptures has been lost in the modern secu- larized world, their deep influence on everyday life and on patterns of Western thought and culture has abated only a little. Our seven-day week with its day of rest is an inheri- tance from Jewish scripture. The belief that there is only one God is a gift of these writings 216 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re as well. That all people are equally human, that the human race is one family, and that each individual can fully realize the meaning of life regardless of social or economic class are ideas that have also come to the Western world from the Jewish scriptures. Names The most particularly Jewish name for the whole Jewish Bible isTanak [TAH-nahk]. It is an acronym formed from the first letters of the names of the three sections of the scriptures: Torah [TOHR-uh], “Teaching, Law ”;Nevi ’im [NEH-vih-eem], “Proph- ets ”; and Kethuvim [KEHTH-oo-veem], “Writings ”(see Table 10.1). The name Tanak arose in the Middle Ages and is widely known among European and American Jews. It is not widely known among non-Jews, however, nor is it the commonly used academic name for the Jewish scriptures. Many people call the Jewish scripture the Old Testament , but that is a Christian name (the latter part of the Christian Bible is called the New Testament ). Because of the predominance of Christianity over Judaism in the West, the name Old Testament has become traditional even in journalistic and academic circles. However, Jews rightly see this term and the more kindly “First Testament ”as derogatory, and students of religion now avoid both of them as partisan and inappropriate. A better designation is “Hebrew Bible, ”a term that refers to the language of the Jewish Bible , which is Hebrew except for Aramaic in one verse each in the books of Genesis and Jeremiah and several chapters in Ezra and Daniel. Many Christians and Jews today accept “Hebrew Bible ”as both accurate and nonprejudicial. Its wide acceptance is indicated by its use in the New Revised Standard Version of the (Christian) Bible. The most common name for the Jewish scriptures, the simple term Bible ,is probably its oldest. This word has its roots in the Hebrew term Ha-Sefarim ,“The Books ”(Daniel 9:2), which Greek-speaking Jews by the second century B.C.E. trans- lated into Greek as Ta Biblia. Ta Biblia passed into the New Testament , originally written in Greek, and then through Latin to give us the English word Bible . This name stresses the written dimension of the Jewish revelation , the communication of God ’s person and/or truth to humans. (When Jews refer to the Bible , they mean of course their Bible, which does not contain the Christian New Testament .) In sum, no single name for the Jewish scripture has ever been common to all Jews, but Bible is the most widely accepted today, so we use it here. Overview of Structure Reduced to its basic form, the overall structure of the Jewish Bible , shown in Table 10.1, may be summarized as follows (the dates provide a time line for the events narrated in the books and are not to be taken as dates of the writing of the books themselves). As we saw earlier, the first section of the Hebrew Bible is called the Torah. In Genesis , the first book of the Torah, God creates the world good, but humanity falls into sin and rebellion. After the growth of the human race through many generations, Abraham responds to God ’s call by migrating from Mesopotamia to Palestine (ca. 1750 B.C.E.). He and his main descendants, Isaac and Jacob, move about in the hills of Palestine; Jacob and his descendants go to Egypt during a famine. In Exodus, the second book of the Torah , Moses leads the Hebrews by God ’s power from Egypt into the Sinai Peninsula (between Egypt and Palestine), where they receive the law of God (ca. 1280 B.C.E.). In Leviticus, they receive God ’s instruction for worship and purity. Numbers relates how they wander in the wilderness until they Introduction 217CopEditorial re TABLE 10.1 Books of the Jewish Bible Division English Name Hebrew Name 1 Date B.C.E.2 Chapters Torah (“Teaching, Law ”) Genesis Bereshith 700 50 Exodus Shemoth (“Names ”) 600 40 Leviticus Wayiqra (“And he called ”) 575 27 Numbers Bemidbar (“In the wilderness ”) 575 36 Deuteronomy Debarim (“Words ”) 550 34 Nevi ’im (“Prophets ”) Former Prophets Joshua Yehoshua 550 24 Judges Shofetim 550 21 1–2 Samuel Shemuel 550 31, 24 1–2 Kings Melakim 550 22, 25 Latter Prophets Isaiah Yeshayahu 700 –500 66 Jeremiah Yirmeyahu 550 52 Ezekiel Yehezqel 550 48 The Twelve: Hosea Hoshea 700 14 Joel Yoel 450 3 Amos Amos 700 9 Obadiah Obadyahu 450 1 Jonah Yonah 450 4 Micah Micah 700 7 Nahum Nahum 425 3 Habakkuk Habaqquq 425 3 Zephaniah Zephanyah 375 3 Haggai Haggai 375 2 Zechariah Zekaryahu 375 14 Malachi Malaki 350 4 Kethuvim (“Writings ”) Psalms Tehillim 250 150 Job Iyyob 325 31 Proverbs Mishle 325 42 Ruth Ruth 300 4 Song ofSongs Shir Hashirim 400 8 Ecclesiastes Koheleth (“Preacher ”) 275 12 Lamentations Ekah (“How ”) 350 5 Esther Ester 300 10 Daniel Daniel 160 12 Ezra-Nehemiah Ezra-Nehemyah 350 10, 13 1–2 Chronicles Dibre Hayamim (“Events of the Days ”) 350 29, 36 1Where the Hebrew name differs in meaning from the English name (usually derived from the Septuagint ), the Hebrew name is given a literal translation.2Dates are approximate, and indicate the time of final writing.CopEditorial re are ready to enter the Promised Land. In Deuteronomy , the people receive the law a second time as Moses warns them against serving other gods. These books of the Torah are by far the most important of the Hebrew Bible ; Jews consider the other Bible books to be built on them. Nevi ’im, “Prophets, ”the second section of the Jewish Bible, is subdivided into two parts. Former Prophets and Latter Prophets refer to the position of the books in the canon, not to the time of their composition. The books of the Former Prophets are Joshua, Judges, Samuel (volumes 1 and 2), and Kings (volumes 1 and 2). Joshua presents a somewhat idealized version of how the Israelites crossed the Jordan River and con- quered the peoples of Palestine (ca. 1250 B.C.E.). Judges provides another view of how the Israelites engaged in continuing wars to maintain their possession of the land as they were led by charismatic figures against their enemies. 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel relate how a monarchy was established with Saul as the first king and David (crowned 1000 B.C.E.) as his successor. 1 Kings and 2 Kings tell how, under King Solomon, Israel grew to be a small empire and then, when Solomon died, split into two nations —the northern king- dom of Israel and the southern kingdom of Judah. The northern kingdom was con- quered by Assyria in 721 B.C.E., never to reappear. The southern kingdom fell to Babylonia in 590, and many of the Judeans went into exile in Babylon. They considered the exile punishment for their failure to serve God alone. (See Map 7, “Monarchies of Israel and Judah, ”in the map section). The first book of the Latter Prophets isIsaiah, which most scholars regard as a composite text that contains the words of Isaiah in the eighth century B.C.E. and the messages of “Second Isaiah ”(an anonymous prophet responsible for Isaiah 40 –55) and “Third Isaiah ”(an anonymous prophet responsible for Isaiah 56 –66) in the sixth century B.C.E.Jeremiah presents the message of the mournful prophet who foresaw the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. Ezekiel prophesies hope among the Jewish exiles in Babylon. The last “book ”of the Latter Prophets is The Twelve [Prophets ], actually a collection of short prophetic books: Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah , and Malachi. The books of The Twelve are known as the Minor Prophets because of their relatively small size —each one was formerly written on one scroll. The careers of these twelve proph- ets extended from the 700s to the 500s B.C.E. The third section of the Jewish Bible is the Kethuvim ,“Writings. ”As the name suggests, this section is a miscellaneous collection of several types of literature. It begins with the Psalms. A psalm [sahlm] is a sacred song used in divine worship. Proverbs and Job are books about wisdom. The former is a collection of wise sayings attributed to Solomon; the latter deals with the perennial question “If God is good, why do good people suffer? ”Ruth tells the beautiful story of how a non-Israelite woman became one of the people of God and an ancestor of King David. The Song of Songs is a collection of poetry that celebrates love between a man and a woman, traditionally interpreted by Jews as symbolic of the relationship between God and Israel. Ecclesiastes offers a bittersweet perspective on what wisdom and life have to offer. Lamentations , traditionally ascribed to the prophet Jeremiah, mourns the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. Esther is the dramatic story of how a Jewish woman delivers her people from destruction by a Persian king. Daniel contains visions of the end of time. Ezra –Nehemiah records the return of the Jewish exiles from Babylon at the end of the sixth century B.C.E., the reconstruction of Jerusalem, and the reconstitution of Judaism. Finally, 1 Chronicles and 2 Chronicles tell much the same Introduction 219CopEditorial re story as 1and 2 Kings (in the Former Prophets section) but from the perspective of the Jerusalem priesthood. These, then, are the books of the Jewish Bible . In Jewish reckoning, they number twenty-four in all, a number obtained by counting as one book each 1–2 Samuel, 1 –2 Kings, 1 –2 Chronicles, The Twelve, and Ezra –Nehemiah . In ancient times, they were traditionally written on twenty-four scrolls, and even after the two-volume books were physically separated at the end of the Middle Ages, this number was kept. The order of the books of the Jewish Bible that is familiar to Christians is not the order in the Hebrew Bible. Rather, it is based on the Greek translation made for Jews living in the Gentile world whose first language was Greek, not Hebrew. This trans- lation was made before Christianity began. Known as the Septuagint, this version of the Jewish Bible was the main scripture of many Jews, and the only scripture of early Christianity until Christians recognized the New Testament as their scripture in the second and third centuries C.E. (We deal more fully with the relationship of the Jewish and Christian scriptures in Chapter 11.) Over time, the Septuagint lost its prominence among Greek-speaking Jews, and the Hebrew Bible became almost universally used. Table 10.2 shows the order of books in the Greek version of the Jewish Bible. Contemporary Use When Muhammad, the chief prophet of Islam, identified Jews (with Christians and Zoroastrians) as the “people of the book, ”he made an accurate assessment of the role of scripture in Judaism. For more than 2000 years, the Bible has been read, prayed, and taught in Judaism. It has shaped the doctrine, ethics, and worship of the Jews. Its instruction and inspiration have helped to preserve them through good times and bad and over their wide dispersion throughout much of the world. To understand the contemporary use of the Jewish Bible, we must examine briefly its more ancient use. The Jewish Bible is built on the foundation of the Torah, the written law of God. But ancient law needs interpreting and application to new times and situations, and so the concept of “oral Torah ”arose among some Jews. The oral Torah explains, supplements, and applies the commands of the written Torah. It is called “oral ”because it was believed by the end of the first century C.E. to have been revealed to Moses on Mount Sinai and to have been passed down orally by experts for more than a thousand years. However, scholars of ancient Judaism now generally conclude that the roots of the oral Torah go back no farther than the time of Ezra, around 515 B.C.E. The oral Torah was also probably kept in that form so as not to compete in standing and authority with the Bible, the written Torah. In time, the oral Torah grew so large and authoritative that it had to be written down, first in the Mishnah (ca. 200 C.E.), then in its commentary, the Gemara (ca. 450 –550 C.E.), and shortly thereafter in the combination of those two works, the Talmud [TALL-mood]. The Talmud has two versions: the short Jerusalem Talmud and the longer and more authoritative Babylonian Talmud. For almost all Jews from 500 to 1800 C.E., the scripture was understood by way of the oral Torah as written down in the Talmud, and Orthodox Jews still understand scripture in this way. For example, the Talmud says that the biblical expression of “an eye for an eye ” (Exodus 21:23 –25) is not to be taken literally but means that a person who injures another must pay adequate monetary fines to compensate for the loss. 220 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re The Middle Ages (roughly 500 –1400 C.E.) saw the rise of the fourfold meaning of the scripture: midrashic, philosophical, mystical, and literal. Midrashic meaning was the sermonic, illustrative interpretation of the Bible, often quite fanciful. The philosophical meaning sought by Moses Maimonides (1138 –1204) and others yielded deep truths in the Bible that could be related to the teachings of the ancient Greek philosophers Plato or Aristotle. The hidden, mystical meaning made possible a direct experience of God, emo- tional as well as intellectual or moral. One mystical group, the Kabbalists, found cryptic meanings in the Bible and ignored the other three types of meaning. TABLE 10.2 Books of the Greek Version of the Jewish Bible ,the Septuagint Genesis Proverbs Exodus Ecclesiastes Leviticus *Wisdom of Solomon Numbers *Wisdom of Sirach Deuteronomy *Psalms of Solomon Joshua Isaiah Judges Jeremiah Ruth Lamentations 1 Kings (1 Samuel) *Baruch 2 Kings (2 Samuel) *Letter of Jeremiah 3 Kings (1 Kings) Ezekiel 4 Kings (2 Kings) Daniel 1 Chronicles *Susanna 2 Chronicles *Bel and the Snake *1 Esdras Hosea 2 Esdras (Ezra-Nehemiah) Joel *Tobit Amos *Judith Obadiah Esther Jonah *1 Maccabees Micah *2 Maccabees Nahum *3 Maccabees Habakkuk *4 Maccabees Zephaniah Job Haggai Psalms Zechariah *Odes Malachi *These apocryphal, or deutero-canonical, books are not included in the canon of the Hebrew Bible or in the Bibles of most Protestant churches, which follow the Hebrew-language canon of Judaism, not the Greek-language version. They are included in the Bibles of the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches, but the Catholic canon excludes 1 Esdras, 3 and 4 Maccabees, Odes , and Psalms of Solomon . Some Bibles used by Orthodox Christians omit 4 Maccabees, Odes , and Psalms of Solomon . Introduction 221CopEditorial re Kabbalah is still popular today, but its use of the Bible is often controversial among Jews. The literal meaning emerged from the study of the diction and grammar of the text. The greatest practitioner of literalism was known as Rashi (an acronym of his full name, Rabbi Solomon Itzchaki, 1040 –1105) of Troyes, France. Rabbis often combined the four levels of meaning in some way, but the literal meaning was prominent by the end of the Middle Ages and was compatible with the new historical method, which we will now consider. With the emancipation of Judaism from legal restrictions and official discrimina- tion around 1800 C.E., liberalizing Jews applied the historical-critical method of study- ing texts to the Jewish Bible. Accepting the ideas of the Enlightenment, these Jews said that scripture was to be understood like any other book, with supernatural and miraculous elements largely discounted. The Dutch Jewish philosopher Baruch Spinoza (1623 –1677), a pre-emancipation scholar, had already introduced this approach to Judaism. He dismissed the divine inspiration of scripture and Moses ’authorship of the Torah, advocating a strict historical interpretation that left no room for traditional Jewish ideas about the Bible. At first, his methods shocked and scandalized the Jewish world, but over the next 300 years, they became more common, especially among liberal Jews. By the end of the 1800s, the three main groups of modern Judaism had emerged along with their distinct uses of scripture. The Reform (liberal) branch largely adopted the historical-critical method; Reform Judaism approaches the Bible much as main- stream Protestants and Roman Catholics understand it. The Orthodox branch sticks to the traditional and Talmudic views of scripture and methods of interpreting it. For example, it believes that the whole written Torah was penned by Moses, that the oral Torah was given by God to Moses on Mount Sinai, and that every law of God is to be followed literally as fully as possible. The Orthodox use the historical method very sparingly. The Conservative branch lies between the other two, employing modern historical methods to understand and apply scripture but seeking to preserve much of the essential and traditional meaning. The long relationship of the Jewish people with their Bible , as the French scholar Jean-Christophe Attias recently wrote, is a complex one. Jews at varying times have defined their identity and shaped their life with the Bible , and increasingly in modern times have shaped their identity without the Bible and even against the Bible .1 As in many religions, the site where Jews have characteristically met and used their scripture is their place of worship. Synagogue worship is filled with the Bible; scripture saturates the prayers, chants, hymns, and liturgies. Jewish use of the Bible in their worship services tends to be similar whether it is in the Orthodox, Conservative, or Reform branch. The main point of the service is the solemn reading of passages appointed for the day in the prayer books. The entire Torah is read at the Sabbath services during the course of each year. Special Torah readings are fixed for the main festivals and High Holy Days. Related readings from the prophets (called the Haftorah ) are also fixed in the lectionary , or list of readings, for each Sabbath and holy day. Some passages from the Kethuvim section of the Bible (see Table 10.1) are read on five lesser festivals (Sukkot, Passover, Shavu ’ot, Purim, the Ninth of Ab) from the five scrolls known as the Megilloth (Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Ruth, Esther, and Lamentations ). 1Jean-Christophe Attias, The Jews and the Bible (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014). 222 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re The readings themselves are very musical. The worship leader chants the words in Hebrew guided by accent marks written into the Hebrew text and also employing traditional Hebrew melodies. The place where the Torah scrolls are kept is the ark ,a special closet or recess in the synagogue wall on the side nearest Jerusalem. The ark is usually the focal point of the synagogue. The scrolls themselves are typically covered with richly embroidered cloth, and the upper ends of the wooden rollers are adorned with gold and silver decorations. Their use follows a prescribed ritual: When a scroll is removed from the ark during the service, everyone in the syna- gogue stands and special songs are often sung. The scroll is placed on a reading desk. The readers use a special pointer, often made of solid silver, to keep track of their place in the text and avoid touching it with their hands. When the reading is complete, the scroll is rolled up, its covers are put back on, and it is returned to the ark with great solemnity. Then the rabbi preaches a sermon based on the texts that were read, especially the Torah reading. The Bible, together with the Talmud, is also the focus of group and individual study. Since ancient times, it has been a legal obligation for every Jewish man —and often, in modern and more liberal forms of Judaism, an option for women —to be able to read and interpret scripture. In North America, every synagogue of substance pro- vides after-school classes in Hebrew language and religious studies to children from elementary to high school age. Jewish parochial schools that teach both general and Celebrating with the Scriptures Jews celebrating Israeli Independence Day in 2012 read from scrolls of Jewish scripture in Jerusalem. The reader has small boxes containing small bits of scripture strapped to his upper left arm and to his forehead. Aleksandar Todorovic/ Introduction 223CopEditorial re religious subjects, with heavy doses of scripture, can be found in cities with sizable Jewish populations. This emphasis on early education in scripture fosters Jewish adults who are able and willing to study it on an advanced level. Every Jewish home typically possesses a Bible in the native language of the family and often one in Hebrew as well. The daily life of the observant Jew is also immersed in reminders of the Bible and its instruction. For example, fastened to the door frame of many homes is the mezu- zah [meh-ZOO-zah], a small box containing three short passages from the Torah, among them the well-known words of Deuteronomy 6:4 –9: “Take to heart these instructions with which I charge you this day. Impress them upon your children. Recite them when you stay at home and when you are away, when you lie down and when you get up. … Inscribe them on the doorposts of your house and on your gates. ”Jews often touch the mezuzah as they enter and leave their homes. This pas- sage also commands the wearing of tefillin [teh-FILL-in], called in English “phylac- teries. ”Tefillin are two small wooden boxes that contain tiny scripture scrolls. Using leather straps, the wearer binds one to his forehead and the other to his weaker arm. Orthodox Jews wear tefillin while praying, which they typically do three times a day. Outward practices of religion involving scripture, such as displaying the mezuzah and wearing tefillin, are intended to remind every Jew of the duty to act in obedience to God during every activity, night or day, at home or away. Historical Origin and Development The Jewish Bible had a long history of formation in oral tradition, transcription in writing, and editorial polishing. Because this process of development is shrouded in the mists of antiquity, scholarly judgments vary, but there is some agreement about the following summary description of its main steps, listed chronologically. 1. The writing probably began about 1100 B.C.E., with the writing down of the oldest sections of poetry and historical narratives (for example, the “Songs of Moses and Miriam ”in Exodus 15 and the “Song of Deborah ”in Judges 5). In the reign of Solomon, the story of his father David began to be written (2 Samuel 9 through 1 Kings 2). One source of the Torah that tells of creation and the patriarchs was written in southern Israel. Another source of the Torah was written in northern Israel from a northern religious and political perspective. 2. The eighth century B.C.E. saw a flowering of literary effort. The disciples of the prophets Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, and Micah began to write down their words. When the northern kingdom of Israel fell in 721 B.C.E., the sources mentioned earlier were combined into the “Old Epic ”narrative to give much of the present Genesis. In 621 B.C.E., the finding of a law scroll in the Jerusalem temple, a scroll probably containing the substance of Deuteronomy 12 –26, provided impetus for the writing of the rest of this book. 3. The Exile in Babylon (587 –539 B.C.E.) was another fruitful period of literary activity. Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and “Second Isaiah ”(Isaiah 40 –55) were written down by those prophets ’disciples. The Deuteronomic history ( Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, 1–2 Samuel, and 1–2 Kings ) was probably completed at the end of the Exile. Priestly sections of the Torah were completed, and many of the Psalms were written down. 4. After the Exile, more prophetic books were completed: “Third Isaiah ”(Isaiah 56 –66), Malachi, Joel, and Haggai. By 400 B.C.E., the Torah probably reached its 224 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re List of Maps Map 1: Distribution of Major World Religions Today Map 2: Spread of Buddhism in Asia, 400 B.C.E.–800 C.E. Map 3: Sikh Population in India and Sri Lanka, 2010 Map4:ChinaintheSixthCentury B.C.E. Map 5: Japanese Modernization and Expansion, 1868 –1918 Map 6: The Zoroastrian Persian Empire, ca. 500 B.C.E. Map 7: The Monarchies of Israel and Judah, 924 –722 B.C.E. Map 8: The Spread of Christianity to about 800 C.E. Map 9: Expansion of Islam, 622 –900 C.E. Map 10: The Islamic World TodayCopEditorial re 90°W 60°W 30°W 0° 60°N Arctic Circle 30°N 30°S 0° Tropic of Capricorn Tropic of Cancer Equator ATLANTIC OCEAN ATLANTIC OCEAN PACIFIC OCEAN ARCTIC 33%28% 30%30% 40% 25% 40% 30% 25% 30°N 0° PA CI OC E Christian Muslim Atheist/Nonreligious Hindu Buddhist Indigenous religions Minority religion Majority religion 30% 60°W 30°W 0° TTropic of Capricorn Christians 200 400 14,000,000 MuslimsAtheists/ Nonreligious Hindus Buddhists Jews Other religions Notes: 1. Israel: the majority of the population is Jewish 2. Tibet: the majority of the population is Buddhist 3. Chinese province of Xinjiang: the majority of the population is Muslim 4. Indonesian island of Bali: the majority of the population is Hindu 0 0 1,000 Statistic from the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, “The Global Religious Landscape.” http://www.pewfor 2,000 Mi. 1,000 2,000 Km. MAP 1. Distribution of Major World Religions TodayCopEditorial re 30°E 60°E 15 0 ° E 180° PACIFIC OCEAN INDIAN OCEAN OCEAN 25% 30% 30% 7% 30% 44% 15 % 25% 47% 40% 25% 40% 15 %24% 33% 48% 25% 26% 35% 24% 43% 30% 41 % 24% 50% 40% 32% 25% 1 3 2 4 30°E 600°E 150°E 18 0° 40%%%40% 600 1,000 800 1,400 1,800 1,600 1,200 2,000 2,200 Estimated Number of Adherents, 2012 (in millions) 1,600,000,000 1,100,000,000 1,000,000,000 500,000,000 463,000,000 2,200,000,000 aspx, accessed 2/1/2013 CopEditorial re 0° Eq uat or 40°N 20°N Tropic of Cancer 120°E 140°E 100°E 80°E 60°E 40°E Ajanta Sarnath Barbaricum Moscha Aksum Muza Opone Barygaza Rhapta Angkor Borobudur Taxila Samarkand Babylon Berenice Dura-Europos Antioch Damascus Merv Khotan Kashgar Turfan Dunhuang Luoyang Longmen Kyongju Heian Nara Kucha Bukhara Chengdu Yungang Chang‘an Guangzhou (Canton) Lhasa INDIA TIBET ARABIA ETHIOPIA IRAN (PERSIA) FERGHANA ARMENIA BACTRIA YEMEN AFGHANISTAN KUSHAN EMPIRE CHINA JAPAN KOREA MONGOLIA BURMA SRIVIJAYA ANNAM (VIETNAM)BAHR A I NO M A N MONGOLS PARTHIANS SCYTHIANS TURKIC NOMADS G O B I ALTAI MTS. H I M A L A Y A M T S . MALAY PENINSULA T A K L A M A K A N D E S E R T Taprobane (Sri Lanka) Borneo Java Sumatra South China Sea Bay of Bengal Arabian Sea Yellow Sea Sea of Japan (East Sea) East China Sea PACIFIC OCEAN INDIAN OCEAN M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a Strait of Hormuz Red Sea Caspian Sea Persian Gulf Black SeaNile R.Tigris R.Euphrate s R . I n d u s R . G a n g e s R .Mekong R. B r a h m a p u t r a R . H u a n g H e R . Y a n g z i R . 0 0 500 1000 Mi. 500 1000 Km. N Sam Sam Sam Sam Sam Sam Sam Sam am am Sam am am a ar ar ar rk r rk rk rk k ar rk rk rk r r r rk and and and and and and and n and nd and and and and and d a d d d d d d Ant Ant Ant Ant Ant Ant Ant An An An Ant Ant Ant A n Ant Ant Ant Ant n An Ant An A A An A A A A A A A ioc ioc ioc ioc oc oc ioc ioc ioc ioc ioc oc io io io io c o o o o o h h h h h h h h h h h h h Ant io A M M M Mer Mer Mer er v v v v M M M M Ka Ka K Ka K K Ka Ka Ka Ka as as as as as as as K K Ka K K K as as as K K as K Ka Ka a as as Ka K a as Ka a a a Ka K a a as s s as s as as s s as as Ka s s a s as as s K a a a a K a as a a s s as s s K s a a a a s s h h h h h h hga hga hga hga hga hga hga hga hga hg hga h h h hga hga hga h h ga hga hga h h h h h hga hga h h ga h h hga h h hga h hg hga hg g r r r r r r r r r r r r r r r ar Tur Tur Tur Tur Tur u Tur Tu Tur Tur Tur u Tu Tur u u T T T u Tu T u ur ur T Tu T T T T Tu Tu T u u u Tu Tu Tu Tu Tu Tu u u ur T Tu Tu T u u u r r r r fan fan fan fan fan fan an fan an an fan fan fan n n f f T Kuc K Kuc Kuc Kuc Kuc Kuc Kuc Kuc Kuc Kuc uc Kuc Kuc c uc uc Kuc Kuc Kuc c c uc c Kuc u c uc Ku Kuc uc Kuc uc uc u uc u u uc uc K u u u u uc K c h h h h h h h ha h h ha ha h h ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha h ha a ha ha a ha ha h a h a h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h h Bu Bu Bu Bu u k k k k har har har ha a a a a a a k k har har ar ha a a a a B Bu Bu Bu k uk u u k k har h ha a a a a a a Bu Bu Bu B FER FER FER R FER R R R R R R R ER R ER FER R FER FER ER R FER R FE FER ER R FER F G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G HA HA H HA H H H H H H HA HA H HA HA HA HA HA HA A H H H HA H H H H H H H H NA NA NA NA NA NA NA N N A A N NA A NA N A NA N N N NA A N N N N N N A N N N N N N N A ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM AR ARM AR ARM ARM R E E E E E E E E ARM ARM ARM ARM RM RM RM RM M RM ARM ARM RM M M RM M M M ENI ENI ENI ENI ENI ENI NI ENI ENI ENI ENI ENI EN EN N A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A R ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM ARM A AR ARM RM RM RM RM E E E E E E EN E EN EN E E E CY CY CY CY CY THI THI THI THI TH ANS ANS ANS ANS AN TUR KIC KIC KIC KIC IC N N N N N TUR R KIC KIC KIC KIC C C N N N N NAAAAAAAAAAAAAALLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAATTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTSSSSSSSSSS L L L A A M M M M A A A A A K K K K K K K K A A A A N N N N R R T T T e a n S e a C i i Cas pia pia n n Se a Bla Bla ck SeaTTiiTTTggiirriirrrssiiiEEEuuEEEEppuuhhrraarrrtteett Area of origin 5th to 2d century B.C.E. 2d century B.C.E. to 3d century C.E. 3d to 8 th century C.E. Expansion of Buddhism Spread of Buddhism Silk Road Indian Ocean trade routes S S 60 E MAP 2. Spread of Buddhism in Asia, 400 B . C . E . – 800 C . E .CopEditorial re 16 million 1.25 million 600,000–1 million 150,000–200,000 50,000–100,000 Under 50,000 Indus R. Ganges R. Brahmaputra R. Irrawaddy R. Arabian Sea Bay of Bengal INDIAN OCEAN Andaman Islands NicobarIslands Chennai (Madras) Bhopal Hyderabad Mysore Mumbai(Bombay) Kolkata(Calcutta) Delhi New Delhi Udaipur Katmandu Agra Quetta Patna Varanasi Amritsar Chandigarh Srinagar Herat Lahore Rawalpindi Islamabad Kabul Peshawar Qandahar Karachi Dhaka Ahmadabad Pune Bangalore Cochin Jaipur Colombo Lucknow RAJASTHAN GUJARAT MAHARASHTRA MADHYA PRADESH SINDH WESTBENGAL ARUNACHALPRADESH ASSAM SIKKIM MEGHALAYA NAGALAND MANIPUR MIZORAM TRIPURA PUNJAB PUNJAB HARYANA UTTARPRADESH ANDHRAPRADESH TAMIL NADU PONDICHERRY BIHAR JHARKHAND ORISSA GOA KERALA KARNATAKA NORTHERN AREAS JAMMU and KASHMIR HIMACHALPRADESH TRIBALAREAS BALUCHISTAN NORTH-WEST FRONTIER UTTARANCHAL CHHATTISGARH AFGHANISTAN PAKISTAN CHINA INDIA NEPAL BHUTAN MALDIVES BANGLADESH BURMA(MYANMAR) SRILANKA 80°E 20°N 30°N 10°N Tropic of Cancer 90°E 70°E 60°E 0 0 200 400 Mi. 200 400 Km. N MAP 3. Sikh Population in India and Sri Lanka, 2010CopEditorial re 30°N 20°N 40°N 110°E 130°E 120°E 100°E 90°E Tropic of Cancer Xi R. Huang He R. (Yellow R.) Yangzi R. Wei R. Salween R. Mekong R. Yalu R. South China Sea Yellow Sea Sea of Japan (East Sea) East China Sea PACIFIC OCEAN Luoyang GO BI MANCHURIAN PLAIN MONGOLIAN STEPPE Chang’an(Xi’an) Anyang Zhengzhou TAIWAN YEN CH’I CHIN CHANG’AN ZHOU LU SUNG WU YÜEH CH’U QIN KOREA JAPAN BURMA ANNAM(VIETNAM) GANSU 0 0 250 500 Mi. 250 500 Km. N 90°E SSaalwewwenR.RR M BUBUBUBUBUBUBUBUBUBUBUBUBUBURMRMRMRMRMRMRMRMRMRMRMRM AAAAAAAAAAAM 000000000000 00000000000 250250250250250250250250250250250 500500500500000000000Mi.Mi.Mi.Mi.Mi.Mi.Mi.Mi.MMiMiMiMMiMMiM 25025025250250255525250250525022 500 500500 50050000500 00 00 00 Km.m.Km.Km.KmmKm.m.mmm.m.Km Principle states of China, 6th century B.C.E. Boundary of late Zhou,Warring States Excavated Zhou city site MAP 4. China in the Sixth Century B.C.E.CopEditorial re 140°E 130°E 120°E 30°N 40°N Tropic of Cancer Beijing Shanghai Seoul Vladivostok Dalian (Port Arthur)1905 Pusan Yokohama Nagoya Tokyo Sendai Sapporo Otaru Aomori Osaka Kyoto Kobe HiroshimaYawata Weihai Jiaozhou Fuzhou Taipei Xiamen Nagasaki Kagoshima MANCHURIA KOREA Annexed by Japan, 1910 CHINA RUSSIA JAPAN Kyushu Shikoku Honshu Taiwan1895 Hokkaido Karafutu1905 Ryukyu Islands 1872 Kuril Islands 1875 LiaodongPeninsula Yalu R. Yangzi R. Huang He R. (Yellow R.) Yellow Sea East China Sea Sea of Japan (East Sea) Sea of Okhotsk PACIFIC OCEAN 0 0 150 300 Mi. 150 300 Km. N 140°E 30°N aaaaa KyKyKyKyKyKyKyKyKyKyKyyuyuKyKKyyKyyuKyyuyyKyyyshuyu ShShShShiShShShShhihiShShShShhShiiihiShhShhhhhhkokkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkku hikk 2 PACIF FIC OC EEA N Japan in 1875 Territory gained by Japan from 1894 to1910 Year Japan gained control Major Japanese manufacturing area Japanese railroads in 1889 Japanese railroads in 1918 1905 MAP 5. Japanese Modernization and Expansion, 1868 –1918CopEditorial re 30°N 20°N 40°N 40°E 50°E 60°E 70°E 80°E 30°E 20°E Danube R. Tigris R. Nile R. Indus R. Oxus R. Jaxartes R. Euphrates R. Memphis Thebes Jerusalem TyreSidon Sardis EphesusMiletus Nineveh Calah (Nimrud) Babylon Susa Ecbatana PasargadaePersepolis Ashur AradusByblos Behistun Naqsh-iRustam SYRIA EGYPT ASSYRIA BABYLONIA THRACE LYDIA MACEDONIA GREECE ARMENIA MEDIA ELAM GEDROSIA INDIA BACTRIA SOGDIANA PARTHIA LIBYA IONIA CILICIA ISRAEL CARIA SCYTHIA PERSIS JUDAEA PHOENICIA ANSHAN SAHARA ARABIANDESERT CAUCASUS MTS. HINDU KUSH PLATEAU OF IRAN ELBURZ MTS. ZAGROS MTS. ANATOLIA TAURUS MTS. Cyprus Crete Rhodes Persian Royal Road Black Sea Mediterranean Sea Caspian Sea AralSea AegeanSea Red Sea Persian Gulf Arabian Sea bbbesb PersPersPersPersPersPersPersersPersPersPersPersPersPersePerseeeeeeeeeeee aaaaaaqsaqsqaqaqsaqsaqaqsaqsaqaaqsaqaaqsqRRRuRuRuustustustustustustustuRRuustustustustuustustuststRsRRstRRRuRRuamamamamaamamamamammmmammmamaRRRRuutttustusustuRustustuustssRsRRRR PERPERPERPERPERPERPERPERPERPERPERPERPERPERPERPERPER SSSSSSSSSSSSSSS DADADADADDADADADADADADADADDEAEAEEAEEAEAEAAEAAEAAA ARAARAARAARAARARAABIABIABIABIABIAB NNNNNNN DESDESDESDESESDESDEDEDDDDD ERTERTERERTERRR Red Sea PersianGulf Persian homeland Growth of the Persian Empire to 500 B.C.E. Persian Royal Road 0 0 250 500 Mi. 250 500 Km. N 40°NN 80°E80°E80°E80°EEEE0°E80°E AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH 4 MAP 6. The Zoroastrian Persian Empire, ca. 500 B.C.E.CopEditorial re SYRIA CYPRUS EGYPT Byblos Sidon Tyre Samaria Jerusalem Damascus SINAI Mt. Sinai Mediterranean Sea Dead Sea Red Sea Jordan R. 100 200 Miles 0 0 100 200 300 Kilometers Philistines Kingdom of Judah Kingdom of Israel Phoenicians Beersheba Lachish Gaza Jaffa Rabbat-Ammon MAP 7. The Monarchies of Israel and Judah, 924 –722 B.C.E.CopEditorial re GOTHS FRISIANS PICTS ANGLO-SAXONS IRISH SAXONS 0°W 50°N 50°E 30°N 40°N 50°N 60°N 0° 10°E 10°W E°04 E°03 E°02 50°E Elbe R. Ebro R. Rhine R. Don R. Dnieper R. Tigris R. Euphrates R. Volga R. Danube R. Nile R. Mediterranean Sea NorthSea Black Sea Red Sea Caspian Sea ATLANTIC OCEAN N (690–739) (St. Columba, ca. 521–597) (597–670) (St. Patrick, 385?–461?) (5th & 7th cen.) (409–429) (787–805) Whitby Cologne Reims Cannes Nursia Athens Ephesus Chalcedon Sinope Nicaea Antioch SeleuciaCtesiphon Damascus Jerusalem Syracuse Milan Tarragona Caesarea Córdoba Ligugé Paris Tours Narbonne Rome Constantinople Hippo Regius Naples Corinth Tarsus Cyrene Alexandria Memphis Toledo Marseilles Carthage Lyons St. Gall Rouen Iona Tara Armagh Canterbury Aix-la-Chapelle Sicily Crete Cyprus Corsica Sardinia CAUCASUS MTS. THRACE GERMANY SPAIN BRITAIN GAUL IRELAND ARMENIA SYRIA EGYPT NORTH AFRICA Converted to Christianity (341–381), followed bymigration to Spain and Italy Christianity introduced inBritain by Romans in3rd century, nearly lostduring Anglo-Saxoninvasion Converted to Islam,7th century 0 0250500 Mi. 250 500 Km. Extent of Christianity, ca. 300 Areas Christianized, 300 – 600 Areas Christianized, 600 – 800 Centers of Christian diffusion (Dates indicate period of conversion to Christianity) Northern part of Islamic world, ca. 750 LOMBARDS VANDALS MAP 8. The Spread of Christianity to about 800 C.E.CopEditorial re 0° E°04 E°02 60°E 80°E 20°N 40°N Tropic of Cancer Black Sea Arabian Sea Mediterranean Sea Caspian Sea Persian Gulf Red Sea AralSea INDIAN OCEAN ATLANTICOCEAN Indus R. Oxus R. Tigris R. Danube R. Volga R. Don R. Dnieper R. Euphrates R. Jaxartes R. Nile R. N ATLANT IC OCEAN DanubeR.RR 20°N a Cyprus Crete Sicily Sardinia Corsica SAHARA Jerusalem Cairo (founded 969 C.E.) Tripoli Baghdad Ctesiphon Hormuz Qum Isfahan Nihawand Kashgar Kabul Kandahar Bukhara Merv Samarkand Lahore Damascus Rome Venice Aachen Naples Marseilles Seville Poitiers Medina Acre Antioch Homs Alexandria KufaHira Basra Carthage Córdoba Mecca Constantinople ARABIAN PENINSULA HORN OFAFRICA CAUCASUS MOUNTAINS KHURASAN YEMEN OMAN HEJAZ KHWARIZM AZERBAIJAN ARMENIA SPANISHMARCH ANDALUSIA SIND FERGHANA BYZANTINE EMPIRE CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE KHAZARKINGDOM INDIA AFRICA 0 0 250 500 Mi. 250 500 Km. Under Muhammad, 622–632 632–656 656–750 750–900 Major battle A long siege; Muslims forced to withdrawin 718 Northern advance ofMuslims haltedin 732 MAP 9. Expansion of Islam, 622 –900 C.E.CopEditorial re 0° 40°N 20°N Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn 0° 20°S Equator 20°E 20°W 40°E 60°E 80°E 100°E 120°E 140°E WESTERNSAHARA(Morocco) XINJIANG(China) MADAGASCAR SAUDIARABIA IRAN TURKMENISTAN UZBEKISTAN AFGHANISTAN PAKISTAN IRAQ COMOROS INDONESIA MYANMAR THAILAND MALAYSIA CAMBODIA PHILIPPINES TANZANIA SOMALIA MOROCCO 1 456 7 8 9 10 12 1415 16 13 11 2 3 RUSSIA CHINA KAZAKHSTAN INDIA ALGERIA FRANCE TUNISIA GERMANY TURKEY LIBYA EGYPT SUDAN SOUTHSUDAN CHAD NIGER NIGERIA MAURITANIA CAMEROON ETHIOPIA MOZAMBIQUE OMAN YEMEN NETHERLANDS MALAWI KENYA DEM. REP.OF CONGO MAURITIUS SWAZILAND DJIBOUTI QATARBAHRAIN UNITED ARABEMIRATES KYRGYZSTAN TAJIKISTAN KUWAIT TIMOR-LESTE NEPAL RWANDA UGANDA SRI LANKA AUSTRIA GEORGIA AZERBAIJAN CYPRUSLEBANONISRAEL MALI CENTRALAFRICAN REP. BURKINAFASO ERITREA SYRIA JORDAN BRUNEI BANGLADESH SINGAPORE BURUNDI BULGARIA INDIAN OCEAN PACIFIC OCEAN ATLANTIC OCEAN Arabian Sea Black Sea Bay of Bengal Mediterranean Sea 40°N 20°N N Trop ic of Cance r ° E 120°E 1 40°E HIN HI HIN HIN HIN HIN HIN HIN HIN HIN HIN HIN HIN HIN HIN HIN IN HIN HIN HIN HIN HIN IN HIN N N H A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Over 85% 51% to 85% 26% to 50% 11% to 25% 3% to 10% Under 3% League of Arab States Muslims in total population 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 10 10 1 1 10 10 0 10 1 10 1 0 3 3 NIGE NIGE NIGE NIGE NIGE NIGE NIGE NIGE E NIGE NIGE E N GE E E GE E RIA RIA RIA RIA RIA RIA RIA RIA RIA RIA RIA RIA RIA IA RIA RIA RIA A A A CAME E E E E E E E E E E E M M E M M M M M M M E M M M ROON ROON ROON ROO ROO ROON ROON OO ROON ROON ROON OON OO OON O O O E R M C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C AFR AF AFR AFR AF AFR A A A AFR AFR AFR AFR R A 1. SENEGAL 2. GAMBIA 3. GUINEA-BISSAU 4. GUINEA 5. SIERRA LEONE 6. LIBERIA 7. CÔTE D’IVOIRE 8. GHANA 9. TOGO 10. BENIN 11. MAYOTTE (Fr.) 12. BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA 13. SERBIA 14. MONTENEGRO 15. ALBANIA 16. MACEDONIA 0 0 1,000 2,000 Mi. 1,000 2,000 Km. N MAP 10. The Islamic World TodayCopEditorial re present form as it was finished and edited by the Jerusalem priests, becoming the first and primary section of Jewish scripture. Around 350 B.C.E., the historical works 1–2 Chronicles and Ezra –Nehemiah were completed. The later wisdom books, Job and Ecclesiastes, were compiled, and two short stories, Ruth and Esther, appeared. By 200 B.C.E., the eight-book section known as Nevi ’im was largely complete. The final texts of the Jewish scripture were in the apocalyptic mode: Isaiah 24 –27, Ezekiel 38, and especially the book of Daniel, the last book to be written, around 160 B.C.E. The Kethuvim section was basically determined by about 100 B.C.E. 5. The full and formal canonization of the entire Jewish Bible as we now have it — the Law, Prophets, and Writings —took place at the end of the first century C.E. No one disagreed on the books of the Torah Law and the Prophets ; these sections of the canon had been settled for centuries. A Jewish council meeting at Jamnia (ca. 90 C.E.) seems to have ruled on the Writings section as we have them, but it took some years for this ruling to be widely accepted. The main criterion for canonicity was the recognition that God was revealed in these books and spoke to his people in them. Canonization did not confer scriptural status on a book. Rather, this status emerged from the official and formal recognition of a long-standing reception and use of these books as holy and scriptural by the Jewish community itself. (As we saw in Chapter 1, this is a common pattern for all ancient religions with scriptures.) Once canonical recognition was given, it helped reinforce the texts ’holiness and authority. HISTORY The Call of Abraham The history of the Jewish people begins with Abraham, whose name was Abram at first. God calls him to journey from his native Mesopotamia (modern Iraq) to Palestine and promises that Abraham ’s descendants will form a great nation, will become a source of blessing to the world, and will possess the land of Canaan. Abraham responds faithfully to God ’s call. This is the first statement of the covenant agreement between God and God ’s people, from Genesis 12:1 –9. Compare this passage with the “Covenant with Israel ”reading in the History section of this chapter. 2 Now God said to Abram: “Get out of your coun- try, and from your kindred, and from your father ’s house, to the land that I will show you. I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you, and make your name great; and you will be a blessing. I will bless them that bless you, and him that curses you will I curse; and in you shall all the families of the earth be blessed. ” Genesis 12:1 –9. 2All passages from the Jewish Bible are adapted from the influ- ential The Holy Scriptures according to the Masoretic Text: A New Translation , edited by Max Leopold Margolis (Philadel- phia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1917). HISTORY |The Call of Abraham 225CopEditorial re So Abram went, as God had spoken to him; and Lot went with him. 3Abram was seventy-five years old when he departed out of Haran. 4[5] Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother ’s son, and all the substance they had gathered, and the people they had gotten in Haran. They went forth to go to the land of Canaan, and into the land of Canaan they came. Abram passed through the land to the place of Shechem, to the terebinth of Moreh. 5The Canaanites were then in the land. God appeared to Abram, and said: “To your seed will I give this land. ” He built there an altar to God, who appeared to him. He moved from there to the mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent, having Bethel on the west and Ai on the east. He built there an altar to God, and called upon the name of God. Abram journeyed, going on still toward the Negev. 6 The Call of Moses Speaking from a bush that burns but is not burned up, symbolic of the miraculous presence of God, God calls Moses to be God ’s prophetic agent in liberating the Hebrews from their Egyp- tian slavery. This passage from Exodus 3:1 –20 provides insight into the personality and mis- sion of Moses, the most influential person in the Tanak and in Jewish history. Now Moses was keeping the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian. He led the flock to the farthest end of the wilderness, and came to the mountain of God, to Horeb. 7 And the angel of the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush; and he looked, and behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed. Moses said: “I will turn aside now, and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt. ” When the Lord saw that he turned aside to see, God called to him out of the bush, and said: “Moses, Moses. ” He said: “Here am I. ” [5] And He said: “Do not come closer; put off your shoes from your feet, for the place where you stand is holy ground. ”8 Moreover He said: “I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. ”Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look upon God. And the Lord said: “I have surely seen the affliction of My people in Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their taskmasters; for I know their pains. I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them 3Lot: Abraham ’s nephew, who often serves as a contrasting character for Abraham in the Genesis narratives.4Haran: City in northern Mesopotamia. 5terebinth of Moreh: An oak tree, with sacred significance, espe- cially after God appears to Abraham in a dream there and Abraham responds by building an altar. 6the Negev: The south of Palestine. Thus, Abraham has trav- elled through the entire “Promised Land, ”from its north to its south. Exodus 3:1 –20. 7the mountain of God, to Horeb: Also known as Mt. Sinai, where God gave the Torah to Israel after its liberation fromEgypt. 8put off your shoes from your feet: The custom in many ancient Near Eastern religions of going barefoot in a holy place, stillpracticed in Islamic mosques. 226 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re up out of that land to a good land and a large, to a land flowing with milk and honey; to the place of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites. 9And now, behold, the cry of the children of Israel has come to Me, and I have seen the oppression with which the Egyptians oppress them. [10] Come now therefore, and I will send you to Pharaoh, so that you may bring forth My people the chil- dren of Israel out of Egypt. ” And Moses said to God: “Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh, and that I should bring forth the children of Israel out of Egypt? ” And He said: “Certainly I will be with you; and this shall be the token for you that I have sent you: when you have brought forth the people out of Egypt, you shall serve God upon this mountain. ” Moses said to God: “Behold, when I say to the children of Israel, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you, ’they will say to me, ‘What is His name? ’What will I say to them? ” God said to Moses, “I Am Who I Am, ”and He said: “Thus shall you say to the children of Israel: ‘I Am has sent me to you. ’” God also said to Moses: “Thus shall you say to the children of Israel: ‘The Lord, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you. This is My name for ever, and this is My memorial to all generations. ’ Go, and gather the elders of Israel together, and say to them: ‘The Lord, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, has appeared to me, saying: “I have surely remem- bered you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt. And I have said that I will bring you up out of the affliction of Egypt to the land of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, to a land flowing with milk and honey. ” They will hearken to your voice. ’ “Then you shall come, you and the elders of Israel, to the king of Egypt, and you shall say to him: ‘The Lord, the God of the Hebrews, has met with us. And now let us go, we pray you, three days ’journey into the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to the Lord our God. ’I know that the king of Egypt will not give you leave to go, except by a mighty hand. [20] I will put forth My hand, and smite Egypt with all My wonders which I will do in its midst. After that he will let you go. ” Crossing the Red Sea The dramatic climax of the Exodus is the Israelites ’escape through the sea and the destruction of the Egyptians who pursued them, a story told here in Exodus 14:1 –31. This tale is told at every Passover feast and is the central moment for traditional Judaism of the divine deliver- ance of Israel. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: “Speak to the children of Israel, that they turn back and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, before Baal-zephon, over against it shall you encamp by the sea. Pharaoh will think that the children of Israel are entangled in the land, and the wilderness has shut them in. I will harden Pharaoh ’s heart, and he will follow after them. I will get glory over Pharaoh and all his army; and the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord. ” And they did so. 9Canaanites … Jebusites: Native peoples of Palestine, the Promised Land, before the Israelites settled there. Exodus 14:1 –31. HISTORY |Crossing the Red Sea 227CopEditorial re [5] It was told the king of Egypt that the people had fled. The heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people, and they said: “What is this we have done, that we have let Israel go from serving us? ”He made ready his chariots, and took his people with him. And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains over all of them. The Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the children of Israel; for the children of Israel went out with a high hand. And the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pi-hahiroth, in front of Baal-zephon. [10] And when Pharaoh drew near, the children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, behold, the Egyptians were marching after them. They were sore afraid; and the children of Israel cried out to the Lord. And they said to Moses: “Was it because there were no graves in Egypt that have you taken us away to die in the wilderness? Why have you dealt thus with us, to bring us out of Egypt? Is not this what we spoke to you in Egypt, ‘Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? For it would be better for us to serve the Egyptians that to die in the wilderness. ’” And Moses said to the people: “Fear not, stand still and see the salvation of the Lord, which He will work for you today. You have seen the Egyptians today, but you shall see them again no more forever. The Lord will fight for you, and you shall hold your peace. ” [15] The Lord said to Moses: “Why do you cry to Me? Speak to the children of Israel that they go forward. Lift you up your rod, and stretch out your hand over the sea, and divide it; and the children of Israel shall go into the middle of the sea on dry ground. Behold, I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians, and they shall go in after them; and I will get honor over Pha- raoh and all his army, over his chariots and his horsemen. And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I have gotten glory over Pha- raoh, his chariots, and his horsemen. ”And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, moved and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and stood behind them; [20] it came between the camp of Egypt and the camp of Israel. There was the cloud and the darkness here, yet it gave light by night there; and the one came not near the other all night. Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided. The children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon dry ground; the waters were a wall on their right hand and on their left. The Egyptians pursued, and went in after them into the midst of the sea, all Pharaoh ’s horses, his chariots, and his horse- men. And it came to pass in the morning watch, that the Lord looked on the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of cloud, and dis- comfited the host of the Egyptians. [25] He took off their chariot wheels, and made them to drive heavily; so that the Egyptians said: “Let us flee from the face of Israel; for the Lord fights for them against the Egyptians. ” The Lord said to Moses: “Stretch out your hand over the sea so that the waters may come back upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots and upon their horsemen. ”And Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to its strength when the morning appeared. The Egyptians fled against it, and the Lord overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea. And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, all the army of Pharaoh that went in after them into the sea; there remained not so much as one of them. But the children of Israel walked on dry land in the midst of the sea; and the waters were a wall on their right hand and on their left. [30] Thus the Lord saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore. Israel saw the great work which the Lord did upon the Egyptians, and the people feared the Lord; they believed in the Lord, and in His servant Moses. 228 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re The Covenant with Israel After the Exodus, God renews the covenant, or mutual agreement, that God made with Abraham. Covenants were widely used in the ancient Near East, especially in treaties between nations. The familiar terms of the covenant are present here in Exodus 19:1 –8: “I will be your God ”;“You will be my people ”;“You must obey me. ”These covenant conditions are here prefaced and founded on what God did in liberating the people from Egypt. In the third month after the children of Israel were gone forth out of the land of Egypt, the same day came they into the wilderness of Sinai. And when they departed from Rephidim, and came to the wilderness of Sinai, they encamped in the wilderness; and there Israel encamped before the mountain. 10 Moses went up to God, and the Lord called to him on the mountain, saying: “Thus shall you say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel: ‘You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles ’wings and brought you to Myself. [5] Now therefore, if you will hearken to My voice and keep My covenant, then you shall be My own treasure from among all peoples; for all the earth is Mine. You shall be to Me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. ’ These are the words which you shall speak to the children of Israel. ” And Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and set before them all these words which the Lord commanded him. And all the people answered together, and said: “All that the Lord has spoken, we will do. ” And Moses reported the words of the people to the Lord. Ezra ’s Enforcement of Torah Observance This passage from Ezra 9 and 10 tells the story of how the return of the Jews from exile in Babylon brought a new dedication to keep the Torah. It was widely perceived that God had used the military conquest of Israel by the Babylonians and exile to Babylon (modern Iraq) to punish them for their sins. One way this Torah observance was enforced was in the compul- sory divorce of Jewish men from non-Jewish wives, on the belief that non-Jewish wives had led their husbands into idolatry. Marriage only within Judaism became the rule in Jewish law and was widely followed in all branches of Judaism until modern times, when intermarriage is now resulting in some loss of Jewish identity in the Western world. Marriage of Jewish men to women of other religions is particularly problematic because Jewish identity traditionally comes through one ’s mother. (See the biblical book of Ruth, perhaps also written around this time, for a more liberal view of marriage to women of foreign origins.) Exodus 19:1 –8. 10the mountain: Mount Sinai, where the law of God is given to Israel. Ezra 9:1 –7, 13 –15; 10:1 –12. HISTORY |Ezra ’s Enforcement of Torah Observance 229CopEditorial re Now when these things were done, the princes came to me, saying: “ThepeopleofIsrael,andthepriests and the Levites, have not separated themselves from the peoples of the lands and are doing their abomi- nations —the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, the Ammonites, the Moabites, the Egyptians, and the Amorites. For they have taken their daughters [as wives] for themselves and for their sons, so that the holy seed have mingled them- selves with the peoples of the lands. The princes and rulers have been first in this faithlessness. ” And when I heard this thing, I rent my gar- ment and my mantle, and plucked off the hair of my head and of my beard, and sat down appalled. 11 Then were assembled before me everyone that trembled at the words of the God of Israel, because of the faithlessness of them of the captivity; and I sat appalled until the [time of the] evening offer- ing. [5] And at the evening offering I arose up from my fasting, even with my garment and my mantle rent; and I fell upon my knees, and spread out my hands to the Lord my God and I said: “O my God, I am ashamed and blush to lift up my face to You, my God; for our iniquities are increased over our head, and our guiltiness is grown up to the heavens. Since the days of our fathers we have been exceeding guilty to this day. For our iniquities have we, our kings, and our priests, been delivered into the hand of the kings of the lands, to the sword, to captivity, to spoil- ing, and to confusion of face, as it is this day …. [13] After all that is come upon us for our evil deeds, and for our great guilt, seeing that You our God have punished us less than our iniquities deserve, and have given us such a remnant, 12 shall we again break Your commandments, and make marriages with the peoples who do these abominations? 13 Would You not be angry with us until You had con- sumed us, so that there should be no remnant, nor any to escape? O Lord, the God of Israel, You are righteous; for we are left a remnant that is escaped, as it is this day. Behold, we are guilty before You; none can stand before You because of this. ” [10:1] Now while Ezra prayed, and made confession, weeping and casting himself down before the house of God, there gathered together to him out of Israel a very great congregation of men and women and children; the people wept very intently. And Shecaniah the son of Jehiel, one of the sons of Elam, answered and said to Ezra: “We have broken faith with our God, and have married foreign women of the peoples of the land; yet now there is hope for Israel concerning this thing. Now therefore let us make a covenant with our God to put away all the wives, and the children born of them, according to the counsel of the Lord, and of those that tremble at the com- mandment of our God; and let it be done according to the law. Arise; for the matter belongs to you, and we are with you; be of good courage, and do it. ” [5] Then arose Ezra, and made the chiefs of the priests, the Levites, and all Israel, to swear that they would do according to this word. So they swore. Then Ezra rose up from before the house of God, and went into the chamber of Jehohanan the son of Eliashib. When he came there, he ate no bread nor drank water, for he mourned because of the faithlessness of them of the captiv- ity. They made proclamation throughout Judah and Jerusalem to all the children of the captivity, that they should gather themselves together to Jerusalem. Whoever did not come within three days, according to the counsel of the princes and the elders, all his substance would be forfeited, and he himself separated from the congregation. Then all the men of Judah and Benjamin gathered themselves together to Jerusalem within the three days. It was the ninth month, on the twentieth day of the month. All the people sat in the broad place before the house of God, trem- bling because of this matter, and for the great rain. [10] And Ezra the priest stood up, and said to them: “You have broken faith, and have married foreign women, to increase the guilt of Israel. Now therefore make confession to the Lord, the God of your fathers, and do His pleasure; and separate yourselves from the peoples of the land, and from the foreign women. ” Then the entire congregation answered and said with a loud voice: “As you have said, so we shall do. ” 11rent [tore] my garment …sat appalled: All signs of mourning. 12remnant: Group of survivors. 13these abominations: The immoralities and idolatry of other peoples. 230 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re TEACHING The Oneness of God This passage from Deuteronomy 6:1 –9 is based on the commandment “You shall have no other gods beside me. ”In Jewish tradition, the last paragraph of this selection is known as the Shema [sheh-MAH or more colloquially SHMAH], the Hebrew word meaning “hear, ”which opens this section. The capitalization of the heart of the Shema in the original Jewish Publication Society translation has been kept. The last sentence has produced the use of the tefillin, small boxes with the Shema and three other passages inside that are bound by leather straps to the hand and fore- head, and the mezuzah, a small box fastened to the doorpost that contains the Shema and Deuter- onomy 11:13 –21. They are reminders of Jewishness and the duty to love and serve God alone. [Moses said,] Now this is the commandment, the statutes, and the ordinances, which the Lord your God commanded to teach you, that you might do them in the land whither you go over to possess it —that you might fear the Lord your God, to keep all His statutes and His command- ments, which I command you, you, and your son, and your son ’s son, all the days of your life; and that your days may be prolonged. Hear therefore, O Israel, and observe to do it; that it may be well with you, and that you may increase mightily, as the Lord, the God of your fathers, has promised you —a land flowing with milk and honey. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE. You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your might. And these words, which I command you this day, shall be upon your heart. You shall teach them diligently to your children, and shall talk of them when you sit in your house, and when you walk by the way, and when you lie down, and when you rise up. You shall bind them as a sign upon your hand, and they shall be as frontlets between your eyes. You shall write them upon the doorposts of your house, and upon your gates. Mezuzah on the doorpost A Jewish woman reverently touches a mezuzah next to a door. Deuteronomy 6:1 –9. Anneka/ TEACHING |The Oneness of God 231CopEditorial re God ’s Creation of the World Two narratives from Genesis tell the story of God ’s creation of the world: one from Priestly traditions (1:1 –2:3), the other from Old Epic traditions (2:4 –25). They vary in content and style. In the first, God creates an orderly cosmos out of primeval chaos (what today is sometimes called the “primordial soup ”) with humankind as the capstone of creation. In the second, the creation of humanity is the central topic. Notice the different ways the two stories account for the creation of woman: the Jewish, Christian, and Islamic religions typically fasten on the second story and ignore the first, which tends to be more positive toward women. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. Now the earth was unformed and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters. God said: “Let there be light, ” and there was light. And God saw that the light was good; and God divided the light from the darkness. [5] And God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day. 14 God said: “Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. ”God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firma- ment from the waters which were above the fir- mament; and it was so. And God called the firmament Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day. God said: “Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together in one place, and let the dry land appear. ”And it was so. [10] And God called the dry land earth, and the gathering together of the waters He called seas; and God saw that it was good. Then God said: “Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth. ”And it was so. And the earth brought forth grass, herb yielding seed after its kind, and tree bearing fruit, with its seed in it, after its kind; and God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. God said: “Let there be lights in the firma- ment of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years; [15] and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth. ”And it was so. God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; and the stars. God set them in the fir- mament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day. [20] God said: “Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures, and let fowl fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. ”God created the great sea-monsters, and every liv- ing creature that creeps, with which the waters swarmed, after its kind, and every winged fowl after its kind; and God saw that it was good. God blessed them, saying: “Be fruitful and multi- ply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth. ” And there was evening and there was morn- ing, a fifth day. God said: “Let the earth bring forth the living creature after its kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after its kind. ”And it was Genesis 1:1 –2:3; 2:4 –25. 14Note that the creation of light and darkness, and indeed thefirst day, occurs before the creation of the sun and moon on the fourth day of creation. 232 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re so. [25] And God made the beast of the earth after its kind, and the cattle after their kind, and everything that creeps upon the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good. God said: “Let us make humans in our 15 image, after our likeness; and let them have domin- ion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth. ”God created humans in His own image, in the image of God He created them; male and female He created them. God blessed them and said to them: “Be fruitful and multiply, and replen- ish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creeps upon the earth. ”God also said: “Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed — to you it shall be for food; [30] and to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to everything that creeps upon the earth, in which there is a living soul, I have given every green herb for food. ”And it was so. God saw everything that He had made, and, behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day. [2:1] And the heaven and the earth were fin- ished, and all the host of them. And on the sev- enth day God finished His work which He had made; God rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made. 16 And God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it; because in it He rested from all His work which God in creating had made. These are the generations of the heaven and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made earth and heaven. [5] No shrub of the field was yet in the earth, and no herb of the field had yet sprung up; for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground; but there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground. Then the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. And the Lord God planted a garden eastward, in Eden; and there He put the man whom He had formed. Out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life was also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. [10] And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became four rivers. The name of the first is Pishon; that is it which compass the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; and the gold of that land is good; there are bdellium and the onyx stone. The name of the second river is Gihon; it compasses the whole land of Cush. The name of the third river is Tigris, which goes toward the east of Asshur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates. [15] And the Lord God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. And the Lord God commanded the man, saying: “Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, you shall not eat of it; for in the day that you eat thereof you shall surely die. ” And the Lord God said: “It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him. ”Out of the ground the Lord God formed every animal of the field and every bird of the air; and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatever the man would call every living creature, that was to be its name. 17 [20] The man gave names to all cattle, to the birds of the air, and to every animal of the field; but for Adam there was not found a helper fit for him. And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the place with flesh. The rib 15us, our: God and the beings of the heavenly court. There is no idea of the plurality of God here. Note also that “man ” here means “human, ”not “male. ” 16God blessed the seventh day … done: An allusion to the law of rest and renewal on the seventh day, the sabbath. 17that would be its name: Human naming of the animals shows superiority to them; human “rule ”of the world is thus much more intellectual than practical. TEACHING |God ’s Creation of the World 233CopEditorial re that the Lord God had taken from the man he made into a woman, and brought her to the man. And the man said: “This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. ” Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they shall be one flesh. [25] They were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. The Revolt of Humanity Humans fall into sin by rebelling against God ’s command, a story told here in Genesis 3:1 –24. Tempted by the serpent (in this story a wily creature, but in later Jewish and then in Christian tradition the devil in disguise), first the woman and then the man disobey God. God punishes all the guilty parties in various ways, but humanity ’s chief punishment is being driven out of the Garden. Orthodox Jews, like conservative Christians and traditional Muslims, regard this as a fully historical event. Many Conservative and most Reform Jews, like more liberal Christians, see it not as historical but religiously true nonetheless, expressing the deep truth that human beings have the capacity to be good, but are too easily tempted to reject God by doing evil. Now the serpent was more subtle than any beast of the field which the Lord God had made. And he said to the woman, “Has God said: ‘You shall not eat of any tree of the garden? ’” And the woman said to the serpent: “Of the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat; but of the fruit of the tree which is in the middle of the garden, God has said, ‘You shall not eat of it, nei- ther shall you touch it, lest you die. ’” And the serpent said to the woman: “You shall not surely die; for God knows that in the day you eat of it, your eyes shall be opened, and you shall be as God, knowing good and evil. ” And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit, and ate; and she gave also to her husband, and he ate. And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; 18 and they sewed fig-leaves together, and made themselves garments. And they heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the garden toward the cool of the day; and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God among the trees of the garden. The Lord God called to the man, and said to him, “Where are you? ” [10] And he said: “I heard Your voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself. ” And He said: “Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten of the tree I commanded you not to eat? ” The man said, “The woman whom You gave to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. ” And the Lord God said to the woman, “What is this you have done? ” And the woman said, “The serpent deceived me, and I ate. ” And the Lord God said to the serpent, “Because you have done this, cursed are you from among all cattle, and from among all land animals of the field; upon your belly shall you go, and dust shall you eat all the days of your life. [15] I will put enmity between you and the Genesis 3:1 –24. 18naked: Knowledge of their nakedness is a symbol of their loss of innocence and goodness. The next paragraph makes clear that they cover their nakedness not only from each other, but especially from God. 234 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re woman, and between your seed and her seed; they shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise their heel. ” To the woman He said, “I will greatly multi- ply your pain and your trouble; in pain you shall bring forth children; and your desire shall be for your husband, and he shall rule over you. ”19 To Adam He said: “Because you have heark- ened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten of the tree of which I commanded you, saying: ‘You shall not eat of it ’; cursed is the ground for your sake; in toil shall you eat of it all the days of your life. Thorns and thistles shall it bring forth to you; and you shall eat the produce of the field. In the sweat of your face shall you eat bread until you return to the ground; for out of it you were taken. Dust you are, and to dust shall you return. ” [20] The man called his wife ’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all the living. 20 The Lord God made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins, and clothed them. And the Lord God said: “Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil; and now, he might put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live forever. ”There- fore the Lord God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. So He drove out the man, and He placed at the east of the garden of Eden the cherubim, 21 and the flaming sword which turned every way, to guard the way to the tree of life. Prayer for Divine Deliverance The Psalms show a strong relationship of believers to God —both individual and corporate —as well as a strong distinction between good and evil, both characteristic of Israelite religion. In Psalm 5, a typical prayer for deliverance from godless foes who are oppressing the believer in some unspecified way, first describes the difficulties of the believer and ends with expression of the believer ’s trust in God to deliver. Give ear to my words, O Lord; consider my meditation. Hearken to the voice of my cry, my King and my God, for to You I pray. O Lord, in the morning You shall hear my voice; In the morning I will offer my prayer to You, and wait. [5] For You are not a God that has pleasure in wickedness; evil shall not dwell with You. Boasters shall not stand in Your sight; You hate all workers of iniquity. You destroy them that speak falsehood; the Lord abhors the man of blood and of deceit. But as for me, in the abundance of Your loving-kindness I will come into Your house; I will bow down toward Your holy temple in the fear of You. 19he shall rule over you: The implied equality between man and woman is lost; the husband now rules the wife. The continua- tion of the sexual desire of the man for the woman necessary for the continuation of human life is assumed, but the desire of the woman for her husband is explicitly affirmed because theincreased pain that now comes to childbirth may dampen thisdesire. 20Eve … mother of all the living: The Hebrew word for Eve is derived from the verb “to live. ” 21cherubim: Not “cherubs ”but fearsome six-winged angels, half human and half lion. Psalm 5. TEACHING |Prayer for Divine Deliverance 235CopEditorial re O Lord, lead me in Your righteousness because of those who lie in wait for me; Make Your way straight before my face. [10] For there is no sincerity in their mouth; Their inward parts are a yawning gulf, and their throat is an open grave; They make smooth their tongue. Hold them guilty, O God; let them fall by their own counsels; Cast them down in the multitude of their transgressions, for they have rebelled against You. But let all those who take refuge in You rejoice, and ever shout for joy. You shall shelter them; Let those who love Your name exult in you. For You bless the righteous; O Lord, You encompass them with favor like a shield. The Messianic King This prophetic oracle from Isaiah 11:1 –9 promises a deliverer of Israel to come from among the descendants of King David. He will bring forth light, joy, peace, and justice. Orthodox Jews look forward to a literal fulfillment of this promise; others interpret it in the sense of progress toward justice in Judaism or in all of humanity. There shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse; A twig shall grow forth out of his roots. The spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him: The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord. His delight shall be in the fear of the Lord. He shall not judge by the sight of his eyes, Nor decide by the hearing of his ears. But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, And decide with equity for the meek of the land. He shall smite the land with the rod of his mouth, And with the breath of his lips he shall slay the wicked. [5] Righteousness shall be the belt of his loins, And faithfulness the belt of his waist. The wolf shall dwell with the lamb, And the leopard shall lie down with the kid, The calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them. The cow and the bear shall feed together; Their young ones shall lie down together. The lion shall eat straw like the ox. The sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, And the weaned child shall put his hand on the adder ’s den. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain; For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord As the waters cover the sea. Isaiah 11:1 –9. 236 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re The Final Judgment of the World The apocalyptic view of the world can be richly symbolic, with dreams and visions featuring mixed-form animals, cosmic battles, and other fantastic events. In this passage from Daniel 7:1 –14, the winged lion represents the Babylonian Empire, the bear is the Medes, the four- headed leopard is the Persians, and the dragon is the Greeks. The ten horns are the ten rulers succeeding Alexander in the Near East, and the “little horn ”is the Syrian king Antiochus Epiphanes, whose brutal persecution of the Jews precipitated a Jewish revolt, and whose destruction is foretold here. Although the rich symbolism of apocalyptic scripture did not carry over into later Judaism, an apocalyptic view of the main events at the end of time did: God will someday bring history to an end and judge all peoples and nations. In the first year of Belshazzar king of Babylon Daniel had a dream and visions of his head upon his bed. He wrote down the dream and told the sum of the matter. Daniel spoke and said, “I saw in my vision by night, and, behold, the four winds of the heaven broke forth upon the great sea. And four great land animals came up from the sea, diverse one from another. The first was like a lion, and had eagle ’s wings. I beheld until the wings were plucked off, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon two feet as a man, and a man ’s heart was given to it. [5] And behold another beast, a second, like to a bear, and it raised up itself on one side, and it had three ribs in its mouth between its teeth; and a voice said to it, ‘Arise, eat much meat. ’ “After this I looked, and there was another, like a leopard, which had upon the sides of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and dominion was given to it. After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and exceedingly strong; It had great iron teeth; it devoured and broke in pieces, and stamped the residue with its feet; and it was differ- ent from all the land animals that were before it; and it had ten horns. I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another horn, a little one, before which three of the first horns were plucked up by the roots; and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things. “I beheld till thrones were placed, and the Ancient of Days 22 did sit: his raiment was as white snow, and the hair of his head like pure wool; his throne was fiery flames, and the wheels thereof burning fire. [10] A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him; thousand thousands minis- tered to him, and ten thousand times ten thou- sand stood before him; the judgment was set, and the books were opened. 23 I beheld at that time because of the voice of the great words which the horn spoke, I beheld even till the beast was slain, and its body destroyed, and it was given to be burned with fire. And as for the rest of the land animals, their dominion was taken away; yet their lives were prolonged for a season and a time. “I saw in the night visions, and, behold, there came with the clouds of heaven one like a son of man, 24 and he came even to the Ancient of Days, and he was brought near before Him. And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a king- dom, that all the peoples, nations, and languages should serve him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his king- dom shall not be destroyed. ” Daniel 7:1 –14. 22Ancient of Days: God, the Eternal One, who goes back to “ancient days. ” 23books were opened: Books in which the deeds of all people or their eternal destiny is written.24one like a son of man: A human being representing the faith- ful Jews; traditionally, this figure is identified as the Messiah. TEACHING |The Final Judgment of the World 237CopEditorial re Resurrection of the Dead One prominent element of apocalyptic scripture is the resurrection of the dead, God ’s sum- moning them out of their graves with new, eternal bodies to face a judgment that determines their eternal fate. (Zoroastrianism also features resurrection, but one in which all achieve eternal life and blessing, even those confined to hell between their death and resurrection; see the “Judgment of the Soul on Chinvat Bridge ”reading in the Teaching and Ethics section of Chapter 9.) Although this short passage from Daniel 12:1 –3 says that “many ”will arise, soon the idea is established in Judaism that all will arise. This belief is held firmly by the Orthodox; most other Jews interpret it metaphorically or discard it. The resurrection of the dead became an important part of Christian and Muslim teaching as well. Here, God speaks to Daniel. “And at that time Michael shall arise, the great prince who stands for the children of your peo- ple. 25 There shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time your people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book. Many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence. They that are wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn the many to righ- teousness will shine as the stars forever and ever. ” ETHICS The Ten Commandments This is the first section of the law given by God to Israel at Mount Sinai after the Exodus from Egypt, found in Exodus 20:1 –14. The first group of commandments, through taking God ’s name in vain, deals with humanity ’s duty to God; the last group deals with person-to-person obligations. Of all the ancient law codes, the Ten Commandments (also called the Decalogue ) are probably the most influential in Western religion and culture. The numbering of the com- mands varies among Jews and Christians, but all agree on the total of ten. And God spoke all these words, saying: I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall have no other gods before Me. You shall not make a graven image, nor any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; [5] you shall not bow down to them, nor serve them; for I the Lord Daniel 12:1 –3. 25Michael: The guardian angel of Israel. Exodus 20:1 –14. 238 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children to the third and fourth generation of those who hate Me; and showing mercy to the thousandth genera- tion of those who love Me and keep My com- mandments. You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guilt- less who takes His name in vain. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shall you labor, and do all your work; [10] but the seventh day is a sabbath to the Lord your God, in it you shall not do any man- ner of work, you, your son, your daughter, your male slaves, your female slaves, your cattle, your stranger that is within your gates; for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it. Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long upon the land which the Lord your God gives you. You shall not murder. You shall not commit adultery. You shall not steal. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. You shall not covet your neighbor ’s house; you shall not covet your neighbor ’s wife, nor his male slave, his female slave, his ox, his ass, or any- thing that is your neighbor ’s. Laws on Slaves, Violence, and Property Following the Ten Commandments is a section of laws in Exodus 21–23 also traditionally traced to God ’s giving of the law to Moses. The laws on slavery reflect the humanitarian concern of Israel in the midst of a slave-owning and patriarchal culture. Although both male and female Hebrew slaves are given some protections, the male has more. The time limits on slavery imply that it is not the proper condition of humankind or at least of Israelites. In the laws on violence, a distinction is made between intentional and unintentional acts. The law of retributive justice, called “an eye for an eye, ”is often seen today as a crude and violent method of justice, but it is a limitation on the continual, growing violence of blood feuds and private revenge that were a feature of Semitic societies. This selection closes with laws that protect the more vulnerable and helpless members of society. [Exodus 21:1 –36] Now these are the ordinances which you shall set before them. If you buy a Hebrew slave, he shall serve for six years; in the seventh he shall go out free for no payment. If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself; if he was married, then his wife shall go out with him. If his master has given him a wife, and she bear him sons or daughters, the wife and her children shall be her master ’s, and he shall go out by himself. [5] But if the servant shall plainly say, “I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out as a free man, ”then his master shall bring him to God. 26 He shall bring him to the door or to the door-post, and his master shall pierce his ear with an awl; 27 and he shall serve him forever. Exodus 21:1 –36; 22:15 –26. 26take him before God: That is, at the sacred doorpost of the house.27pierce his ear with an awl: And then insert a small marker to show the master ’s permanent ownership. ETHICS |Laws on Slaves, Violence, and Property 239CopEditorial re If a man sells his daughter to be a slave, she shall not go out as the male slaves do. 28 If she does not please her master, who has espoused her to himself, then shall he let her be re- deemed; 29 to sell her to foreigners is forbidden, seeing he has dealt deceitfully with her. And if he betroths her to his son, he shall deal with her after the manner of daughters. [10] If he takes another wife, her food, her clothing, and her conjugal rights shall not dimin- ish. And if he does not these three to her, then shall she go out for nothing, with no [payment of] money. Whoever strikes a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death. If a man does not lie in wait [to kill], but God causes it to happen, then I will appoint a place where he can flee. 30 If a man comes presumptuously upon his neighbor, to slay him treacherously, you shall take him from My altar, that he may die. He who strikes his father or his mother shall be surely put to death. He who kidnaps a man and sells him, or if he be found in [the kidnapper ’s] possession, he shall surely be put to death. He who curses his father or his mother shall surely be put to death. If men contend, and one smites the other with a stone, or with his fist, and he does not die, but must keep to his bed — if he rises and walks around upon his staff, then the one who struck him shall be innocent; only he shall pay for the loss of his time, and his cure. [20] If a man strikes his male or female slave with a rod, and the slave dies under his hand, he shall surely be punished. But if he lives a day or two, he shall not be punished, for the slave is his possession. If men fight and one hurts a woman with child so that she loses her child, and no [other] harm follows, he shall be surely fined according as the woman ’s husband shall demand; he shall pay as the judges determine. But if any harm follows [to the woman], then you shall give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, [25] burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe. If a man strikes the eye of his male or female slave, and destroys it, he shall let him (or her) go free for his eye ’s sake. And if he strikes his male or female slave ’s tooth he shall let him (or her) go free for his tooth ’s sake. If an ox gores a man or a woman, that they die, the ox shall be surely stoned, and its flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be held innocent. But if the ox had gored in the past and warning had been given to its owner, and he has not kept it in, but it has killed a man or a woman, then the ox shall be stoned, and its owner also shall be put to death. 31 [30] If a ransom is laid on him, then he shall give for the redemption of his life whatsoever is laid upon him. Whether it has gored a son, or has gored a daughter, accord- ing to this judgment shall it be done to him. If the ox gores a male or female slave, he shall give to their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned. If a man opens a pit, or if a man digs a pit and not cover it, and an ox or an ass fall into it, the owner of the pit shall make it good. He shall give money to the owner of them, and the dead beast shall be his. [22:15 –26 32] If a man entices a virgin who is not betrothed and lies with her, he shall surely pay a dowry for her to be his wife. If her father utterly refuses to give her to him [as his wife], he shall pay money [to the father] as the bride- price. 33 28not go out as the male slaves do: She cannot be freed, with any payment, after six years of slavery.29redeemed: Bought from slavery by a relative or other inter- ested party.30aplace to … flee: A place of safety in which to take refuge, often at an altar of God; hence our word sanctuary in the sense of “safe refuge. ” 31This “law of the goring ox ”became a legal principle in Western societies —if danger is unknown or unpredictable, it is usually not culpable, but if it is knowable and therefore preventable, it is culpable.32The verse numbers differ by one between this translation andthe Christian translations of this passage.33bride-price: The husband ’s payment to the family of the bride, which effectively seals a marriage. 240 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re You shall not allow a sorceress to live. Whoever lies with an animal shall surely be put to death. He who sacrifices to any god, except to the Lord only, shall be utterly destroyed. You shall not wrong a stranger, 34 nor shall you oppress him; for you were strangers in the land of Egypt. You shall not afflict any widow or fatherless child. If you mistreat them in any way — if they cry at all to Me, I will surely hear their cry —My wrath shall grow hot, and I will kill you with the sword. Then your own wives shall be widows, and your own children will be fatherless. If you lend money to any of My people, even to the poor among you, you shall not be to him as a creditor; neither shall you charge him interest. [25] If you take your neighbor ’s garment in pledge, you shall restore it to him by that the sun goes down, for that is his only covering and his garment for his skin; in what shall he sleep? It shall come to pass, when he cries to Me, that I will hear; for I am gracious. Equal Justice for All Israel ’s strong sense of equal justice and correct judicial procedure for all social classes is shown in this selection from Exodus 23:1 –9. The idea that the same laws apply to all social classes is in marked contrast to the laws of civilizations around Israel, particularly in Mesopo- tamia, where the ruling upper class (here called “the mighty ”) was subject to a different, often more lenient, set of rules. You shall not utter a false report; do not put your hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous wit- ness. You shall not follow the mighty to do evil. You shall not bear witness in a case to side with the mighty to pervert justice, but neither shall you favor a poor man in his cause. If you meet your enemy ’s35 ox or his ass going astray, you shall surely bring it back to him. [5] If you see the ass of one who hates you lying under its burden, you shall not pass by your enemy; you shall surely help him to release it. You shall not undermine justice for the poor in his cause. 36 Keep far from a false matter, and do not slay the innocent and righteous; for I will not justify the wicked. You shall take no bribe; for a bribe blinds those who have sight and perverts the words of the righteous. A stranger 37 you shall not oppress. You know the heart of a stranger, since you were strangers in the land of Egypt. 34stranger: Resident alien in the land of Israel. Exodus 23:1 –9. 35your enemy: This refers to private “enemies, ”not national enemies. 36cause: Lawsuit or criminal case brought by the poor. 37stranger: Resident alien in the land of Israel. ETHICS |Equal Justice for All 241CopEditorial re Holy War In this important passage on holy war from Deuteronomy 20:1 –20, God fights with and for the people against their Canaanite enemies during the conquest of the Promised Land. The people and cities of Canaan are to be completely destroyed. Notice that verses 10 –14 specify a more humane method of warfare against non-Canaanite opponents. The last section sets limits on the destruction of the natural environment during warfare. When you go forth to battle against your enemies, and see horses, and chariots, and a people more than you, do not be afraid of them. The Lord your God, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt, is with you. 38 When you draw near to the battle, that the priest shall approach and speak to the people, and shall say to them: “Hear, O Israel, you draw near this day to battle against your enemies. Let not your heart faint; fear not, nor be alarmed, neither be frightened at them; for the Lord your God goes with you, to fight for you against your enemies, to save you. ” [5] The officers shall then speak to the people, saying: “What man is here that has built a new house, and has not dedicated it? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle, and another man dedicate it. What man is here that has planted a vineyard, and has not used the fruit thereof? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle and another man use its fruit. What man is here that has betrothed a wife, and has not taken her? Let him go and return to his house, lest he die in the battle and another man marry her. ” And the officers shall speak further to the peo- ple, “What man is here who is fearful and faint- hearted? Let him go and return to his house, lest the heart of others melt as his. ”It shall be, when the officers have finished speaking to the people, that captains of the army shall be appointed at the head of the people. [10] When you draw near to a city to fight against it, then proclaim peace to it. If it makes you an answer of peace, and opens to you, then all the people that are found therein shall become your possession, and shall give your tribute. If it will make no peace with you, but makes war against you, then you shall besiege it. When the Lord your God delivers it into your hand, you shall strike every male in it with the edge of the sword; but the women, the children, and the cat- tle, and all that is in the city, even all the spoil thereof, you shall take for yourself; and you shall enjoy the spoil of your enemies, which the Lord your God has given you. [15] Thus shall you do to all the cities which are far off, which are not of the cities of these nations. 39 But in the cities that the Lord your God gives you for an inheritance, you shall save alive nothing that breathes. You shall utterly destroy them: the Hittites, the Amorites, the Canaanite, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, as the Lord your God has commanded you. They shall not teach you to do all their abom- inations, which they have done to their gods, and so you sin against the Lord your God. When you besiege a city for a long time, in making war against it to take it, you shall not destroy the trees around it by wielding an axe against them. You may eat from them, but you shall not cut them down; is the tree of the field a man, that it should be besieged? [20] Only the trees which you know are not trees for food you may destroy and cut down, that you may build bulwarks against the city that makes war with you until it falls. Deuteronomy 20:1 –20. 38The Lord your God … is with you: Note the reference to the Holy War traditions that began in the Exodus. 39these nations: The peoples that inhabited Palestine at the time of the Israelite settlement, as listed in this paragraph. 242 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re Sexual Love The finest literary testimony to the sexual dimensions of love in the Bible is the Song of Songs (called by many Christians the Song of Solomon), which is modeled after Egyptian love poetry. Its poems are a dialogue between a man, traditionally thought to be Solomon, and a woman who take full delight in all the dimensions of love. These poems are often highly symbolic, but the symbols are not difficult to interpret for those familiar with the language of erotic desire. Later Judaism, as well as Christianity, was embarrassed by this topic and made this book symbolic of the love of God for people. This selection is taken from the opening of this book, 1:1 –2:17. [The Woman:] Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth, 40 For your love is better than wine. Your ointments have a good fragrance, And your name is as ointment poured forth; Therefore young women love you. Draw me, and I will run after you; The king has brought me into his chambers. We will be glad and rejoice in you, We will find your love more fragrant than wine! The young women sincerely love you. [5] I am black, but comely, 41 O you daugh- ters of Jerusalem, As the tents of Kedar, as the curtains of Solomon. Do not stare at me because I am swarthy; The sun has tanned me. My mother ’s sons were incensed against me; They made me keeper of the vineyards, But my own vineyard have I not kept. Tell me, O you whom my soul loves: Where do you feed and rest your flock [of sheep] at noon? Why should I veil myself beside the flocks of your friends? If you know not, O you fairest among women, Go your way to these flocks and feed your kids, beside the shepherds ’tents. [The man:] I have compared you, O my love, To a mare in Pharaoh ’s chariots. [10] Your cheeks are comely with circlets, Your neck is beautiful with beads. We will make you circlets of gold with studs of silver. [The woman:] While the king reclined, my nard sent forth its fragrance. My beloved is to me a bag of myrrh that lies between my breasts. My beloved is to me as a cluster of henna in the vineyards of En-gedi. [15, The man and the woman alternate compliments:] Behold, you are fair, my love; Behold, you are fair; your eyes are as doves. Behold, you are fair, my beloved, And very pleasant; also our couch is leafy. The beams of our houses are cedars, And our panels are cypresses. [2:1] I am a rose of Sharon, a lily of the valleys. [The woman:] As a lily among thorns, So is my love among the maidens. As an apple tree among the trees of the wood, So is my beloved among the sons. Under its shadow I delighted to sit, Song of Songs 1:1 –2:17. 40kisses of your mouth: Deep kisses involving the full mouth, as opposed to kisses of the lips.41The New Revised Standard Version of the Bible translates this, “I am black and beautiful. ”The later lines in this reading indi- cate that the woman ’s darker skin —probably what we would call a deep tan —is the result of too much time in the sun. ETHICS |Sexual Love 243CopEditorial re And its fruit was sweet to my taste. He has brought me to the banquet room, And his banner over me is love. [5] Stay me with dainty food, and refresh me with apples, For I am love-sick. Let his left hand be under my head, And his right hand hold me close. I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, by the gazelles, and by the hinds of the field, That you do not awaken love or stir it up, until its time. Hark! My beloved! Behold, he comes, Leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the hills. My beloved is like a gazelle or a young hart; Behold, he stands behind our wall, He looks in through the windows, he peers through the lattice. [10] My beloved spoke and he said to me, “Rise up, my love, my fair one, and come away. For lo, the winter is past, the rain is over and gone; The flowers appear on the earth; the time of singing is come, And the voice of the turtle-dove is heard in our land. The fig-tree puts forth her green figs, And the vines in blossom give forth their fragrance. Arise, my love, my fair one, and come away. O my dove, you who are in the clefts of the rock, In the covert of the cliff, Let me see your face and hear your voice; For sweet is your voice, and your face is beautiful. [15] Capture the foxes, the little foxes, That spoil the vineyards; For our vineyards are in blossom. ” [The woman:] My beloved is mine, and I am his. He walks among the lilies. Until the day breaks and the shadows flee, turn, my beloved; Be like a gazelle or a young hart upon the mountains of spices! God ’s Call to an Unfaithful People In this oracle from Amos 4:1 –13, the prophet Amos pronounces God ’s judgment on the un- faithful people of Israel. He employs bitter sarcasm to denounce their sins. They enjoy worship and sacrifice to God but have neglected the basic commands of God ’s law: justice and mercy. They have ignored God ’s chastisements, listed here. Now God promises a severe final pun- ishment, indicated by the ominous words that have become proverbial in Western cultures, “Prepare to meet your God. ” Hear this word, you cows of Bashan, 42 Who are on the mountain of Samaria, You who oppress the poor, crush the needy, And say to your husbands, “Bring, that we may feast! ” The Lord God has sworn by His holiness: Surely the days shall come upon you, When you shall be taken away with hooks, And your remnant with fish-hooks. You shall go out through the [wall ’s] breaches, Every one straight out. Amos 4:1 –13 42Bashan [bah-SHAHN] in northern Israel was known for its fine, well-fed cows, but this uses them as an insult. 244 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re You shall be cast into the garbage dump, says the Lord. 43 Come to Bethel, and transgress, To Gilgal, and multiply transgression; 44 Bring your sacrifices in the morning And your tithes after three days; [5] Offer a sacrifice of thanksgiving of leav- ened bread, And proclaim freewill-offerings and publish them; For so you love to do, you children of Israel, says the Lord God. I have given you cleanness of teeth in all your cities, And lack of food in all your places; Yet have you not returned to Me, says the Lord. I have withheld the rain from you, When there were yet three months to the harvest. I caused it to rain upon one city, And caused it not to rain upon another city; One piece of land was rained upon, And the piece where it rained did not wither. So two or three cities wandered to one city to drink water, And were not satisfied; Yet have you not returned to Me, says the Lord. I have smitten you with blight and mildew; The multitude of your gardens and your vineyards, Your fig trees and your olive trees the worm has devoured; Yet have you not returned to Me, says the Lord. [10] I have sent among you the pestilence as I did in Egypt; I have slain your young men with the sword, And have carried away your horses; I have made the stench of your camp come up into your nostrils; Yet have you not returned to Me, says the Lord. I have overthrown some of you As God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah. 45 You were as a brand plucked out of the burning; Yet have you not returned to Me, says the Lord. Therefore thus will I do to you, O Israel; Because I will do this to you, O Israel, prepare to meet your God! For, lo, He that forms the mountains and creates the wind, And declares to man what he is thinking, Who makes the morning darkness, and treads on the high places of the earth — His name is the Lord, the God of hosts. Two Views of Wisdom Of all the main types of literature in the Hebrew Bible, the most international in form and content is the wisdom literature. In the first passage, from Proverbs 1:1 –9, 20 –33, the first nine verses describe what wisdom can do for its followers —it leads to knowledge, mental power, and moral strength. Notice in verse 20 and following verses the personification of wisdom as a 43These predictions of doom look forward to the destructionof the northern kingdom of Israel by Assyria in 721 B.C.E. 44Bethel, Gilgal: Israelite cities with sanctuaries. Notice the bit- ing sarcasm of this section. 45Sodom and Gomorrah: Cities destroyed for their wickedness; see Genesis 19:1 –29. Proverbs 1:1 –9, 20 –33; Ecclesiastes 1:1 –9. ETHICS |Two Views of Wisdom 245CopEditorial re woman. The second passage, from Ecclesiastes 1:1 –9, gives a more pessimistic outlook on wisdom. Here wisdom cannot answer life ’s riddles, and life itself becomes boring, so the passage concludes with an expression that has become proverbial today, “There is nothing new under the sun. ”The books of Proverbs and Ecclesiastes are attributed to King Solomon, who had a reputation as a sage. [Proverbs 1] The proverbs of Solomon the son of David, king of Israel. To know wisdom and instruction; To comprehend the words of understanding; To receive the discipline of wisdom, justice, and right, and equity; To give prudence to the simple, to the young man knowledge and discretion. [5] —So that the wise may hear, and increase in learning, And the man of understanding may gain wise counsels; To understand a proverb, a figure, the words of the wise and their sayings. The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge; But the foolish despise wisdom and discipline. Hear, my son, the instruction of your father, And forsake not the teaching of your mother; For they shall be a wreath of grace on your head, And chains about your neck …. [20] Wisdom cries aloud in the streets, She utters her voice in the broad places; She calls at the head of the noisy streets; At the entrances of the gates, in the city she speaks: “How long, you thoughtless, will you love thoughtlessness? How long will scorners delight in scorning, and fools hate knowledge? Turn at my reproof; Behold, I will pour out my spirit to you; I will make known my words to you. I have called, but you refused, I have stretched out my hand, and no one listened. [25] But you have thought nothing of all my counsel, And would have none of my reproof. I will laugh in your calamity; I will mock when your dread comes; When your dread comes as a storm, And your calamity comes on as a whirlwind, When trouble and distress come upon you. Then will they call me, but I will not answer; They will seek me earnestly, but not find me. For they hated knowledge, And did not choose the fear of the Lord; [30] They would have none of my counsel, They despised all my reproof. Therefore shall they eat of the fruit of their own way, And fall by their own devices. For the waywardness of the thoughtless shall slay them, And the confidence of fools shall destroy them. But whoever listens to me shall dwell securely, And shall be quiet without fear of evil. ” [Ecclesiastes 1:1] The words of Koheleth, son of David, king in Jerusalem. Vanity 46 of vanities, says Koheleth; Vanity of vanities, all is vanity. What profit has a man from all his labor That he does under the sun? One generation passes away, another comes; The earth stays the same forever. [5] The sun also rises, and the sun goes down, And hastens to his place where it rises. The wind goes toward the south, And turns around to the north; It turns around continually in its circuit, And the wind returns in its circuits. 46Vanity: “Emptiness ”or “futility, ”not “conceit ”as most commonly understood today. 246 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re All the rivers run into the sea, Yet the sea is not full; To the place where the rivers go, There they go again. All things toil to weariness; Man cannot utter it, The eye is not satisfied with seeing, Nor the ear filled with hearing. What has been is what shall be; What has been done is what shall be done; There is nothing new under the sun. The Virtuous Wife Given the context of a patriarchal society, the ideal wife depicted here in Proverbs 31:10 –31 is remarkably independent and appreciated for her talents and relationships rather than for her beauty or her ability to bear children. The somewhat disjointed style of this poem is the result of its unique composition —in Hebrew, each line begins with a successive letter of the Hebrew alphabet. This method of composition suggests a full description of its topic —as we might say today, the excellent wife “from A to Z. ” A woman of valor who can find? Her price is far above rubies. Her husband safely trusts her, and he has no lack of gain. She does him good and not evil all the days of her life. She seeks wool and flax, and works willingly with her hands. She is like the merchant ships, bringing her food from afar. [15] She rises also while it is yet night, And gives food to her household, and a por- tion to her maids. She considers a field, and buys it; With the fruit of her hands she plants a vineyard. She girds her loins with strength, and makes strong her arms. She perceives that her merchandise is good; Her lamp does not go out at night. She lays her hands to the distaff, and her hands hold the spindle. [20] She stretches out her hand to the poor; She reaches forth her hands to the needy. She is not afraid of the snow for her household; For all her household are clothed with scarlet. She makes for herself covers; Her clothing is fine linen and purple. Her husband is known in the gates, When he sits among the elders of the land. She makes linen garments and sells them, And delivers belts to the merchant. [25] Strength and dignity are her clothing; And she laughs at the time to come. She opens her mouth with wisdom; The law of kindness is on her tongue. She looks well to the ways of her household, And eats not the bread of idleness. Her children rise up and call her blessed; Her husband also, and he praises her: “Many women have done valiantly, But you excel them all. ” [30] Grace is deceitful, and beauty is vain; But a woman that fears the Lord shall be praised. Praise her for the fruit of her hands, And let her works praise her in the gates. Proverbs 31:10 –31. ETHICS |The Virtuous Wife 247CopEditorial re ORGANIZATION Sacrifice and the Ordination of Priests Exodus 29:1 –37 outlines the sacrificial ceremony by which priests are ordained —that is, consecrated to the service of God. The ceremony here involves sacrifice of animals, special clothing for the priests, and a recognition of their authority. It indicates the role of the priest- hood in Israel as intermediaries between God and the people. God here speaks to Moses (“you ”). This is what you shall do to them to consecrate them to minister to Me in the priest ’s office. Take one young bullock and two rams without blemish, and unleavened bread, and cakes unleavened min- gled with oil, and wafers unleavened spread with oil; of fine wheaten flour shall you make them. You shall put them into one basket, and bring them in the basket, with the bullock and the two rams. Aaron and his sons you shall bring to the door of the tent of meeting, and shall wash them with water. [5] Take the garments, and put the tunic upon Aaron, and the robe of the ephod, 47 and the ephod, and the breastplate, and gird him with the skillfully woven band of the ephod. Set the miter upon his head, and put the holy crown upon the miter. Then take the anointing oil, and pour it upon his head, and anoint him. Then you bring his sons, and put tunics upon them. You shall gird them with sashes, Aaron and his sons, and bind headdresses on them; and they shall have the priesthood by a perpetual statute. You shall consecrate Aaron and his sons. [10] You shall bring the bullock before the tent of meeting; and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock. Kill the bull- ock before the Lord, at the door of the tent of meeting. Take of the blood of the bullock, and put it upon the horns of the altar with your finger; and you shall pour out all the remaining blood at the base of the altar. Take all the fat that covers the innards, and the lobe above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and make them smoke upon the altar. But the flesh of the bullock, and its skin, and its dung, shall you burn with fire outside the camp; 48 it is a sin- offering. [15] You shall also take the one ram; and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands upon the head of the ram. You shall slay the ram, and you shall take its blood, and dash it around, against the altar. Cut the ram into pieces, and wash its in- wards, and its legs, and put them with its pieces, and with its head. You shall make the whole ram smoke upon the altar; it is a burnt-offering to the Lord; it is a sweet savor, an offering made by fire to the Lord. You shall take the other ram; and Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands upon the head of the ram. [20] Then shall you kill the ram, and take of its blood, and put it upon the tip of the right ear of Aaron, and upon the tip of the right ear of his sons, and upon the thumb of their right hand, and upon the great toe of their right foot, and dash the blood against the altar round about. You shall take of the blood that is upon the altar, and of the anointing oil, and sprinkle it upon Aaron, and upon his garments, and upon his sons, and upon Exodus 29:1 –37. 47ephod: The main priestly garment, covering the whole body from the neck down. 48the camp: The tents in which the Israelites live in this nomadic period. 248 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re the garments of his sons with him; and he and his garments shall be hallowed, and his sons and his sons ’garments with him. Also you shall take the fat of the ram, and the fat tail, and the fat that coves the inwards, and the lobe of the liver, and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and the right thigh; for it is a ram of consecration; and one loaf of bread, and one cake of oiled bread, and one wafer, out of the basket of unleavened bread that is before the Lord. You shall put all this on the hands of Aaron, and upon the hands of his sons; and shall wave them for a wave-offering 49 before the Lord. [25] Then take them from their hands, and make them smoke on the altar upon the burnt offering, for a sweet smell before the Lord; it is an offering made by fire to the Lord. You shall take the breast of Aaron ’s ram of consecration, and wave it for a wave offering before the Lord; and it shall be your portion. Sanctify the breast of the wave offering, and the thigh of the heave offering, 50 which is waved, and which is heaved up, of the ram of consecration, even of that which is Aaron ’s, and of that which is his sons ’. And it shall be for Aaron and his sons as a due for ever from the children of Israel; for it is a heave offering; and it shall be a heave offering from the children of Israel of their sacrifices of peace offerings, even their heave offering to the Lord. The holy garments of Aaron shall be for his sons after him, to be anointed in them, and to be consecrated in them. [30] Seven days shall the son that is priest in his stead put them on, even he who comes into the tent of meeting to minister in the holy place … . [35] And thus shall you do to Aaron, and to his sons, according to all that I have commanded you; seven days shall you consecrate them. Offer the bullock of sin-offering every day, beside the other offerings of atonement; and you shall do the purification upon the altar when you make atonement for it; and you shall anoint it, to sanc- tify it. Seven days you shall make atonement for the altar, and sanctify it. Thus the altar shall be most holy; whatever touches the altar shall be holy. A Call to Be a Prophet This passage, Isaiah 6:1 –13, dates from the ninth century B.C.E., and is the fullest prophetic call vision in the Hebrew Bible and certainly the most dramatic. Although negative in tone — Isaiah ’s job as a prophet will not be a happy one —the end of the passage promises some hope. In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple. Above Him stood the sera- phim, and each one had six wings: with two he covered his face, with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew. One called to another, and said, “Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord of hosts; the whole earth is full of His glory. ”The posts of the door were moved at the voice of them that called, and the house was filled with smoke. [5] Then I said, “Woe is me! I am undone, because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell among a people of unclean lips; for my eyes have seen the King, the Lord of hosts. ” Then flew to me one of the seraphim, with a glowing stone in his hand, which he had taken 49wave offering: A sacrifice, usually of a vegetable product, moved back and forth, and up and down, before the altar.50heave offering: An offering lifted up before the altar. Isaiah 6:1 –13. ORGANIZATION |A Call to Be a Prophet 249CopEditorial re with the tongs from off the altar; and he touched my mouth with it, and said, “Behold, this has touched your lips; your iniquity is taken away, and your sin removed. ” Then I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, “Whom shall I send, and who will go for us? ” I said, “Here am I; send me. ” He said: “Go, and tell this people: ‘Hear indeed, but understand not; and see indeed, but perceive not. ’[10] Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes, lest seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, they return [to Me] and be healed. ” Then I said, “Lord, how long? ” And He answered: “Until cities be waste without inhabitant, and houses without people, and the land become utterly waste, and the Lord has removed men far away, and the forsaken places are many in the land. And if there be yet a tenth in it, it shall again be eaten up; as a tere- binth, and as an oak, whose stock remains, when they cast their leaves, so the holy seed shall be the stock thereof. ” Women as Rulers and Prophets The leadership of Israel was predominantly male, but occasionally women rose to prominent positions. In the first selection from Judges 4:4 –10, 12 –16, Deborah the “judge ”(national leader, not primarily a dispenser of justice in a court setting) delivers her nation from a military threat. In the second selection from 2 Kings 22:11 –20, Huldah the prophet speaks the word of God to the king of Judah at a critical time of repentance and reform. [Judges 4:4] Now Deborah, a prophetess, the wife of Lappidoth, judged Israel at that time. [5] She sat under the palm tree of Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in the hill country of Ephraim; and the children of Israel came up to her for judgment. She sent and called Barak the son of Abinoam out of Kedesh-Naphtali and said to him: “Has not the Lord, the God of Israel, commanded, ‘Go and draw toward Mount Tabor, and take with you ten thousand men of the children of Naphtali and of the children of Zebulun ’?51 I will draw to you, at the brook Kishon, Sisera the captain of Jabin ’s army, with his chariots and his multitude. I will deliver him into your hand. ” Barak said to her: “If you will go with me, then I will go; but if you will not go with me, I will not go. ” She said: “I will surely go with you. However, the journey that you take shall not be for your honor, because the Lord will give Sisera over into the hand of a woman. ”Deborah arose, and went with Barak to Kedesh. [10] Barak called Zebulun and Naphtali together to Kedesh; and there went up ten thousand men at his feet; and Deborah went up with him. Now Heber the Kenite had severed himself from the Kenites, even from the children of Hobab the father-in-law of Moses, and had pitched his tent … by Kedesh. They told Sisera that Barak the son of Abinoam was gone up to Mount Tabor. Sisera gathered together all his chariots, even nine hundred chariots of iron, and all the people that were with him, from Harosheth-goiim to the brook Kishon. Deborah said unto Barak: “Go, for this is the day in which the Lord has delivered Sisera into your hand. Has not the Lord gone out before Judges 4:4 –10, 12 –16; 2 Kings 22:11 –20. 51children of Naphtali and … Zebulun: Two Israelite tribes near the present-day Sea of Galilee and Mount Tabor. 250 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re you? ”So Barak went down from Mount Tabor and ten thousand men after him. [15] And the Lord humiliated Sisera, and all his chariots and all his host, with the edge of the sword before Barak. Sisera alighted from his chariot and fled away on foot. But Barak pursued after the char- iots, and after the host, unto Harosheth-goiim. All the host of Sisera fell by the edge of the sword; there was not a man left. [2 Kings 22:11] When the king heard the words of the scroll of the Law, 52 he tore his clothes. 53 And the king commanded Hilkiah the priest, and Ahikam the son of Shaphan, and Achbor the son of Micaiah, and Shaphan the scribe, and Asaiah the king ’s servant, saying: “Go inquire of the Lord for me and for the people, and for all Judah, concerning the words of this book that has been found. Great is the wrath of the Lord that is kin- dled against us, because our fathers have not obeyed the words of this book, to do everything that is written for us. ” So Hilkiah the priest, and Ahikam, Achbor, Shaphan, and Asaiah went to Huldah the proph- etess, the wife of Shallum the son of Tikvah, the son of Harhas, keeper of the wardrobe, who lived in Jerusalem in the second quarter. They spoke with her. [15] She said unto them: “Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel: ‘Tell the man that sent you unto me: Thus says the Lord: Behold, I will bring evil upon this place, and upon the inhabi- tants thereof, even all the words of the book which the king of Judah has read. They have for- saken Me, and have sacrificed to other gods, and they provoke Me with all the work of their hands. Therefore My wrath shall be kindled against this place, and it shall not be quenched. ’ “But say to the king of Judah, who sent you to inquire of the Lord: ‘Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel: About the words which you have heard, because your heart was tender, and you humbled yourself before the Lord when you heard what I spoke against this place and its inha- bitants, that they should become an astonishment and a curse, and because you have torn your clothes, and wept before Me, I also have heard you, says the Lord. [20] Therefore, behold, I will gather you to your fathers, 54 and you shall be buried in peace; your eyes shall not see all the evil which I will bring upon this place. ’” And they brought back (this) word to the king. RITUAL The Establishment of Circumcision Circumcision is the sign of the covenant and membership in the people of Israel. As such, it is the primary ritual in Judaism, even though, given the high level of modesty and privacy about the human body in Semitic cultures, it is a hidden sign. Circumcision is performed on males only. Here, in Genesis 17:9 –14, 23 –27, its origins are traced to Abraham. 52scroll of the Law: Probably an early form of the biblical book ofDeuteronomy.53tore his clothes: Ritually tearing the clothing one is wearing is a sign of mourning and repentance. 54I will gather you to your fathers: God will give him a normal death, not as a punishment. Genesis 17:9 –14, 23 –27. RITUAL |The Establishment of Circumcision 251CopEditorial re God said to Abraham, “As for you, you shall keep My covenant, you and your children after you throughout their generations. [10] This is My covenant that you shall keep, between Me and you and your children after you: every male among you shall be circumcised. You shall be cir- cumcised in the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of a covenant between Me and you. “He that is eight days old shall be circumcised among you, every male throughout your genera- tions, he who is born in the house, or bought with money from any foreigner, 55 one who is not of your seed. He who is born in your house, and he who is bought with your money, must be circumcised. My covenant shall be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant. The uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin shall be cut off from his people; he has broken My covenant. ”… Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all who were born in [Abraham ’s] house, and all who were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham ’s house, and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin on the same day, as God had said to him. Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his fore- skin. [25] Ishmael his son was thirteen years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his fore- skin. On the same day Abraham and Ishmael were circumcised. All the men of his house, those born in the house and those bought with money from a foreigner, were circumcised with him. The Establishment of the Passover In the first two paragraphs of this selection from Exodus 12:1 –19,24 –27, the ingredients of the meal itself and the meaning of the Passover are given. It is designed as a remembrance and re- enactment of God ’s deliverance of Israel from its slavery in Egypt. In the third and fourth paragraphs, the feast of unleavened bread (mazoh) is explained; originally, it was a harvest festival, but now it is incorporated into the Passover. The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, saying, “This month shall be to you the beginning of months; it shall be the first month of the year to you. Speak to all the congregation of Israel that in the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to their fathers ’houses, a lamb for each household. If the household is too little for a lamb, then he and his neighbor next to his house shall take one accord- ing to the number of persons. You shall make your count for the lamb so that everyone will eat of it. [5] “Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male of the first year. You shall take it from the sheep or from the goats, and keep it unto the four- teenth day of the same month. Then the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at dusk. 56 They shall take the blood, and put it on the two side door-posts and on the lintel, on the houses where they shall eat it. They shall eat the meat in that night, roasted with fire, and unleav- ened bread; they shall eat it with bitter herbs. Do not eat it raw, nor soaked at all with water, but roast it with fire; roast its head and its legs and with its insides. [10] You shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; but if any does remains of it until the morning, you shall burn it with fire. 55born in the house, or bought with money: Slaves born in one ’s house are to be circumcised on the eighth day; slaves pur- chased are to be circumcised whenever they enter an Israelite house. Exodus 12:1 –19, 24 –27. 56Then the whole assembly … shall kill it at dusk: All Israelites will kill their lambs at the same time. 252 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re “Thus shall you eat it: with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand. You shall eat it in haste —it is the Lord ’s Passover. “For I will go through the land of Egypt in that night, and will smite all the first-born in the land of Egypt, both man and beast. Against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: I am the Lord. The blood shall be to you for a token upon the houses where you are; and when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and no plague shall be upon you to destroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt. This day shall be unto you for a memorial, and you shall keep it a feast to the Lord; throughout your generations you shall keep it a feast by an ordinance forever. [15] Seven days shall you eat unleavened bread; on the first day you shall put away leaven out of your houses. Whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day shall be cut off from Israel. “In the first day there shall be to you a holy convocation, and in the seventh day a holy convo- cation. No manner of work shall be done in them, only [preparing] that which every man must eat. You shall observe the feast of unleavened bread, for in this same day have I brought your hosts out of the land of Egypt. Therefore you shall observe this day throughout your generations by an ordi- nance forever. In the first month, on the four- teenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat unleavened bread, until the one and twentieth day of the month at even. For seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses; for who- ever eats that which is leavened, that soul shall be cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether he be a sojourner, or one that is born in the land … . [24] “And you shall observe this thing for an ordinance to you and to your sons forever. When you have come to the land which the Lord will give you, as He has promised, you shall keep this service. It shall happen that your children shall say to you, ‘What do you mean by this service? ’ You shall say: ‘It is the sacrifice of the Lord ’s Pass- over, for He passed over the houses of the chil- dren of Israel in Egypt, when He smote the Egyptians, and delivered our houses. ’” And the people bowed the head and worshipped. The Observance of the Sabbath Throughout Jewish history, keeping the sabbath, or seventh day of the week, has been an important sign of Judaism. In Exodus 31:12 –1 7, which expands on the sabbath command- ment in the Decalogue, the penalty for breaking it, like the penalty for breaking the other commandments of the Decalogue, is death. The importance of the sabbath and the penalty for breaking it are emphasized here by repetition. How often this penalty was carried out is uncertain; we have no record of anyone being put to death on the charge of not keeping the sabbath. And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying: “Speak to the children of Israel, saying, ‘Truly you shall keep My sabbaths, for it is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, that you may know that I am the Lord who sanctifies you. You shall keep the sabbath therefore, for it is holy for you; every one that profanes it shall surely be put to death. Whoever does any work on it, that soul shall be cut off from his people. [15] Six days shall work be done; but the sev- enth day is a sabbath of solemn rest, holy to the Lord. Whoever does any work in the sabbath day shall be put to death. Therefore the people of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the Exodus 31:12 –17. RITUAL |The Observance of the Sabbath 253CopEditorial re sabbath throughout their generations for a per- petual covenant. It is a sign between Me and the children of Israel for ever. For in six days theLordmadeheavenandearth,andonthe seventh day He ceased from work and rested. ’” The Day of Atonement This selection from selected verses of Leviticus 16 presents the ceremonies of the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), tracing it to the time of Moses. It centers on ceremonies in the Holy of Holies chamber in the Tabernacle, called here the “Tent of Meeting. ”These ceremo- nies were carried out later in the First Temple built by Solomon. Since the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 C.E., Jews have practiced the spiritual heart of the holy day as it is developed at the end of the passage: a day of rest, self-denial, confession, and making amends. Although the Jewish Bible presents all holy days as equal, in modern Jewish practice the Day of Atonement and New Year ’s Day (Rosh Hashanah) have become the most important. The Lord spoke to Moses after the death of the two sons of Aaron, when they drew near before the Lord and died. The Lord said unto Moses: “Speak unto Aaron your brother, that he not come at any time into the holy place within the veil, 57 before the cover which is upon the ark. If he does, he will die, for I appear in the cloud upon the ark ’s cover. Aaron shall come into the holy place with a young bullock for a sin-offering, and a ram for a burnt-offering. He shall put on the holy linen tunic, and he shall have the linen breeches upon his body, and shall be girded with the linen girdle, and with the linen headdress shall he be attired; they are the holy garments. He shall first bathe his body in water, and then put them on. [5] “He shall take from the congregation of the children of Israel two he-goats for a sin- offering, and one ram for a burnt-offering. Aaron shall present the bullock of the sin-offering for himself, and shall make atonement for himself, and for his house, and shall kill the bullock of the sin-offering for himself. He shall take a censer full of coals of fire from off the altar before the Lord, and his hands full of sweet incense beaten small, and bring it within the veil. He shall put the incense upon the fire before the Lord, so that the cloud of the incense may cover the ark-cover that is upon the testimony, so that he does not die. He shall take of the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it with his finger upon the ark-cover on the east; and before the ark-cover shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger seven times. [15] “Then shall he kill the goat of the sin- offering, that is for the people, and bring his blood within the veil, and do with his blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the ark-cover, and before the ark-cover. He shall make atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions, even all their sins. So shall he do for the tent of meeting that dwells with them in the midst of their uncleanness. “There shall be no one in the tent of meeting when he goes in to make atonement in the holy place, until he come out, and have made atone- ment for himself, and for his household, and for all the assembly of Israel. He shall go out unto the altar that is before the Lord, and make atonement for it; and shall take of the blood of the bullock, and of the blood of the goat, and put it upon the horns of the altar round about. He shall sprinkle Leviticus 16:1 –5, 11 –19, 29 –30, 34. 57Shrine: The Holy of Holies chamber, the inner room in the Tabernacle and the Temple. 254 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re of the blood upon it with his finger seven times, and cleanse it, and hallow it from the uncleanness of the children of Israel …. [29] “And it shall be a statute for ever unto you: in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you shall afflict your souls, and shall do no manner of work, the home-born, or the stranger that sojourns among you. [30] For on this day shall atonement be made for you, to cleanse you; from all your sins shall you be clean before the Lord …. [34] This shall be an everlasting statute unto you, to make atonement for the children of Israel because of all their sins once in the year. ” And he did as the Lord commanded Moses. Kosher and Non-Kosher Foods This passage on dietary law gives a list of clean ( “kosher ”) and unclean foods. The types of unclean animals specified here in Leviticus 11:1 –31, 41 –44 are (1) four-footed animals that do not chew the cud and have a split hoof, (2) carnivorous birds, (3) winged insects, (4) water animals lacking fins and scales, and (5) small creeping ( “swarming ”) animals. To be kosher, acceptable animals must be butchered in a humane way, and all food must be served accord- ing to kosher regulations (for example, no mixing of dairy products and meat in cooking or serving). These regulations form the basis of kosher inspection and certification today, as many food-production businesses owned by non-Jews seek this certification for wider sales oppor- tunities. These are the words of God to Moses and Aaron. “These are the living things which you may eat among all the land animals that are on the earth. Whatever among the land animals parts the hoof, and has a fully-cleft hoof, and chews the cud, you may eat. Nevertheless you shall not eat of these animals that only chew the cud or of those that only part the hoof: the camel, because he chews the cud but does not part the hoof is unclean unto you. [5] The rock-badger, because he chews the cud but parts not the hoof, he is unclean unto you; the hare, because she chews the cud but does not part the hoof is unclean unto you. The swine, because he parts the hoof and is cloven-footed, but does not chew the cud, is unclean unto you. You shall not eat of their flesh, and their carcasses you shall not touch; they are unclean unto you. “These you may eat of all living things that are in the water: whatever has fins and scales in the waters, in the seas and in the rivers, you may eat. [10] Whatever does not have fins and scales in the seas and in the rivers, of all that swarm in the waters, and of all the living creatures that are in the waters, they are now a detestable thing to you and they shall stay a detestable thing to you. You shall not eat of their flesh, and their carcasses you shall detest. Whatever does not have fins nor scales in the waters is a detestable thing unto you. “These things you shall detest among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are a detestable thing: the great vulture, and the bearded vulture, and the osprey; the kite, and the falcon after its kinds; 58 [15] every raven after its kinds; and the ostrich, and the night-hawk, and the sea-mew, and the hawk after its kinds; and the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl; and the horned owl, and the pelican, and the carrion- vulture; and the stork, and the heron after its kinds, and the hoopoe, and the bat. [20] “All winged swarming things that go upon all fours are a detestable thing unto you. Yet these may you eat of all winged swarming things that go upon all fours, which have jointed Leviticus 11:2 –31, 41 –44. 58after its kinds: In all of its varieties. RITUAL |Kosher and Non-Kosher Foods 255CopEditorial re legs above their feet with which to jump. You may eat from these: the locust after its kinds, and the bald locust after its kinds, and the cricket after its kinds, and the grasshopper after its kinds. But all winged swarming things, which have four feet, are a detestable thing unto you. “By these you shall become unclean; whoever touches the carcass of them shall be unclean until evening, [25] and whoever carries anything of their carcasses shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until evening: every beast which parts the hoof, but is not cloven footed, nor chews the cud, is unclean unto you; every one that touches them shall be unclean. Whatsoever goes on its paws, among all land animals that go on all fours, they are unclean to you; whoever touches their carcass shall be unclean until evening. He who carries their carcass shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until evening; they are unclean to you. “These are unclean to you among the swarm- ing things that swarm upon the earth: the weasel, and the mouse, and the great lizard after its kinds, [30] and the gecko, and the land-crocodile, and the lizard, and the sand-lizard, and the chameleon. These are they which are unclean to you among all that swarm; whoever touches them when they are dead shall be unclean until evening … . [41] “Every swarming thing that swarms upon the earth is a detestable thing; it shall not be eaten. Whatever goes on its belly, and whatso- ever goes on all fours, or whatever has many feet, even all swarming things upon the earth, you shall not eat; they are a detestable thing. You shall not make yourselves detestable with any swarming thing, nor shall you make yourselves unclean with them, that you should be defiled. For I am the Lord your God; sanctify yourselves therefore, and be holy, for I am holy. ” SELECTIONS FROM RABBINIC LITERATURE Jews have traditionally held the Talmud to be an authoritative book, and Orthodox Jews do so even today. They have understood the Bible, and applied it to all the affairs of daily life, through the Talmud. Here are three passages from this important writing. In the first, taken entirely from the Mishnah, the rabbis explain the chain of transmission of the oral Torah from Moses to the writing of the Mishnah. In the second, the Talmud deals with the question of how Israel can continue without the Temple of Jerusalem, answering that study of the Torah suffices as a replacement of animal sacrifice. In the third, the biblical duty to have children is discussed in the Talmud and is given here as an example of rabbinic interpretation and debate at work. The Chain of Rabbinic Tradition: “The Sayings of the Fathers ” This famous passage from the Mishnah, tractate Pirke Aboth (“Sayings of the Fathers ”) 1:1 –18, was incorporated with all the Mishnah into the Talmud. It aims to trace the transmission of the oral Torah from Moses to the second century C.E., when the Mishnah was compiled. Through- out this selection, the word Torah refers especially to the oral Torah, a “fence around the Mishnah, Sayings of the Fathers 1:1 –18. 256 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re [written] law. ”This “fence ”is the body of legal opinions developed by the rabbis and codified in the Mishnah; the thought is that those who observe the “fence ”will thereby keep the written Torah itself. Notice the characteristic use of three sayings to sum up the teachings of leading figures in his chain of transmission. 59 Moses received the Torah from Sinai and delivered it to Joshua, Joshua delivered it to the elders, the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the men of the great synagogue. 60 They said three things: “Be deliberate in judgment; raise up many disciples; and make a fence around the law. ” Simon the Just was one of the last men of the great synagogue. He used to say that the world stood on three things: on the law, the [temple] service, and the acts of the pious. Antigonus of Soco received [the Torah] from Simon the Just. He used to say, “Do not be like servants who serve their master for the sake of receiving a reward; be like servants who serve their master without the intent of receiving a reward; and let the fear of heaven be upon you. ” Jose, son of Joezer of Zeredah, and Jose, son of Jochanan of Jerusalem, received [the Torah] from him. Jose, son of Joezer of Zeredah, said, “Let your house be a house of assembly for the wise, dust yourself with the dust of their feet, and drink their words in thirstiness. ”[5] Jose, son of Jochanan of Jerusalem, said, “Let your house be wide open, and let the poor be your children. Do not talk much with women, not even with your wife, much less with your neighbor ’s wife. ”As the wise men say, “Whoever converses much with women brings evil on himself, neglects the study of the law, and at last will go to hell. ” Joshua, son of Perechiah, and Natai the Arbe- lite received the oral law from them. Joshua, son of Perechiah, said, “Get yourself a master, and obtain a companion [in learning], and judge all people with favor. ”Natai the Arbelite said, “With- draw from an evil neighbor, do not associate with the wicked, and do not flatter yourself to escape punishment. ” Judah, son of Tabai, and Simon, son of She- tach, received it from them. Judah son of Tabai said, “Do not consider yourself as the arranger of the law, and when the parties are before you in judgment, consider them as guilty; but when they are departed from you, consider them as innocent, when they have acquiesced in the sentence. ” Simon, son of Shetach, said, “Be extremely careful in the examination of witnesses, and be cautious in your words, lest they [the witnesses] should learn to tell lies. ” [10] Shemaiah and Abtalyon received it from them. Shemaiah said, “Love your business, hate power, and keep clear of the government. ”61 Abtalyon said, “You Sages, be cautious of your words, lest you be doomed to captivity, and car- ried captive to a place of bad waters, and the dis- ciples who follow you should drink of them, by which means the name of God may be profaned. ” Hillel and Shammai received it from them. Hillel said, “Be like the disciples of Aaron, who loved peace and pursued peace, so that you love mankind, and allure them to the study of the law. ” He also used to say, “Whoever aggrandizes his name destroys his name; he who does not increase his knowledge in the law shall be cut off; he who does not study the law is deserving of death, and he who serves himself with the crown of the law will perish. ”He also said, “If I do not perform good works myself, who can do them for me? ” and “When I consider myself, what am I? ”and “If not now, when? ”62 [15] Shammai said, “Let your study of the law be fixed, say little and do much, and receive all men with an open, pleasant face. ” 59Adapted from Joseph Barclay, trans., Hebrew Literature, rev. ed. (New York: Colonial Press, 1901).60the great synagogue: Not a building, but the men forming the chain of tradition from Ezra ’s time until the first rabbinic scholars known by name in the first century B.C.E. 61The government: In the context of the times, this would mean the Roman government.62The many statements attributed to Hillel indicate his impor-tance in this chain of tradition. RABBINIC LITERATURE |Rabbinic Tradition: “TheSayingsoftheFathers ” 257CopEditorial re Rabbi Gamaliel said, “Get yourself an instruc- tor, that you may not be in doubt, and do not accustom yourself to give tithes by conjecture. ”63 Rabbi Simon, his son, said, “All my life I have been brought up among wise men, and never found anything so good for the body as silence; neither is the study of the law the principal thing, but its practice; whoever multiplies words causes sin. ”Simon … also said that the duration of the world depends on three things, justice, truth, and peace, as is said, “Judge truth, justice, and peace in your gates. ”64 The Three-Fold Cord of Life The Tosefta (“Additions ”) are rabbinical writings from ancient times that did not get included in the Mishnah. In this selection from the chapter on Kiddushin ,“Sanctification ”or “Holiness, ” the importance of single sins and single acts of righteousness are discussed, showing the humane side of early rabbinic thought. 65 Whoever does a single commandment does well for himself; he lengthens his days and his years and he inherits the land [ Kiddushin 1.10]. Whoever commits a single transgression does ill to himself; he cuts short his own days, and he does not inherit the land. It is said about the latter, “One sinner destroys much good ”(Ecclesiastes 9:18). A person should always view himself as half good and half evil. If he keeps a single command- ment he is happy, because he has inclined the bal- ance for himself to the side of merit and reward. If he commits a single transgression, woe is he, for his has inclined the balance to the side of guilt and punishment. It is said about the latter, “One sin- ner destroys much good. ”By a single sin this one has destroyed many good things. Rabbi Simeon the son of Eleazar said in the name of Rabbi Meir, “Because the individual is judged by the majority of his deeds, the world is judged by the majority of its deeds. If a person kept one commandment, happy is he, because he has inclined the balance for himself and for the world to the side of merit and reward. But if a person committed one transgression, woe is he, for he has inclined the balance for himself and for the world to the side of guilt and punishment. By the single sin which this one committed, he destroyed for himself and for the world many good things. ” Rabbi Simeon says, “If a man was righteous his entire life but at the end of it rebelled 66 he loses the whole, because it is said, “The righteous- ness of the righteous shall not deliver him when he transgresses ”(Ezekiel 33:12). If a man was evil for his entire life but at the end he repented, the All-Present God accepts him, because it is said, “And as for the wickedness of the wicked, he shall not fall by it when he turns from his wickedness ” (Ezekiel 33:12). Whoever occupies himself with all three of these things: Scripture, Mishnah, and good con- duct, about such a person it is said, “A threefold cord is not quickly broken ”(Ecclesiastes 4:12). 63give tithes by conjecture: Guessing at how much one should give to God on the basis of the tithe (10 percent of most in- come) leads to paying too little or too much, both of whichare injurious to oneself. 64Judge truth … gates: A quotation from Zechariah 8:16. Tosefta, Sanctification 1:13 –17. 65Adapted from Joseph Barclay, trans., Hebrew Literature , rev. ed. (New York: Colonial Press, 1901). 66rebelled: Against God. 258 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re An Example of Rabbinic Debate: The Duty to Marry and Have Children In Jewish reckoning, the first commandment in the Torah is God ’s command to the human race, “Be fruitful and multiply. ”This passage entitled Yebamoth ,“Sisters-in-law ”or “Levitical Wives, ”discusses the implications of this command for marriage: how many children must a Jewish husband and wife have in order to keep this command? Like most Talmudic passages, this one relies heavily on the interpretation of scripture, some of it straightforward and some highly creative, even fanciful. 67 A man may abstain from carrying out the obliga- tion to “be fruitful and multiply ”[Genesis 1:28] only if he already has two children. The School of Shammai ruled that this means two sons, and the School of Hillel ruled that it means a son and a daughter, because it is written, “Male and female He created them ”[Genesis 1:28; 5:2]. The duty of procreation applies to a man but not to a woman. Rabbi Yohanan the son of Seroka said that it ap- plies to both, for “God blessed them and said to them, ‘Be fruitful and multiply ’” [Genesis 1:28]. 68 This [ Mishnah ] passage means that if a man has children he may abstain from the duty of pro- creation, but he may not abstain from living with his wife. 69 This supports the view of Rabbi Nah- man, who reported a ruling in the name of Samuel that even though a man may have many children, he may not remain without a wife, for it is written: “It is not good for a man to be alone ”[Genesis 2:18]. Others held the opinion that if a man had children, he may abstain from the duty of procre- ation, and he may also abstain from the duty of living with a wife. Does this contradict what was reported by Rabbi Nahman in the name of Samuel? No. If he has no children, he is to marry a woman capable of having a child, but if he already has children, he may marry a woman who is incapable of having children. Other rabbis taught that Rabbi Nathan said that according to the School of Shammai, a person satisfies the obligation to “be fruitful and multi- ply ”if he has a son and a daughter, and according to the School of Hillel if he has either a son or a daughter. Rabbi [Judah the Prince] said, “Why this view of the School of Hillel? It is written, ‘God created it not to be a waste, and he formed it to be inhabited ’[Isaiah 45:18], and [a man with either a son or a daughter] has already con- tributed to making it a place of habitation [by having a child]. ” What if a person had children while he was a pagan, and was later converted? Rabbi Yohanan said that he has already fulfilled the duty of pro- creation. However, Rabbi Lakish said that he has not fulfilled it, because at conversion one is like a born-again child. The Mishnah disagrees with the view of Rabbi Joshua, who stated that if a person married in his youth he is also to marry in his old age, and if he had children in his youth he is also to have chil- dren in his old age. For it is written: “Sow your seed in the morning and do not withdraw your hand in the evening, for you do not know which will prosper, this or that, or whether both will be good ”[Ecclesiastes 11:6]. Jerusalem Talmud, Sisters-in-Law 61b –63. 67Translated by Robert Van Voorst from Moïse Schwab, ed,Le Talmud de Jérusalem (Paris: J. Maisonneuve, 1890). 68This paragraph is from Mishnah 6:6; the rest of the passage is the Gemara discussion of it. 69Note that the main ruling of the Mishnah is given first, and then the supporting or (more often) contrasting views of indi- vidual rabbis are given. RABBINIC LITERATURE |An Example of Rabbinic Debate 259CopEditorial re Rabbi Tanhum said in the name of Rabbi Hanilai that a man who is without a wife has no joy, no blessing, and no good. He has no joy, for it is written: “You shall rejoice, you and your household ” [Deuteronomy 14:26]. He has no blessing, for it is written: “That a blessing may rest on your house ”[Ezekiel 44:30]. He has no good, for it is written: “It is not good for a man to be alone ”[Genesis 2:28]. Rabbi Joshua the son of Levi said that a man who knows his wife to be a devout woman and does not have sexual relations with her is a sinner, for it is written: “And you shall visit your habitation and you will not sin ” [Job 5:24]. The rabbis taught that when a man loves his wife as himself, and honors her more than him- self, and trains his sons and daughters in the right path, and arranges for their marriage at a young age — about this man the verse says, “And you shall know that your tent is at peace ”[Job 5:24]. Rabbi Eleazar said that a man without a wife is not a complete man, for it is written: “Male and female created He them, and He called their name adam, ‘man. ’” [Genesis 1:27]. Avert your eyes from the charms of another man ’s wife, or you may be trapped in her snare. 70 Do not become friends with her husband and drink wine and strong drink with him. Many men have been destroyed by the appearance of a beautiful woman, and she has killed a vast number. KABBALAH MYSTICISM: THE ZOHAR The Zohar was written around 1285 by the Spanish Jew Moses de Leon. Its full name is “The Book of Splendor [Zohar], ”and it traces all aspects of the universe, from the largest stars to individual humans, to the ten emanations of God ’s person. Here in Chapter 80, “Lekh Lekha or the Call of Abram, ”is de Leon ’s mystical description of the call of Abraham, in which he speculates on its hidden meanings. He puts his description into the mouths of three famous rabbis from the past, Abba, Hezekiah, and Jose. 71 “The Lord said to Abram: ‘Go from your country and your kindred and your father ’s house to the land that I will show you ’” [Genesis 12:1]. At a meeting of Rabbi Simeon ’s students for medita- tion on the esoteric meaning of this passage in scripture, Rabbi Abba said: “It is written, ‘Listen to me, you stout-hearted who are far from righteousness ’[Isaiah 46:12]. By ‘stout-hearted ’ is meant those hardened souls who, though acquainted with and having some knowledge of the esoteric doctrine [of Kabbalah], have no incli- nation or desire to adapt their lives to its teachings and principles …. They are therefore said to be ‘far from righteousness. ’” Rabbi Hezekiah said, “These words mean that they are altogether void of the divine life and so do not enjoy inward peace of conscience, as it is written, ‘There is no peace for the wicked ’ [Isaiah 48.22]. Observe that it was Abraham ’s 70you may be trapped in her snare: The reading ends with an element of traditional patriarchy, and one not directly con- nected to the main topic of this Mishnah passage: when men are tempted to be unfaithful to their wives, the “other woman ”is usually at fault. 71Adapted from Moses de Leon, The Sepher Ha-Zohar, or The Book of Light, translated by Nurho de Manhar [a pseudonym for John H. Drais] (New York: Theosophical Publishing Com-pany, 1914), pp. 332 –335. 260 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re desire to live the higher life, and about him it may rightly be said, ‘You have loved righteousness and hated wickedness, therefore God, your God, has anointed you with the oil of gladness above your fellows ’[Psalm 45:7]. For this reason it is also written, ‘You, seed of Abraham, are my friend ’ [Isaiah 41:8]. Why does the Holy One call Abra- ham ‘my friend ’? It was because he loved righ- teousness. Of all who lived in his day, he alone was faithful, upright and obedient to the divine law. ” Rabbi Jose said: “It is written, ‘How lovely are your tabernacles, O Lord of Hosts ’[Psalm 84:1]. How incumbent upon us it is to study the works of the Holy One, for our knowledge of them is only small and limited. Men know not upon what the world is founded and how it is sustained and upheld. Still less do they know any- thing of its creation or the composition of fire and water that, blending together, become solidified under the action of the Holy Spirit. “When the Spirit is withdrawn, they revert back to chaos, and attraction between their indi- vidual atoms then ceases, as it is written, ‘It is he who shakes the earth out of her place and makes its pillars tremble ’[Job 9:6]. Everything in the universe is founded on and governed by law, and so long as there are students found engaged in its study, so will the world endure. Observe at the hour of midnight when the Holy One enters the garden of Eden on high, to converse with the righteous, all the trees of it rejoice and chant forth praises to the glory of his name, as it is writ- ten, ‘Then shall the trees of the wood sing out at the presence of the Lord because he comes to judge the earth ’[1 Chronicles 16:33]. When is heard a great voice from on high saying, ‘Who has ears, let him hear, who has eyes let him be- hold, and who has a heart to understand, let him listen and attend to the words and teachings of the spirit of all spirits in the four quarters of the world. ’ “1. The One Absolute, above all = The sub- lime Kether, spirit of all spirits. 2. One is below = The nephesh or soul. 3. One is between two = The ruach between the soul and spirit. 4. Two beget a third = The Neshama. 5. Three become one = The individual. 6. One emits rays of color = Divine light and life. 7. Six on one side and six on the other = The visible and invisible world. 8. Six rise into twelve = The spiritual zodiac in man. 9. Twelve produce twenty-two = Twenty- two letters, the signatures of all created things. 10. Six are included in ten = Sephiroth. 11. Ten are included in One = The ten sephir- oth, emanations of the Absolute. “Woe to those who sleep, who know not, and do not desire to learn what will happen to them when in the presence of the great judge they will have to account for their deeds. When the body is defiled, the soul departing out of it flees to the pure atmosphere on high and goes here and there, but the gates of heaven remain unopened to it. Like chaff by the wind, or a stone from out a sling so it becomes cast about. Woe to those who care nothing for, and live indifferent to, the joys on high that are the recompense of the just, for they fall into the power of evil and descend into a hell out of which they will never again come forth. It is of them scripture says, ‘As a cloud that is consumed and vanish ed away, so is he who goes down into Sheol. He shall come up no more ’” [Job 7:9]. “As the voice ceased uttering these words a light flashed forth from the north, illumining the whole world and falling on the wings of the cock caused it to crow at midnight. At that time no one rises from his couch save those lovers of truth whose chief delight is in the study of the secret doctrine. Then the Holy One, surrounded by souls of the just made perfect, in the garden of Eden listens and attends to the voices of truth- seekers, as it is written, ‘You who dwell in the gardens, the companions hearken to your voice; cause one to hear ’” [Song of Songs 8:13]. KABBALAH MYSTICISM: THE ZOHAR 261CopEditorial re GLOSSARY ark Special closet or recess in the synagogue wall on the side nearest Jerusalem in which Bible scrolls used for public worship are stored. Bible “Book ”of Jewish scripture, numbering twenty- four books by Jewish count. In the Christian framework, it includes thirty-nine books of Jewish scripture and twenty-seven New Testament books. covenant Agreement between God and the people of Israel setting forth obligations and privileges for each party. Decalogue “Ten Words, ”also known as the Ten Com- mandments (found in Exodus 20:1 –17, restated in Deuteronomy 5.6 –21). Kethuvim [KEHTH-oo-veem] “Writings, ”the third division of the Jewish Bible. lectionary List of scripture readings for divine worship. mezuzah [meh-ZOO-zuh] Small box containing Bible verses that is attached to the doorpost of a Jewish house. Nevi ’im [NEH-vih-eem] “Prophets, ”the second divi- sion of the Jewish Bible. psalm [sahlm] Sacred song, in the style found in the biblical book of Psalms, used for divine worship. revelation Communication of the divine person and/ or truth to humanity. Shema [sheh-MAH] “Hear, ” Judaism ’s most basic statement of faith, found in Deuteronomy 6:4 –9 and in two shorter passages. Talmud [TALL-mood] Jewish law code, a compilation of the “oral Torah. ” Tanak [TAH-nahk] Acronymic name for the Jewish Bible, formed from the first letters of Torah, Nevi ’im, and Kethuvim. tefillin [teh-FILL-in] Small boxes containing Bible verses on tiny scrolls, bound by leather straps on the forehead and weaker arm of an Orthodox Jew during prayers. Torah [TOHR-uh] “Teaching ”or “Law, ”the first five books of the Jewish Bible; more broadly, God ’s teaching and revelation. QUESTIONS FOR STUDY AND DISCUSSION 1. Why, in your opinion, might the name Bible be “a strangely plural singular, ”as Jean-Christophe Attias says? 2. In what ways did the Jewish people link their his- tory to their system of morality? Consider two focal points of the Bible: (a) the relationship of the Exodus and law and (b) the restoration of the Jews to their land after the Exile and concerns for purity. 3. The Jewish scripture ’s three main sections are arranged in order of importance. What has it meant for Judaism that the Torah is first, Prophets second, and Writings third? 4. Discuss the tension in the Bible between Israel ’s call to be a light to the other nations and the demand to be a separate, holy people. 5. How has Judaism adapted its worship and rituals to a time when it has no Temple? Which rituals described in this chapter ’s passages could be con- tinued essentially as is, which had to be altered greatly, and which had to be discontinued? 6. How could the ancient Israelite ideal of equal jus- tice be seen as an antecedent of modern European and North American ideals of justice? 7. Explain the standing of women in the Jewish Bible. To what degree did this Bible ameliorate the con- dition of women and to what degree did it rein- force a patriarchal society? 8. Trace the theme of the chosen/covenant people through the Hebrew Bible. 9. Explain and critique the statement, “Judaism is a religion of the book. ” SCRIPTURES IN FILM Hollywood had not made many major films based directly on the Jewish Bible for more than fifty years, despite the grand narratives of the Bible that are seemingly tailor-made for film. One exception is the acclaimed animated film Prince of Egypt (1998, directed by Brenda Chapman), the story of Moses and the Exodus. More recently, however, films about the Bible are in 262 CHAPTER 10 |JudaismCopEditorial re vogue again. Noah (2014), directed by Darren Aronofsky, stars Russell Crowe in the title role, and Exodus: Gods and Kings (2014), directed by Ridley Scott, stars Christian Bale in the role of Moses. The Holocaust has so shaped recent Jew- ish life that it has received the lion ’s share of attention in film ( Schindler ’s List, Sophie ’s Choice, Life Is Beautiful, and the rest). Students may want to view 1956s The Ten Commandments, directed by Cecil B. DeMille in the grandiose style of old- time Hollywood “biblical epics. ”A more recent treatment of a contemporary topic is Trembling Before G-d [God], directed by Simcha Dubowski (2001). This prize-winning documentary film deals with Jews from Orthodox backgrounds who are dealing with their own same-sex orientation and with the traditional biblical reaction to it by other Orthodox Jews. Ushpizin (“Guests, ”2004, rated PG) tells a modern story of faith and trial in the Orthodox community; it is the first film on religion made by Orthodox Jews in cooperation with secular Jews. MindTap is a fully online, highly personalized learning experience built upon Cengage Learning content. MindTap combines student learning tools —readings, multimedia, activities, and assessments —into a singular Learning Path that guides students through their course. Scriptures in Film 263CopEditorial re CHAPTER ELEVEN Christianity Bikeriderlondon/ The Bible in Christian Worship An African American minister holds the Bible up during a service, a gesture that suggests the key place of the Christian scriptures in the life of the church. –264 –CopEditorial re The New Testament has had a paramount importance in the history of Christianity from the time of its writing and collection into a canon in the first four centuries C.E. The following vignettes illustrate this place and usage: In a congregation of the Church of Scotland, the bell tolls and the congregation stands out of respect as a layperson walks solemnly down the center aisle carrying a large Christian Bible. When the book is placed on the pulpit, the service begins. In a village of New Guinea, North American and European missionaries trained in linguistics work to decipher a tribal language, commit it to writing, and educate the tribespeople to read it. The purpose of their work is to translate the New Testament into the tribal language for use in converting new believers and training them in the faith. Due to translation efforts that have gone on almost from the beginning of Christianity, the Christian Bible has been translated into more lan- guages than any other book. The Wycliffe Bible Translators society based in North America expects that, by the year 2050, at least a part of the New Testament will be published in every human language. In Indianapolis, a new sociological study of the private use of the Bible in the United States is released. This report, “The Bible in American Life, ”causes a stir with its findings. For example, nine in ten Americans who read the Bible on their own consider it to contain God ’s literal word. The top reason people read it is for personal prayer and devotion, not for learning more about their faith. An impres- sive 70 percent of black Christians, compared with 44 percent of white Christians, read the Bible regularly outside of worship. Despite the abundance of new Bible translations, the King James Version of 1611 remains the overwhelming top choice of Bible readers despite — or perhaps because of —its old-fashioned lan- guage. Although young adults are less likely than older Americans to read the Bible on their own, 45 percent of young adult Christians read it regularly. Thirty-one percent of Bible readers use the Internet to read it, and 22 percent use eBooks. INTRODUCTION Christianity teaches salvation from sin and the gift of eternal life through the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth, the Son of God. Many Christians view their faith as a fulfillment of the Jewish religion, and all Christians accept the Hebrew Scriptures as the “Old Testament ”of their Bible. A missionary religion from its begin- ning, it spread quickly in the Roman Empire and beyond. In modern times, it has become the world ’s most widespread faith. (See Map 1, “Distribution of Major World Religions Today, ”and Map 8, “The Spread of Christianity to about 800 C.E.,”in the map section.) Although Christians around the world differ in language, culture, orga- nization, patterns of worship, and the fine points of religious teaching, all believers have the books of the New Testament in common. Indeed, it has often been remarked that the only thing that all Christians have in common is the New Testament. It has shaped the church ’s teaching, ethics, ritual, organization, and mission in the world. This scripture has played such a prominent role in world events past and present that to know the New Testament and its patterns of use is to have a key to the understand- ing of Western culture as well as Christianity itself. Introduction 265CopEditorial re Names The common name in Christianity for its scriptures is the Bible , composed of both the Old Testament (the Hebrew Scriptures, also called the Jewish Bible ) and the New Testament . As in the Jewish Bible, testament and its synonym covenant refer to the relationship God has established with people. “New ”signifies the early Christian belief that in Jesus God has acted in a new way to save the world. This is seen as a fulfillment of the promises made by God to the Jewish people. In 2 Corinthians 3:6 –15, the early Christian missionary Paul calls Christians members of the “new covenant ”and the books of Moses (the Jewish Bible ) the “old covenant. ”The first term echoes Jeremiah 31:31, in which God promises, “I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and the house of Judah. ”The expression “new covenant ”was also used in the early Christian ritual of Holy Communion, as its earliest recorded form attests: “In the same way [Jesus] took the cup also, after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood ”(1 Corinthians 11:25). In sum, “new covenant/testament ”was a common term in early Christianity, and it did not take long to be formally attached to the body of Christian scripture. The advantage of New Testament as a label is that it suggests the complexity of the early Christian attitude to its relationship with Judaism and the Jewish Bible. This relationship has both continuity with Judaism, as expressed by “covenant ”or “testa- ment, ”and discontinuity, as expressed by the qualifier “new. ”A disadvantage is that it leads to an all-too-easy misunderstanding of the role of the Jewish Bible in Chris- tianity: that “old ”Testament means outmoded and replaced by the New Testament. This misconception ignores the fact that the Jewish Bible itself is part of the Christian scriptures and that the earliest scripture of Christianity —before its own writings were canonized —was the Jewish Bible. It also ignores the fact that “new ”in such expres- sions as “New Covenant ”or “New Testament ”typically refers to newness of covenant obedience, not a new and different religion. (For a chart showing the differences between the Protestant Old Testament and the Roman Catholic, Episcopal and Orthodox Old Testament , the former identical with the Jewish Bible, the latter identi- cal with the Greek translation of the Jewish Bible , see Table 10.2 in the “Contempo- rary Use ”section of the Introduction to Chapter 10.) In recent years, some have sought to counter this disadvantage by giving the twenty-seven books of the New Testament a different name. Some use “Christian Scriptures. ”But this name wrongly implies that the Jewish Bible is not part of the Christian scriptures. Other scholars call these books the “Second Testament, ”but this term is vague and has not been as widely accepted as “Christian Scriptures. ”In sum, New Testament seems the best choice. Despite its disadvantages, New Testament is the commonly accepted label within the Christian church and in the academic commu- nity, and we use it here. Overview of Structure The New Testament is organized into two main sections: books about Jesus called “gospels ” and letters of the apostles to early churches. The gospels are “good news ”of the story of Jesus. The Gospel of Matthew tells the story of Jesus the Savior as the promised Messiah of Israel, going from his miraculous conception by the Holy Spirit in the Virgin Mary to his appearances after his resurrection from the dead. It was written to offer guidance to a church composed of Gentile Christians and Jewish 266 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re Christians. The Gospel of Mark tells the story of Jesus from baptism through the resurrection, presenting Jesus as the Savior of the Gentiles (non-Jews) and written to guide Christians under severe persecution from the Roman government. The Gospel of Luke also presents Jesus as the savior of the Gentiles and was written to emphasize God ’s concern for the poor, women, and other marginalized people. These three documents are known as the synoptic gospels, or “seen in one view, ”because of their parallel structure and content in recounting the story of Jesus. The Gospel of John is the story of Jesus as the eternal, divine Son of God who came to earth to show God ’s glory in his life, death, and resurrection from the dead. It was likely written to bolster the faith of Christians under pressure of persecution. The gospels are followed by the Acts of the Apostles, the only book of the New Testament devoted to a historical account of the early church and its growth through its first thirty years. Luke and Acts were written as a two-volume work by the same author; unfortunately, John now stands between them in the canonical order, inter- rupting their flow. The names of all these books were attached in the second century C.E.; when first written, the texts probably featured no authors ’names. Most of the rest of the New Testament consists of letters ,or epistles , of instruc- tion and correction written by church leaders to various churches. Some scholars dispute the names on these letters, arguing that the texts are pseudonymous , written by someone other than the given author, usually by one of his followers or coworkers after his death. Even if these letters are not considered authentic in authorship, they are still considered a part of the Christian scriptures. In other words, their authority does not rest solely on their authorship. Letters that scholars think were genuinely written by the stated person are called authentic (in authorship). The first letters are those of Paul and his missionary coworkers, arranged mostly by length from longest to shortest and named according to their destination. Paul called himself an apostle ,“one sent out ”with the message of salvation, and writing letters to the many churches he founded was an important way for him to influence them. The letter to the Romans presents Paul ’s understanding of Christian teaching in a fairly systematic way to a church that he did not establish but was soon to visit. In 1 Corinthians, Paul discusses various issues related to Christian doctrine, morality, and worship. In 2 Corinthians — a later letter that is probably, as it now stands, a composite of two or three letters Paul wrote to the Corinthians after 1 Corinthians — Paul ’s main concern is to keep this Gentile-Christian church from straying to Jewish Christianity. Galatians has much this same theme —namely, that Christians from non-Jewish back- grounds need not be Jewish as well as Christian. Ephesians, probably written by a fellow worker of Paul ’s after his death, presents Jesus Christ as the cosmic savior who unifies races and nations. Philippians, a genuine Pauline letter, urges Christians to find joy in Christ. Colossians, probably written under Paul ’s name by a coworker, seeks like Ephesians to correct error by presenting Jesus Christ as the all-sufficient savior of the universe, not only of the church. 1 Thessalonians answers questions about what happens when the Lord Jesus returns in glory to judge the world at the end of time. 2 Thessalonians, probably pseudonymously written after the death of Paul, instructs Christians about how to wait for the return of Jesus at the end of time. The next three letters, 1and 2 Timothy and Titus, are called the “Pastoral ”letters because they are instructions under Paul ’s name about pastoral offices and church life at the end of the first century C.E. Finally, Philemon is Paul ’s attempt to reconcile a Christian slave owner to his runaway Christian slave who now seeks to return to that master. Introduction 267CopEditorial re The next section of the New Testament is traditionally known as the “General ”or “Catholic ”Letters (or Epistles). This name was given to them because church author- ities supposed that they were written to all the church. However, scholars today view them as having just as specific an audience as the Pauline letters. Like the Pauline letters, these also seem to be arranged by length. This section begins with Hebrews, an anonymous letter written to encourage Christians not to turn to Judaism. The book of James exhorts its audience to live wise, righteous, and socially responsible lives. 1 Peter offers guidelines on Christian behavior, especially to those undergoing persecution for the faith. 2 Peter urges readers to stay true to traditional Christian teaching and reject false forms of the faith. The three letters of John combat false TABLE 11.1 Books of the New Testament Book Traditional or Given Author Date ( C.E.) Genre Chapters Matthew Matthew (disputed) 80s gospel 28 Mark Mark (disputed) 70 gospel 16 Luke Luke (disputed) 80s gospel 24 John John the Apostle (disputed) 90 gospel 21 Acts of the Apostles Luke (disputed) 80s history 28 Romans Paul 55 letter 16 1 Corinthians Paul 53 letter 16 2 Corinthians Paul 55 letter 13 Galatians Paul 55 letter 6 Ephesians Paul (disputed) 63, 90s* letter 6 Philippians Paul 61 letter 4 Colossians Paul (disputed) 80s letter 4 1 Thessalonians Paul 51 letter 5 2 Thessalonians Paul (disputed) 60, 80s letter 3 1 Timothy Paul (disputed) 60, 90s letter 6 2 Timothy Paul (disputed) 60, 90s letter 4 Titus Paul (disputed) 60, 90s letter 3 Philemon Paul 50s letter 1 Hebrews Anonymous 80s letter-sermon 13 James James (disputed) 50, 90 letter-sermon 5 1 Peter Peter (disputed) 60, 80 letter 5 2 Peter Peter (disputed) 60, 110 letter 3 1 John John “the Elder ” 95 essay 5 2 John John “the Elder ” 96 letter 1 3 John John “the Elder ” 97 letter 1 Jude Jude (disputed) 100 letter 1 Revelation John “the Prophet ” 90s apocalypse 22 *Where two dates are given, the first is the date generally agreed to by scholars who hold this document to be authentic, the second by those who hold it to be pseudonymous. 268 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re teachers while promoting love and hospitality among Christians. Jude is very similar in content and purpose to 2 Peter , defending the faith against falsehoods. Finally, Reve- lation (also called in some churches The Apocalypse ) offers visions of God ’s triumph at the end of the world, a triumph that delivers believers from persecution by establishing the kingdom of God on earth. For the order, authors (those probably pseudonymous, in the judgment of many scholars, are noted as “disputed ”in modern scholarship), approximate dates, genres, and size (in number of chapters) of the New Testament literature, see Table 11.1. Contemporary Use Because Christianity came from Judaism with its well-formed patterns of scripture usage, the use of the New Testament in the church today strongly reflects how the Jewish Bible is used in Judaism. The first scripture of the church was the Jewish Bible in its Greek form, the Septuagint. The entire Jewish Bible had an influence in early Christianity, but certain sections were especially important. Some of these are given in Chapter 10 on Judaism. For reasons of space, the important Jewish Bible sections cannot be repeated or given here. The reader of the New Testament should be familiar at a minimum with the creation and revolt of humanity ( Genesis 1–3); the Exodus traditions, including the Passover feast ( Exodus 12:1 –27; 14:1 –31); the rising Messi- anic hope ( Isaiah 11:1 –9; 42:1 –7); expectations for the end of time ( Daniel 7:1 –14; 12:1 –3); and the passages that the early church used to interpret the person and work of Jesus (e.g., Psalm 110; Isaiah 52:13 –54:12). As in Judaism, the primary use of the Christian Bible has always been in the service of divine worship. Many of the words and phrases Christians use in worship come from the Bible. One of the high points of the service in all Catholic and many Protestant churches is the reading of a selection for the day from the Old Testament and two selections for the day from the New Testament, the last always a gospel reading. This lectionary system arose in the early Greek Church, probably as an inheritance from Judaism, where a schedule for reading the Jewish Bible was used in synagogues. It quickly passed into Western Catholic Christianity. In the twentieth century, especially in its last quarter, many Protestant churches in Europe and North America and the worldwide Roman Catholic Church adopted basically the same lectionary system. As a result, on any given Sunday, most North American Christians hear the same scripture readings and sermons based more or less on them. (Independent Protestants, such as most Baptists, Pentecostalists, and others, do not typically follow this system.) The Bible itself occupies a privileged place in the physical arrangement of the typical Christian church. In churches of a more elaborate form of worship, it is often placed on a special ornate lectern. In more formal services, the book of the four Gospels is often brought before the altar, “incensed, ”and kissed by the priest as a sign of its holiness before it is read. In both Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions, the scripture books are often richly bound and sometimes decorated with gold, silver, jewels, and icons. But even in Protestant churches with less formal worship, the Bible is also revered. In such churches, it is usually placed on the main pulpit from which the minister conducts the entire service. It is often printed in a large format about five times the size of the regular Bible book. In churches of the Baptist wing of Protestant- ism, it is not unusual to see the preacher carrying the Bible in one hand and referring to it constantly during the sermon. Introduction 269CopEditorial re Many Christians supplement this formal use of the Bible with private devotional reading. Since the Reformation in the early 1500s, Protestant churches have insisted on the right and duty of every Christian to read the Bible individually. This reading includes prayerful meditation on the meaning of the words and on the implication of this meaning for the life of the reader. Reading is also often done aloud by families as a part of the main meal of the day. Such private and familial use of scripture has formed a large part of Protestant spirituality since the 1700s, when it became commonplace. In the twentieth century, especially after the reforms of the Second Vatican Council in the 1960s, Roman Catholics also acknowledged the importance of private study of the Bible. Despite this emphasis on private usage of scripture, however, Christians throughout the world still come into contact with the Bible mostly during church services. Careful Reading of the Bible Private devotional study of the Bible is important to many Christians. Alongside this devotional use of the Bible is academic study by means of the historical method. This method seeks to understand the various parts of the Bible in their original historical context and tries to determine what the writings meant to their 270 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re original readers. It tends to disregard, or at least relegate to a secondary position, the teachings of the various churches about the content of scripture. Because this approach puts the Bible in the same analytical framework as any other book from the ancient world, fundamentalists in both Protestant and Catholic churches strongly reject it. However, most people who use the historical method do so in a sincere and effective conviction that it enriches knowledge and use of the Bible. An indication of the rapid advance that historical criticism made in the Roman Catholic Church during the twentieth century is that the most influential biblical scholar of the last third of that century, Raymond E. Brown (1928 –1998), was a Catholic priest. Other scholarly methods have also been applied since about 1970 to the study of the New Testament, among them narrative methods, social-scientific methods, and liberationist methods used by women, ethnic minorities in North America, and post-colonial Christians around the world. Historical Origin and Development At first glance, it would seem that the New Testament was written perhaps only one or two generations after the death and resurrection of Jesus and the beginnings of the church. Yet modern biblical scholarship has discovered that its writing was not com- pleted until perhaps ninety years after the death of Jesus. (The process of forming the canon was even longer.) The pace of writing was slowed by three main factors: The early church, which began as a group within Judaism, already had a complete body of scripture —the Jewish Bible. At first, it found this scripture sufficient for its life, especially because it interpreted and used the Jewish Bible in its own way to bolster its claim that Jesus was the Messiah, the promised deliverer of Israel. The early Christians quite comfortably used the words and deeds of Jesus in primarily oral form. Jesus was a prophet, not a writer, and there was no urgency to write down his words. They may have looked on the spoken words of Jesus as more important than words about him written in a book. Many early Christians believed that the end of the world was very near, and with this prospect, the lengthy process of writing, copying (by hand), and distributing books was not to be expected. How, then, did the process of writing what was to become the New Testament begin? The Pauline letters came first. Paul wrote letters to keep in contact with the churches he founded as he moved around the Roman Empire on his missionary tra- vels. He used letters to instruct and exhort his churches and as a substitute for his own personal presence. These letters gained more importance after Paul ’s death (probably ca. 65 C.E.), and after his death, his coworkers probably continued to write letters in his name to perpetuate and adapt his teachings for a new generation. Of course, at this stage, there was probably no thought by Paul and his followers that these letters would become part of a new body of Christian scripture. In the second step, the gospel message began to be written down around 70 C.E. It had been circulating orally in the church since the birth of the church around 30 C.E. and used for teaching and missionary work. The word gospel in English is derived from the Anglo-Saxon godspel. The Greek word (all the New Testament was written in Greek, the common language of the Mediterranean world) is euangelion, “good news, ”from which we get the word evangelical. The characteristic structure of the gospel book seems to have been invented by Mark, the first written Gospel: Jesus ’s Introduction 271CopEditorial re ministry in Galilee, his journey to Jerusalem, teaching in Jerusalem, arrest, trial, death, and resurrection. This structure is evident in two other gospels, Matthew and Luke, which (the vast majority of scholars conclude) use Mark as a source. John does not use Mark as a source, so it differs somewhat from this basic outline, but still is a chrono- logical and theological account of the words and deeds of Jesus culminating in his arrest, trial, death, and resurrection. Those two parts of the New Testament, commonly called “the gospel and the apostle, ”were the basic building blocks of the canon. In the second century C.E., Christians began sorting out true Christian writings from ones they considered false and heretical. The details of this process are hazy, but the main features seem clear. First, a canonical writing had to have a claim to apostolic authorship or authority. It had to be seen as written either by an apostle like Matthew, John, Paul, or Peter or by someone with a connection to the apostles such as the Gospel of Mark or the Gospel of Luke had. In other words, it had to give at least the appearance of going back to recognized church leaders in the first century. Second, the content of the writings was weighed. Doctrinal content was impor- tant because writings that the church deemed heretical also claimed to be written by the apostles. In his Church History, for example, Eusebius tells the story of Serapion, the bishop of Antioch in Syria (about 190 C.E.), who heard a reading in church of the Gospel of Peter , a work he did not know. At first, Serapion accepted it as apostolic. But when he learned that people whom he considered heretics were using its account of the death of Jesus to bolster their claim that Jesus did not die on the cross, but returned to heaven before the crucifixion, Serapion forbade any further reading of the Gospel of Peter in the churches under his authority. The third main factor in the process of canonization was the actual use of scripture by prominent Christian churches. The church at Antioch promoted Matthew, the province of Asia Minor (modern western Turkey) used John and Luke, and Rome used Mark. The support of these large and influential centers of early Christianity was crucial in the formation of the canon. The fourth factor was the competing canons of groups that the mainstream church considered heretical. For example, Marcion was an early Christian leader who came to Rome about 145 C.E. He argued that the God revealed by Jesus was not the creator God revealed in the Jewish Bible. As a result, Marcion totally rejected the Jewish Bible as canonical and made a special Christian canon out of the Gospel of Luke only and ten Pauline letters, rejecting everything else. This selection probably spurred the mainstream church to insist on a wider canon: four gospels, all the surviving Pauline letters that looked genuinely apostolic in content, and other letters from other apostles to their churches. A consensus grew during the third and fourth centuries around the main books of the emerging canon of the New Testament. Seven books remained in some doubt during this time, accepted by many Christian regions but not by all: Hebrews, James, 2 John, 3 John, Jude, 2 Peter, and Revelation. But as the widely scattered churches grew closer together, they began reading, using, and accepting these seven books from each other. By 367 C.E., the twenty-seven-book canon was widely recognized, as the Festal Letter of Bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, Egypt, testifies. The catholic (which means “uni- versal ”) church finally had a catholic New Testament. 272 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re HISTORY The Birth of Jesus the Messiah The gospels of Matthew and Luke present Jesus as conceived by the action of the Spirit of God in the Virgin Mary. This miraculous conception signifies in a narrative way the divine Sonship of Jesus, a sonship that the entire New Testament affirms in other ways. The passage below from Matthew 1:18 –25 also focuses on the name “Jesus, ”which in the Aramaic language of Palestine means “God will save. ”Although the Virgin Birth (more properly from a Gospel viewpoint called a “virginal conception ”) is found explicitly only in Matthew and Luke, by the second century it became a commonly held Christian teaching. 1 Now the birth of Jesus Christ was like this. After his mother, Mary, was engaged to Joseph, before they came together, she was found pregnant by the Holy Spirit. Joseph, her husband, being a righteous man and not willing to make her a pub- lic example, intended to put her away secretly. 2 [20] But when he thought about these things, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, “Joseph, son of David, do not be afraid to take to yourself Mary, your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit. She shall bring forth a son. You shall call his name Jesus, for he shall save his people from their sins. ” Now all this happened that what was spoken by the Lord through the prophet would be ful- filled, “Behold, the virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son. They shall call his name Immanuel, ”which means “God with us. ” Joseph arose from his sleep, and did as the angel of the Lord commanded him, and took his wife to himself; [25] but did not know her sexually until she had brought forth her firstborn son. 3 He named him Jesus. The Miracles of Jesus In the gospels, as in the Hebrew Bible , miracles signify the direct entry of God into human life. They are seen not as “violations of natural law ”but as acts of divine power for salvation. This Matthew 1:18 –25. 1All passages from the New Testament are adapted from The New Covenant, Commonly Called the New Testament of Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, Translated out of the Greek, Beingthe Version Set Forth A.D. 1611 Compared with the Most Ancient Authorities and Revised A.D. 1881; Newly Edited by the New Testament Members of the American Revision Com-mittee A.D. 1900 (New York: Thomas Nelson, 1901). This influential American revision of the King James Bible of 1611 is most commonly referred to as the American Standard Ver- sion , and is the immediate predecessor of the Revised Standard Version and its successor, the New Revised Standard Version . 2put her away secretly: End the engagement quietly, without publicly accusing Mary of unfaithfulness. 3until she had brought forth her firstborn son: The official teach- ing of the Roman Catholic Church, which asserts the lifelongvirginity of Mary, does not interpret this verse to mean thatMary and Joseph did have sexual relations after Jesus ’birth. Luke 8:26 –56. HISTORY |TheMiraclesofJesus 273CopEditorial re selection from the Gospel of Luke 8:26 –56 has two types of miracles characteristic of the ministry of Jesus: exorcism of demons, showing the power of Jesus over supernatural evil; and healing of the sick, showing his ultimate victory over physical evil and death. They arrived at the country of the Gadarenes, which is opposite Galilee. When Jesus stepped ashore, a certain man of Gadara who had demons 4 for a long time met him. He wore no clothes, and did not live in a house, but in the tombs. When he saw Jesus, he cried out, and fell down before him, and with a loud voice said, “What do I have to do with you, Jesus, you Son of the Most High God? I beg you, do not torment me! ”For Jesus was com- manding the unclean spirit to come out of the man. For the unclean spirit had often seized the man. He was kept under guard, and bound with chains and fetters, but he broke the bands apart, and was driven by the demon into the desert. [30] Jesus asked him, “What is your name? ” He said, “Legion, ”5for many demons had entered into him. They 6 begged him that he would not command them to go into the abyss. 7 Now there was a herd of many pigs feeding on the mountain there, and they begged him to allow them to enter these. 8 He allowed them. The demons came out from the man, and entered into the pigs; the herd rushed down the steep bank into the lake, and was drowned. When those who fed them saw what had hap- pened, they fled, and told it in the city and in the country. [35] People went out to see what had happened. They came to Jesus, and found the man from whom the demons had gone out, sit- ting at Jesus ’s feet, clothed and in his right mind; and they were afraid. Those who saw it told them how he who had been possessed by demons was healed. All the people of the surrounding country of the Gadarenes asked him to depart from them, for they were very afraid. He entered into the boat and returned. The man from whom the demons had gone out begged him to go with him. But Jesus sent him away, saying, “Return to your house, and declare what great things God has done for you. ” He went his way, proclaiming throughout the whole city what great things Jesus had done for him. [40] When Jesus returned the multitude wel- comed him, for they were all waiting for him. Behold, there came a man named Jairus, a ruler of the synagogue. 9He fell down at Jesus ’s feet, and begged him to come into his house, for he had an only daughter, about twelve years of age, and she was dying. But as he went, the multitudes pressed against him. A woman who had a flow of blood for twelve years, who had spent all her living on physicians and could not be healed by any, came up behind him. She touched the fringe of his cloak, and immediately the flow of her blood stopped. [45] Jesus said, “Who touched me? ”When all denied it, Peter and those with him said, “Master, the multitudes press and jostle you, and you say, ‘Who touched me? ’” But Jesus said, “Someone did touch me, for I perceived that power has gone out of me. ”When the woman saw that she was not hidden, she came trembling, and falling down before him declared to him in the presence of all the people the reason why she had touched him, and how she was healed immediately. He said to her, “Daughter, rejoice. Your faith has made you well. Go in peace. ” While he still spoke, one from the ruler of the synagogue ’s house came and said to Jairus, “Your daughter is dead. Do not trouble the Teacher. ” 4demons: Not devils, but evil spirits that inhabit the earth. 5legion: This unit of the Roman army had about 6000 mem- bers. In addition to explicitly stressing the large number of demons inhabiting this man, the use of this term probablymakes an anti-Roman implication here.6they: The demons. 7abyss : A section of hell in which demons are confined to await final destruction.8herd of many pigs … these: Because in Jewish law swine are unclean (non-kosher) animals, it is fitting that unclean spiritsinhabit them. 9ruler of the synagogue: A formal title for the presiding officer of the synagogue council of elders. 274 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re [50] But Jesus heard it and answered him, “Do not be afraid. Only believe, and she will be healed. ”10 When he came to the house, he did not allow anyone to enter except Peter, John, James, the father of the child, and her mother. All were weeping and mourning her, but he said, “Do not weep. She is not dead, but sleeping. ”11 They ridiculed him, knowing that she was dead. But he put them all outside, and taking her by the hand, he called out, “Child, arise! ” [55] Her spirit returned, and she rose up immediately. He commanded that something be given to her to eat. Her parents were amazed, but he com- manded them to tell no one what had been done. 12 The Arrest, Trial, and Death of Jesus The sufferings of Jesus at the end of his life include betrayal by his disciple Judas, denial by Peter, a formal trial before the Jewish high council on religious charges, a hearing (not really a trial, because Jesus was not a Roman citizen and thus did not have a right to a trial) before the Roman governor Pontius Pilate, and condemnation to be crucified. Throughout their narration of these sufferings, Mark 14:43 –15:47, excerpted here, and the other gospels portray Jesus gently accepting his suffering as the will of God and his death as a sacrifice for the sin of the world. Immediately, while [Jesus] was still speaking, Judas, one of the twelve, came — and with him a multitude with swords and clubs, from the chief priests, the scribes, and the elders. Now he who betrayed him had given them a sign, saying, “Whomever I will kiss, that is he. Seize him, and lead him away safely. ”[45] When he had come, immediately he came to him and said, “Rabbi! Rabbi! ” and kissed him. They laid their hands on him and seized him. But a certain one of those who stood by drew his sword, and struck the ser- vant of the high priest, cutting off his ear. Jesus answered them, “Have you come out against a robber, with swords and clubs to seize me? I was daily with you in the temple teaching, and you did not arrest me. But this is so that the Scriptures be fulfilled. ”13 [50] They all left him and fled. A certain young man followed him, having a linen cloth thrown around himself, over his naked body. The young men grabbed him, but he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked. They led Jesus away to the high priest. All the chief priests, the elders and the scribes came together with him. 10only believe, and she will be healed: The Gospels make a strong connection between faith in Jesus ’ability to heal and the miracle itself. But this connection between healing and faith is not uniform or automatic; notice that in this passagethere is no explicit mention of faith on the part of the parents or friends of the dead girl, particularly when Jesus reaches her home. 11sleeping: Jesus knows the girl is dead but soon to be brought to life, so her condition is like sleep from which one awakens.12tell no one what had been done: Probably connected with the “messianic secret ”; see Matthew 16:20. Mark 14:43 –15:47. 13the Scriptures be fulfilled: The early church saw Jesus ’suffer- ing and death as predicted in the Old Testament . HISTORY |The Arrest, Trial, and Death of Jesus 275CopEditorial re Peter had followed him from a distance, until he came into the court of the high priest. He was sitting with the officers, and warming himself in the light of the fire. [55] The chief priests and the whole council had sought witnesses against Jesus to put him to death, and found none. Many gave false testimony against him, and their testimony did not agree. Some stood up and gave false testi- mony against him, saying, “We heard him say, ‘I will destroy this temple that is made with hands, and in three days I will build another made with- out hands. ’” Even so, their testimony did not agree. [60] The high priest stood up in the middle, and asked Jesus, “Have you no answer? What is it that these testify against you? ” But he stayed quiet, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, “Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed? ” Jesus said, “I am. You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of the sky. ”14 The high priest tore his clothes, and said, “What further need have we of witnesses? You have heard this blasphemy! What do you think? ” They all condemned him to be worthy of death. [65] Some began to spit on him, and to cover his face, and to beat him with fists, and to tell him, “Prophesy! ” The officers struck him with the palms of their hands. As Peter was in the court- yard below, one of the maids of the high priest came, and seeing Peter warming himself, she looked at him and said, “You were also with the Nazarene, Jesus! ”But he denied it, saying, “I nei- ther know nor understand what you are saying. ” He went out on the porch, and the rooster crowed. The maid saw him, and began again to tell those who stood by, “This is one of them. ” [70] But he again denied it. After a little while again those who stood by said to Peter, “You truly are one of them, for you are a Galilean, and your speech shows it. ”But he began to curse, and he swore “I do not know this man of whom you speak! ” The rooster crowed the second time. Peter remembered the word, how Jesus said to him, “Before the rooster crows twice, you will deny me three times. ”When he recalled that, he wept. [15:1] Immediately in the morning the chief priests, with the elders and scribes and the whole council, held a consultation. They bound Jesus, and carried him away, and delivered him up to Pilate. Pilate asked him, “Are you the King of the Jews? ” He answered, “So you say. ” The chief priests accused him of many things. Pilate again asked him, “Have you no answer? See how many things they testify against you! ”[5] But Jesus made no further answer, so that Pilate marveled. Now at the feast he used to release to them one prisoner, whom they asked of him. There was one called Barabbas, arrested with those who had made insurrection, and in this insurrection had committed murder. The multitude, crying aloud, began to ask him to do as he always did for them. Pilate answered them, saying, “Do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews? ”[10] For he perceived that the chief priests had delivered him up out of envy. But the chief priests stirred up the multitude, that he should release Barabbas to them instead. Pilate again asked them, “What then should I do to him whom you call the King of the Jews? ” They cried out again, “Crucify him! ” Pilate said to them, “Why, what evil has he done? ” But they cried out insistently, “Crucify him! ” [15] Pilate, wishing to please the multitude, released Barabbas to them, and handed over Jesus, when he had flogged him, to be crucified. The soldiers led him away within the court, which is the Praetorium; 15 and they called together the whole cohort. They clothed him with purple, and weaving a crown of thorns, they put it on him. They began to salute him, “Hail, King of the Jews! ”They struck his head with a reed, and spat on him, and bowing their knees did homage to him. [20] When they had mocked him, they took the purple off of him, and put his own 14Quoted from Daniel 7:13 in the Jewish scriptures, with an allusion to Psalm 110:1. 15Praetorium: The residence of Pontius Pilate in Jerusalem and the administrative and legal headquarters of Rome in Judea. 276 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re garments on him. They led him out to crucify him. They compelled one passing by, coming from the country, Simon of Cyrene, the father of Alexander and Rufus, to go with them, that he might bear his cross. They brought him to the place called Golgotha, which means “The place of a skull. ”They offered him wine mixed with myrrh to drink, but he did not take it. Crucifying him, they parted his garments among them, casting lots on them for what each should take. [25] It was the third hour when they crucified him. The superscription of his accusation was written over him, “The King of the Jews. ” With him they crucified two robbers, one on his right hand and one on his left. The Scripture was fulfilled which says, “He was numbered with transgressors. ” Those who passed by mocked him, wagging their heads and saying, “Ha! You who would destroy the temple, and rebuild it in three days, [30] save yourself, and come down from the cross! ” Likewise, also the chief priests mocking among themselves with the scribes said, “He saved others, but he cannot save himself. Let the Christ, the King of Israel, now come down from the cross, that we may see and believe him. ”Those who were crucified with him insulted him. 16 When the sixth hour had come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour. At the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, “Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani? ”which means, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? ”17 [35] Some of those who stood by, when they heard it, said, “Behold, he is calling Elijah. ”18 One ran, and filling a sponge full of vinegar, put it on a reed, and gave it to him to drink, saying, “Let him be. Let us see whether Elijah comes to take him down. ” Jesus cried out with a loud voice, and gave up the spirit. The veil of the temple was torn in two from the top to the bottom. When the centurion, who stood by opposite him, saw that he cried out like this and breathed his last, he said, “Truly this man was the Son of God! ”[40] There were also women watching from afar, among whom were Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James and of Joses, and Salome. When he was in Galilee, they followed him and served him; and there were many other women who came up with him to Jerusalem. When evening had now come, because it was the Preparation Day, that is, the day before the Sabbath, Joseph of Arimathea, a prominent coun- cil member who also himself was looking for the Kingdom of God, came boldly to Pilate and asked for Jesus ’body. Pilate marveled if he were already dead; summoning the centurion, he asked him whether he had been dead long. [45] When he found out from the centurion, he granted the body to Joseph. He bought a linen cloth, and tak- ing him down, wound him in the linen cloth, and laid him in a tomb which had been cut out of a rock. He rolled a stone against the door of the tomb. Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of Joses saw where he was laid. The Resurrection of Jesus After Joseph of Arimathea buried the body of Jesus on Friday, three women from among his followers came on Sunday morning to finish the tasks of the funeral. The early Christian belief that Jesus was raised from the dead begins with their experience. (The resurrection itself is not 16insulted him: In the Gospel of Luke, one of these thieves defends Jesus against this taunting.17Jesus quotes the words of Psalm 22. 18Elijah: A widespread Jewish belief at this time was that Eli- jah, an ancient Israelite prophet, would return at the end of time. Compare the contemporary Jewish practice of leavingan empty seat at the Passover meal for Elijah. Mark 16:1 –8. HISTORY |The Resurrection of Jesus 277CopEditorial re narrated in the New Testament. ) In this passage from the Gospel of Mark 16:1 –8, the “young man ”is an angel, and his message is that God has raised Jesus from the dead. The resurrection of Jesus and the life it brings became the center of early Christian belief. In its Second Temple Jewish and early Christian context, it signifies that the “end of time ”has begun, and its re-creation of all things is near. When the Sabbath was past, Mary Magdalene, Mary the mother of James, and Salome bought spices, that they might come and anoint him. Very early on the first day of the week, they came to the tomb when the sun had risen. They were saying among themselves, “Who will roll away the stone from the door of the tomb for us? ”, for it was very large. Looking up, they saw that the stone was rolled back. [5] Entering into the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, dressed in a white robe, and they were amazed. He said to them, “Do not be amazed. You seek Jesus of Nazareth, who has been crucified. He has risen; he is not here. See, here is the place where they laid him! But go tell his disciples and Peter, ‘He goes before you into Galilee. There you will see him, as he said to you. ’” They went out and fled from the tomb, for trembling and astonishment had come on them. They said nothing to anyone, for they were afraid. The Ascension of Jesus In the Gospel of Luke and Acts of the Apostles, which are written by the same author, Jesus ascends to heaven forty days after his resurrection. This selection from the Acts of the Apostles 1:6 –11 draws a connection between the completion of the earthly ministry of Jesus and the consummation of history: The end of time (here expressed as “restore the kingdom to Israel ”)is not yet, but in the interim between the present and the end, the church is to witness to Jesus throughout the world. This became the leading view in most of the church, even through today. The missionary commission began to be carried out in the first century C.E. and has characterized Christianity for several periods of its subsequent history. Therefore when they had come together, they asked him, “Lord, are you now restoring the king- dom to Israel? ” He said to them, “It is not for you to know times or seasons which the Father has set within his own authority. But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you. You will be witnesses to me in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the uttermost parts of the earth. ”When he had said these things, as they were looking, he was taken up, and a cloud received him out of their sight. [10] While they were looking steadfastly into the sky as he went, behold, two men stood by them in white clothing, 19 who said, “You men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into the sky? This Jesus who was received up from you into the sky will come back in the same way as you saw him going into it. ” Acts of the Apostles 1:6 –11. 19two men … in white clothing: Understood to be angels, here in a characteristic role of interpreting events. 278 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re The Coming of the Holy Spirit In dealing with the “speaking in tongues ”that occurs on Pentecost, a Jewish holiday that comes fifty days after Passover, this passage from the Acts of the Apostles 2:1 –21 works with two traditions: that the apostles are speaking an actual foreign language and that they speak in a language not human but interpreted by the listeners as their own. Modern Pente- costalism with its current “speaking in tongues ”picks up on the second tradition. Peter ’s speech on this occasion explains the meaning of the Holy Spirit ’s coming as the fulfillment of scripture and the divine plan, bringing the presence and power of God to all in the church regardless of gender ( “your sons and daughters ”) or social standing ( “my male and female slaves ”). The list of peoples in this passage begins with those outside the Roman Empire, one of the few suggestions in the Acts of the Apostles that the Christian message would spread beyond the bounds of the empire. Now when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all with one accord in one place. Suddenly there came from the sky a sound like the rushing of a mighty wind, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting. Tongues like fire ap- peared and were distributed to them, and one rested on each of them. They were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak with other languages, as the Spirit gave them the ability to speak. [5] Now there were dwelling in Jerusalem Jews, devout men from every nation. When this sound was heard, the multitude came together, and were bewildered, because everyone heard them speaking in his own language. They were all amazed and marveled, saying to one another, “Behold, are not all these who speak Galileans? How do we all hear in our own native language? Parthians, Medes, Elamites, and people from Mesopotamia, Judea, Cappadocia, Pontus, Asia, Phrygia, Pamphylia, Egypt, the parts of Libya around Cyrene, visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes, 20 Cretans and Arabians: we hear them speaking in our languages the mighty works of God! ”They were all amazed and perplexed, saying one to another, “What does this mean? ” Others, mocking, said, “They are filled with new wine. ” But Peter, standing up with the eleven, lifted up his voice and spoke out to them, “You men of Judea, and all you who dwell at Jerusalem, let this be known to you, and listen to my words. [15] For these are not drunken, as you suppose, seeing it is only the third hour of the day. But this is what has been spoken through the prophet Joel: ‘It will be in the last days, says God, That I will pour out my Spirit on all flesh. Your sons and your daughters will prophesy; Your young men will see visions; Your old men will dream dreams. Yes, even on both my male and female slaves in those days I will pour out my Spirit, and they will prophesy. I will show wonders in the sky above, and signs on the earth beneath: Blood, and fire, and billows of smoke. The sun will be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, Before the great and glorious day of the Lord comes. Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved. ’” Acts of the Apostles 2:1 –21. 20Jews and proselytes: Born Jews and Gentiles converted to Judaism. All the nationalities listed in this “Table of Nations ” were Jews then living in Jerusalem. HISTORY |The Coming of the Holy Spirit 279CopEditorial re The Call/Conversion of the Apostle Paul The early Christian church met opposition from the same forces that acted to do away with Jesus. The apostles met this persecution with a calm and confident attitude, but persecution continued and intensified under Saul of Tarsus. This is the story in Acts of the Apostles 9:1 –19 of Saul ’s simultaneous conversion to belief in Jesus and call to be an apostle. It is a common misunderstanding that his name “Paul ”came with his conversion, but “Paul ”is not mentioned in Acts until he begins his wider missionary travels. But Saul, still breathing threats and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, went to the high priest and asked for letters from him to the synagogues of Damascus, 21 that if he found any who were of the Way, whether men or women, he might bring them bound 22 to Jerusalem. As he got close to Damascus, suddenly a light from the sky shone around him. He fell on the earth and heard a voice saying to him, “Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? ” He said, “Who are you, Lord? ” He said, “I am Jesus, whom you are persecut- ing. But rise up and enter the city, and you will be told what you must do. ”The men who traveled with him stood speechless, hearing the sound but seeing no one. Saul arose from the ground, and when his eyes were opened he saw no one. They led him by the hand, and brought him into Damascus. He was without sight for three days, and neither ate nor drank. [10] Now there was a certain disciple at Damascus named Ananias. The Lord said to him in a vision, “Ananias! ” He said, “Here I am, Lord. ” The Lord said to him, “Arise, go to the street which is called Straight, and inquire in the house of Judah for one named Saul, a man of Tarsus. For behold, he is praying, and in a vision he has seen a man named Ananias coming in and laying his hands on him, that he might receive his sight. ” But Ananias answered, “Lord, I have heard from many about this man, how much evil he did to your saints at Jerusalem. Here he has au- thority from the chief priests to bind all who call on your name. ” [15] But the Lord said to him, “Go your way, for he is my chosen vessel to bear my name before the nations and kings, and the children of Israel. For I will show him how many things he must suffer for my name ’s sake. ” Ananias departed, and entered the house. Laying his hands on him, he said, “Brother Saul, the Lord, who appeared to you on the road by which you came, has sent me that you may receive your sight, and be filled with the Holy Spirit. ” Immediately something like scales fell from his eyes, and he received his sight. He arose and was baptized. He took food and was strengthened. Saul stayed several days with the disciples who were at Damascus. Acts of the Apostles 9:1 –19. 21Damascus: In the Roman province of Syria. 22bound: Under arrest. 280 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re The Council at Jerusalem The issue at this council, as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles 15:1 –21, was whether Gentile converts to Christianity should be required to be circumcised and keep at least some of the laws of Moses. Paul and Peter argued no; some Jewish Christians, converted Pharisees, said yes. (Evidently there was no teaching by Jesus to settle this question.) James, kinsman of Jesus and leader of the Jerusalem church at this time, gave the compromise ruling: No circumcision would be required of Gentile converts, but certain minimal laws of purity and morality would be imposed. The result of this decision was that Christianity began to separate from its roots in Judaism, becoming a different religion. However, the separation was not easy or simple as this passage implies, as several letters of Paul attest with their strong attacks on those Christians who argue that all Gentile Christians must become Jewish Christians. Some men came down from Judea and taught the brothers, “Unless you are circumcised after the custom of Moses, you cannot be saved. ”There- fore when Paul and Barnabas had no small discord and discussion with them, they appointed Paul and Barnabas, and some others of them, to go up to Jerusalem to the apostles and elders about this question. After being sent on their way by the assembly, they passed through both Phoenicia and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles. They caused great joy to all the brothers. When they had come to Jerusalem, they were received by the assembly and the apostles and the elders, and they reported all things that God had done with them. [5] But some of the sect of the Pharisees who believed 23 rose up, saying, “It is necessary to cir- cumcise them, and to command them to keep the law of Moses. ”The apostles and the elders were gathered together to see about this matter. When there had been much discussion, Peter rose up and said to them, “Brothers, you know that a good while ago God made a choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the Good News and believe. 24 God, who knows the heart, testified about them, giving them the Holy Spirit just like he did to us. He made no distinction between us and them, cleans- ing their hearts by faith. [10] Now therefore why do you tempt God, that you should put a yoke on the neck of the disciples which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? But we believe that we are saved through the grace of the Lord Jesus, just as they are. ” All the multitude kept silence, and they lis- tened to Barnabas and Paul reporting the signs and wonders God had done among the Gentiles through them. After they were silent, James answered, “Brothers, listen to me. Simeon 25 has reported how God first visited the Gentiles to take out of them a people for his name. [15] This agrees with the words of the prophets. As it is written, ‘After these things I will return. I will again build the tabernacle of David, which has fallen. I will again build its ruins. I will set it up, That the rest of humankind may seek after the Lord; Acts of the Apostles 15:1 –21. 23believed: That is, believed in Jesus as Messiah. 24by my mouth … and believe: This is a reference to a previous narrative in Chapter 10 of the Acts of the Apostles, in which Peter converted and baptized a Gentile; when the Jerusalem church challenged him on this, he defended it successfully. 25Simeon: Peter. HISTORY |The Council at Jerusalem 281CopEditorial re All the Gentiles who are called by my name, 26 Says the Lord, who has made all these things known from eternity. ’ “Therefore my judgment is that we not trouble those from among the Gentiles who turn to God, [20] but that we write to them that they abstain from the pollution of idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and from blood. 27 For Moses 28 from generations of old has been preached in every city, being read in the synagogues every sabbath. ” TEACHING The Parables of Jesus The parables were Jesus ’s distinctive form of teaching. Parables are stories that compare an experience in everyday life with some aspect of religious life, especially life in the Kingdom of God. As the second paragraph in this reading from the Gospel of Mark 4:1 –34 implies, para- bles are elusive —they both reveal and conceal Jesus ’meaning, so one sometimes finds a challenge to the listener/reader: “Let anyone with ears to hear, listen! ”A collection of parables gathered by Mark or transmitted to him in the oral tradition is given here. Many scholars view the interpretation of the parable of the sower, found in the third paragraph, as deriving not directly from Jesus but from the early church. Again he began to teach by the seaside. A great multitude was gathered to him, so that he entered into a boat on the sea and sat down. The whole multitude was on the land by the sea. He taught them many things in parables, and told them in his teaching, “Listen! Behold, the farmer went out to sow, and it happened as he sowed that some seed fell on the road, 29 and the birds came and devoured it. [5] Other seed fell on the rocky ground, where it had little soil, and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of soil. When the sun had risen, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. Others fell among the thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. Others fell into the good ground, and yielded fruit, growing up and increasing. Some brought forth thirty times, some sixty times, and some one hundred times as much. ”He said, “Whoever has ears to hear, let him hear. ” [10] When he was alone, those who were around him with the twelve asked him about the parables. He said to them, “To you is given the 26Gentiles who are called by my name: Another way to translate this is, “the Gentiles over whom my name has been called, ” perhaps a reference to baptism, in which God ’s name is pronounced. 27the pollution of idols … blood: Foods offered to idols in sacri- fice and meat not ritually butchered, respectively.28Moses: The first five books of the Bible. Mark 4:1 –34. 29some seed fell on the road: That seed falls on the road or on rocky ground or among thorns is due to sowing seed widely by hand, and then plowing to work it into the soil. In this process, some seed falls in areas where it will not grow. 282 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re mystery of the Kingdom of God, but to those who are outside, all things are done in parables, that ‘seeing they may see and not perceive; and hearing they may hear and not understand; lest perhaps they should turn again, and their sins should be forgiven. ’”30 He said to them, “Do you not understand this parable? How will you understand all of the parables? The farmer sows the word. [15] The ones by the road are the ones where the word is sown. When they have heard, immediately Satan comes, and takes away the word which has been sown in them. These in the same way are those who are sown on the rocky places, who, when they have heard the word, immediately receive it with joy. They have no root in themselves, but are short-lived. When oppression or persecution arises because of the word, immediately they stumble. Others are those who are sown among the thorns. These are those who have heard the word, and the cares of this age, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in choke the word, and it becomes unfruitful. [20] Those which were sown on the good ground are those who hear the word and accept it; they bear fruit, some thirty times, some sixty times, and some one hundred times. ” He said to them, “Is a lamp brought to be put under a basket or under a bed? Is it not put on a stand? For there is nothing hidden, except that it should be made known; neither was anything made secret, but that it should come to light. If any man has ears to hear, let him hear. ”He also said to them, “Take heed what you hear. With whatever measure you measure, it will be mea- sured to you, and more will be given to you who hear. [25] For whoever has, to him will more be given, and he who does not have, even that which he has will be taken away from him. ” He said, “The Kingdom of God is as if a man should cast seed on the earth, and should sleep and rise night and day, and the seed should spring up and grow, he does not know how. For the earth bears fruit: first the blade, then the ear, then the full grain in the ear. When the fruit is ripe, immediately he brings out the sickle, because the harvest has come. ” [30] He said, “What will we compare to the Kingdom of God? Or with what parable will we illustrate it? It is like a grain of mustard seed, which when it is sown in the earth is less than all the seeds that are on the earth, yet when it is sown, grows up and becomes greater than all the herbs; it puts out great branches, so that the birds of the sky can lodge under its shadow. ” With many such parables he spoke the word to them, as they were able to hear it. He did not speak to them except in parables; 31 but privately to his own disciples he explained everything. The Divine Word Became Human This hymn to Christ in the Gospel of John 1:1 –18 presents him as the divine Word made human. It is perhaps the New Testament ’s most exalted view of the Savior. The early church soon after Jesus ’resurrection came to see him as divine, and then over time it identified his 30seeing they may not see …forgiven: A quotation from Isaiah 6. 31except in parables: This is a literary overstatement; Jesus ’ teaching was characteristically illustrated by parables, but the parable was not his only form of teaching. John 1:1 –18. TEACHING |TheDivineWordBecameHuman 283CopEditorial re divine nature as the Son of God from all eternity. The Gospel of John and several of Paul ’s letters attest to this “high ”view of Jesus. This main theme alternates here with a secondary theme: that John the Baptist is not the Messiah. Notice how the first five verses of this passage echo the language of the first chapter of Genesis . In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. [5] The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not over- come it. There came a man sent from God, whose name was John. He came as a witness, to testify about the light, that all might believe through him. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. [10] He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world did not recog- nize him. He came to his own, 32 and those who were his own did not receive him. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God ’s children, to those who believe in his name: who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. [15] John testified about him. He cried out, saying, “This was he of whom I said, ‘He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me. ’” From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth were realized through Jesus Christ. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known. Nicodemus Visits Jesus This selection from the Gospel of John 3:1 –21 presents one early Christian view of salvation: a “rebirth ”by the power of the Holy Spirit that makes a person the child of God. In modern times, a part of evangelical Protestantism has fastened upon this passage, interpreting the “born-again ”concept as an emotionally powerful conversion experience that all Christians must have. Christians of other Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Orthodox traditions hold that to believe in Jesus as Savior and be baptized is to be “born again. ” Now there was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews. He came to Jesus by night, and said to him, “Rabbi, we know that you are a teacher come from God, for no one can do these signs that you do, unless Godiswithhim. ” 32his own: This probably refers to the Jewish people, who on the whole did not accept Jesus as their Messiah. John 3:1 –21. 284 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re Jesus answered him, “Most certainly, I tell you, unless one is born again, 33 one cannot see the Kingdom of God. ” Nicodemus said to him, “How can one be born when he is old? Can a man enter a second time into his mother ’s womb, and be born? ” [5] Jesus answered, “Most certainly I tell you, unless one is born of water and spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Do not marvel that I said to you, ‘You must be born again. ’The wind blows where it wants to, and you hear its sound, but do not know where it comes from and where it is going. So is everyone who is born of the Spirit. ” Nicodemus answered him, “How can these things be? ” [10] Jesus answered him, “Are you a teacher of Israel, and you do not understand these things? Most certainly I tell you, we speak that which we know, and testify to that which we have seen, and you do not receive our witness. If I told you earthly things and you do not believe, how will you believe if I tell you heavenly things? No one has ascended into heaven, but he who descended out of heaven, the Son of Man, who is in heaven. As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up, [15] that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. 34 For God so loved the world, that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish, but have eternal life. God did not send his Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world should be saved through him. He who believes in him is not judged. He who does not believe has been judged already, because he has not believed in the name of the one and only Son of God. This is the judgment, that the light has come into the world, and men loved the darkness rather than the light, because their works are evil. [20] For every- one who does evil hates the light, and does not come to the light, lest his works would be exposed. But he who does the truth comes to the light, that his works may be revealed, that they have been done in God. ” A Sinful Woman Forgiven In this passage from the Gospel of Luke 7:36 –50, a gospel that emphasizes God ’s forgiveness and embrace of marginalized people, Jesus answers a Pharisee ’s criticism with a parable on the meaning of forgiveness. Jesus teaches the radical nature of God ’s love and its transform- ing power. The woman in this parable was, in post- New Testament times, identified as Mary Magdalene, one of Jesus ’s female disciples. This identification has been reinforced by The Da Vinci Code, the controversial novel by Dan Brown and the 2006 film based on it, but scholars almost unanimously reject it. 33born again: From the Greek original of the New Testament it is possible to translate again asfrom above . 34Some New Testament scholars hold that the direct quotation of Jesus ends at this point, and that 3:16 –21 are meant to be understood as words of the Gospel narrator. (The Greek orig- inal, like ancient scriptures in most languages, does not havequotation marks or any other direct indications of quotations.) Luke 7:36 –50. TEACHING |A Sinful Woman Forgiven 285CopEditorial re One of the Pharisees invited him to eat with him. He entered the Pharisee ’s house, and sat at the table. Behold, a woman in the city who was a sinner, 35 when she knew that he was reclining in the Pharisee ’s house, brought an alabaster jar of ointment. Standing behind at his feet weeping, she began to wet his feet with her tears, and she wiped them with the hair of her head, kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment. When the Pharisee who had invited him saw it, he said to himself, “This man, if he were a prophet, would have perceived who and what kind of woman this is who touches him, that she is a sinner. ” [40] Jesus answered him, “Simon, I have something to tell you. ” He said, “Teacher, speak. ” “A certain lender had two debtors. The one owed five hundred denarii, and the other fifty. 36 When they could not pay, he forgave them both. Which of them will love him most? ” Simon answered, “I suppose the one to whom he forgave the most. ” He said to him, “You have judged correctly. ” Turning to the woman, he said to Simon, “Do you see this woman? I entered into your house, and you gave me no water for my feet, 37 but she has wet my feet with her tears, and wiped them with the hair of her head. [45] You gave me no kiss, but she, since the time I came in, has not ceased to kiss my feet. You did not anoint my head with oil, but she has anointed my feet with ointment. Therefore I tell you, her sins, which are many, are forgiven, for she loved much. But those to whom little is forgiven love little. ”He said to her, “Your sins are forgiven. ” Those who sat at the table with him began to say to themselves, “Who is this who even forgives sins? ” [50] He said to the woman, “Your faith has saved you. Go in peace. ” Results of Justification “Justification ”is God ’s act of making believers right with God through faith in the crucified and resurrected Jesus. In justification, a key teaching of the Apostle Paul, believers are recon- ciled to God and saved from sin and death. Protestant churches have used this passage from Paul ’sLetter to the Romans 5:1 –11 and other passages to support their leading doctrine of justification by faith alone rather than through human obedience to religious law. Since the mid-1990s, Roman Catholic and Protestant churches have made great strides toward a com- mon understanding of justification by faith. Since we have been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we also have our access by faith into this grace in which we stand. We rejoice 35asinner: A notorious sinner, probably one who made her living by an occupation considered sinful by the Law of Moses. This does not necessarily mean that her sins were of a sexual nature, as Christian tradition has often assumed.36Adenarius was a day ’s minimum-wage pay for a common laborer. 37you gave me no water for my feet: This, along with you gave me no kiss and you did not anoint my head with oil, would be considered a breach of hospitality. Romans 5:1 –11. 286 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re in hope of the glory of God. Not only this, but we also rejoice in our sufferings, knowing that suffering works perseverance; and perseverance, proven character; and proven character, hope; and hope does not disappoint us, because God ’s love has been poured out into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us. While we were yet weak, at the right time Christ died for the ungodly. For one will hardly die for a righteous man. Yet perhaps for a good person someone would even dare to die. But God commends his own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us. Much more then, being now justified by his blood, 38 we will be saved from God ’s wrath through him. [10] For if, while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, much more, being reconciled, we will be saved by his life. 39 Not only so, but we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received reconciliation. The End of Time Many New Testament teachings about the end of time are taken from Judaism and adapted to Christianity. In the first reading, the Gospel of Matthew relates the teaching of Jesus about his role as the judge at the final judgment, after the resurrection of all the dead. One must be careful of interpreting every detail in this passage too literally; instead, it must be read for its main point —the followers of Jesus must be loving and generous toward people in need. In the second reading, the author of Revelation presents in striking apocalyptic style dreams and visions about the end. Many people think that “apocalypse ”is synonymous with “disaster, ” and is now even applied informally to strong natural storms (for example, “snowpocalypse ”), but the main message of Revelation is not disaster, but hope in the coming of God ’s full rule on earth. [Matthew 25:31] “When the Son of Man 40 comes in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then he will sit on the throne of his glory. Before him all the nations will be gathered, and he will sepa- rate them one from another, as a shepherd sepa- rates the sheep from the goats. He will set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. Then the King will tell those on his right hand, ‘Come, you blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the founda- tion of the world; [35] for I was hungry, and you gave me food to eat. I was thirsty, and you gave me drink. I was a stranger, and you took me in. I was naked, and you clothed me. I was sick, and you visited me. I was in prison, and you came to me. ’ “Then the righteous will answer him, saying, ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry, and feed you; or thirsty, and give you a drink? When did we see you as a stranger, and take you in; or naked, and clothe you? When did we see you sick or in prison, and come to you? ’ 38his blood: The death of Jesus as a sacrifice for sin. 39his life: Jesus ’eternal life after his resurrection, which secures the believer ’s resurrection to eternal life. Matthew 25:31 –46; Revelation 20:1 –21:4 40the Son of Man: A term for an apocalyptic (end-of-time) figure that in the Gospels refers to Jesus. TEACHING |The End of Time 287CopEditorial re [40] “The King will answer them, ‘Most cer- tainly I tell you, inasmuch as you did it to one of the least of these my brothers, you did it to me. ’ “Then he will say also to those on the left hand, ‘Depart from me, you cursed, into the eter- nal fire which is prepared for the devil and his angels; for I was hungry, and you did not give me food to eat; I was thirsty, and you gave me no drink. I was a stranger, and you did not take me in. I was naked, and you did not clothe me; sick and in prison, and you did not visit me. ’ “Then they will also answer, saying, ‘Lord, when did we see you hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did not help you? ’ [45] “Then he will answer them, saying, ‘Most certainly I tell you, inasmuch as you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to me. ’These will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life. ” [Revelation 20:1] I saw an angel coming down out of heaven, having the key of the abyss and a great chain in his hand. He seized the dragon, the old serpent, which is the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole inhabited earth, and bound him for a thousand years. He cast him into the abyss, and shut it, and sealed it over him, that he should deceive the nations no more, until the thousand years were finished. After this, he must be freed for a short time. I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus and for the word of God, and who did not worship the beast or his image, and did not receive the mark on their forehead and on their hand. They came to life and reigned with Christ for a thousand years. [5] The rest of the dead did not live until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection. Over these, the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ, and will reign with him one thousand years. And after the thousand years, Satan will be released from his prison. He will come out to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, 41 to gather them together to the war; their number is as the sand of the sea. They went up over the breadth of the earth and surrounded the camp of the saints, and the beloved city. Fire came down out of heaven from God and devoured them. [10] The devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulfur, where the beast and the false prophet are also. They will be tormented day and night forever and ever. I saw a great white throne, and him who sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away. There was found no place for them. I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne, and they opened books. 42 Another book was opened, which is the book of life. The dead were judged out of the things which were written in the books, according to their works. The sea gave up the dead who were in it. Death and Hades 43 gave up the dead who were in them. They were judged, each one according to his works. Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. [15] If anyone was not found written in the book of life, he was cast into the lake of fire. I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth have passed away, and the sea is no more. I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared like a bride adorned for her husband. I heard a loud voice out of heaven saying, “Behold, God ’s dwelling is with people. He will dwell with them, and they will be his people, and God him- self will be with them as their God. He will wipe away from them every tear from their eyes. Death will be no more; neither will there be mourning, nor crying, nor pain any more, for the first things have passed away. ” 41Gog and Magog: Nations allied with Satan to oppose the coming of God ’s kingdom. In Ezekiel 38–39, these are proba- bly code words for the nation of Babylon, and in the book of Revelation are code for Rome. 42books: These books symbolize God ’s knowledge of all human deeds.43Death and Hades: These are personified here, depicted as persons whose lives and influences can be ended. Hades does not mean “hell ”here, but refers to the land of the dead. 288 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re ETHICS The Sermon on the Mount The Sermon on the Mount is, in the three chapters of Matthew 5–7, the gospels ’longest collection of the moral teachings of Jesus. It is largely a collection by the writer of Matthew, probably drawing on an early collection of Jesus ’sayings, and it soon became the most influ- ential statement of ethics in Christianity. The sermon contains his understanding of the teach- ing of Jesus on what it is to follow God. The themes are many and varied: blessings (“beatitudes ”) on obedience, the law of Moses, the practice of piety, use of possessions, and obeying the words of Jesus. The section topics in brackets have been added to the translation to facilitate the reading of this rather long sermon. Seeing the multitudes, he went up onto the mountain. When he had sat down, his disciples came to him. He opened his mouth and taught them, saying, [The Beatitudes] “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted. [5] Blessed are the gentle, 44 for they shall inherit the earth. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, for they shall be filled. Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called children of God. [10] Blessed are those who have been perse- cuted for righteousness ’sake, for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. “Blessed are you when people reproach you, per- secute you, and say all kinds of evil against you falsely, for my sake. Rejoice, and be exceedingly glad, for great is your reward in heaven. That is how they persecuted the prophets who were before you. [Obedience to God] “You are the salt of the earth, but if the salt has lost its flavor, with what will it be salted? It is then good for nothing, but to be cast out and trodden under the feet of men. You are the light of the world. A city located on a hill cannot be hidden. [15] Neither do you light a lamp, and put it under a measuring basket, but on a stand, and it shines to all who are in the house. Even so, let your light shine before men, so that they may see your good works and glorify your Father who is in heaven. [Jesus and the Law of Moses] “Do not think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I did not come to destroy, but to fulfill. For most certainly, I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not even one smallest letter or one tiny pen stroke shall in any way pass away from the law, until all things are accomplished. Whoever, therefore, shall break one of these least command- ments, and teach others to do so, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever shall do and teach them shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. [20] For I tell you that unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Matthew 5:1 –7:14, 24 –29. 44gentle: Humble, “meek. ” ETHICS |The Sermon on the Mount 289CopEditorial re Pharisees, there is no way you will enter into the kingdom of heaven. “You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, ‘You shall not murder, ’and ‘Who- ever shall murder shall be in danger of the judg- ment. ’But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall insult his brother shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, ‘You fool! ’shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna. “If therefore you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you, leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. [25] Agree with your adversary quickly, while you are with him in the way; lest perhaps the prosecu- tor deliver you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, and you be cast into prison. Most certainly I tell you, you shall by no means get out of there, until you have paid the last penny. “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall not commit adultery, ’but I tell you that everyone who gazes at a woman to lust after her has com- mitted adultery with her already in his heart. If your right eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out and throw it away from you. 45 For it is more profitable for you that one of your members should perish, than for your whole body to be cast into hell. [30] If your right hand causes you to stumble, cut it off, and throw it away from you. For it is more profitable for you that one of your members should perish, than for your whole body to be cast into hell. “It was also said, ‘Whoever shall divorce his wife, let him give her a writing of divorce, ’but I tell you that whoever divorces his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulterer; and whoever marries her when she is divorced commits adultery. “Again you have heard that it was said to them of old time, 46 ‘You shall not make false vows, but shall perform to the Lord your vows. ’ But I tell you, do not swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God; [35] nor by the earth, for it is the footstool of his feet; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. Nei- ther shall you swear by your head, for you cannot make one hair white or black. But let your ‘Yes ’be ‘Yes ’and your ‘No ’be ‘No. ’Whatever is more than these is evil. “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth. ’But I tell you, do not resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. [40] If anyone sues you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. Whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. 47 Give to him who asks you, and do not turn away him who desires to borrow from you. “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor, and hate your enemy. ’But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you, [45] that you may be children of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. If you love only those who love you, what reward do you have? Do not even the tax collec- tors do the same? If you greet only your friends, what more do you do than others? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? Therefore be per- fect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. 48 [6:1, avoiding hypocrisy] “Be careful not to do your charitable giving before men, to be seen by them, or else you have no reward from your Father who is in heaven. Therefore when you do merciful deeds, do not sound a trumpet before yourself, as the hypocrites 49 do in the synagogues 45pluck it out … cut it off: This is hyperbole and not to be interpreted literally. Jesus does not advocate self-mutilation, which is against Jewish law; the meaning is that Jesus ’fol- lowers are to take all necessary measures to avoid adultery. 46them of old time: Jewish ancestors of Jesus and his audience, who originally received this teaching.47Whoever compels you … two: Roman soldiers were permitted to compel civilians to carry their equipment for one mile.48perfect: Not sinless but mature and complete. 49hypocrites: Not those who are evil on the inside yet pretend to be good, a common understanding of hypocrisy today, butthose who are basically good yet have moral faults that martheir goodness. 290 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re and in the streets, that they may get glory from men. Most certainly I tell you, they have received their reward. But when you do merciful deeds, do not let your left hand know what your right hand does, so that your merciful deeds may be in secret. Then your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. [5] “When you pray, you shall not be as the hypocrites, for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen by men. Most certainly, I tell you, they have received their reward. But you, when you pray, enter into your inner room, and having shut your door, pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly. In praying, do not use vain repetitions, as the Gentiles do; for they think that they will be heard for their much speaking. Therefore do not be like them, for your Father knows what you need before you ask him. Pray like this: 50 ‘Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy. [10] Let your Kingdom come. Let your will be done, as in heaven, so on earth. Give us today our daily bread. Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors. Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one. For yours is the Kingdom, the power, and the glory forever. Amen. ’51 For if you forgive others their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. [15] But if you do not forgive others their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses. “Moreover when you fast, do not be like the hypocrites, with sad faces. For they disfigure their faces, that they may be seen to be fasting. Most certainly I tell you, they have received their reward. But you, when you fast, anoint your head and wash your face, so that you are not seen by others to be fasting, but by your Father who is in secret. Your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. [Faith and obedience] “Do not lay up treas- ures for yourselves on the earth, where moth and rust consume, and where thieves break in and steal. [20] Instead, lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust consume, and where thieves do not break in and steal. Where your treasure is, there your heart will be also. “The lamp of the body is the eye. 52 If there- fore your eye is sound, your whole body will be full of light. But if your eye is evil, your whole body will be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in you is darkness, how great is the darkness! “No one can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or else he will be devoted to one and despise the other. You can- not serve both God and mammon. 53 “Therefore I tell you, do not be anxious for your life, what you will eat, or what you will drink; nor yet for your body, what you will wear. Is not life more than food and the body more than cloth- ing? See the birds of the sky; they do not sow nor do they reap or gather into barns, but your heav- enly Father feeds them. Are you not of much more value than they? Who by being anxious can add one moment to his lifespan? And why are you anxious about clothing? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow. They do not toil, neither do they spin, yet I tell you that even Solo- mon in all his glory was not dressed like one of these. [30] But if God so clothes the grass of the field, which today exists and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, will he not much more clothe you, you of little faith? Therefore do not be anxious, saying, ‘What will we eat? ’,‘What will we drink? ’, or ‘With what will we be clothed? ’For the Gen- tiles seek all these things, and your heavenly Father knows that you need them all. But seek first God ’s kingdom, and his righteousness, and all these things will be given to you as well. There- fore do not be anxious for tomorrow, for tomor- row will be anxious for itself. Each day ’s own evil is sufficient. 50pray like this: Jesus gives this prayer as a model; prayer should be full yet brief, and follow the pattern of thought in this prayer. That some English-speaking Christians say “debts ” and others “trespasses ”comes from different English versions of the Bible. 51For yours is … forever. Amen: Some ancient manuscripts of the New Testament do not contain these words, and some churches today do not use them (for example, the RomanCatholic Church). 52eye: Probably the heart as the seat of emotion and thought; perhaps the conscience.53mammon: Money. ETHICS |The Sermon on the Mount 291CopEditorial re [7:1, avoiding hypocrisy] “Do not judge, so that you will not be judged. For with whatever judgment you judge, you will be judged; and with whatever measure you measure, it will be measured to you. Why do you see the speck 54 that is in your brother ’s eye, but do not consider the beam that is in your own eye? Or how will you tell your brother, ‘Let me remove the speck from your eye; ’and behold, the beam is in your own eye? [5] You hypocrite! First remove the beam out of your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck out of your brother ’s eye. [Faith and obedience] “Do not give that which is holy to the dogs, neither throw your pearls before the pigs, lest perhaps they trample them un- der their feet, and turn and tear you to pieces. “Ask, and it will be given you. Seek, and you will find. Knock, and it will be opened for you. For everyone who asks receives; he who seeks finds; to him who knocks it will be opened. Or who is there among you, if his children ask for bread, will give a stone? [10] Or if they ask for a fish, who will give them a serpent? If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father who is in heaven give good things to those who ask him! “Therefore whatever you desire others to do to you, do also to them; 55 this is the law and the prophets. [The end of time] “Enter in by the narrow gate. Wide is the gate and broad is the way that leads to destruction, and many are those who enter in by it. How narrow is the gate, and restricted, is the way that leads to life! Few are those who find it. … [21] “Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord, ’will enter into the kingdom of heaven, but those who do the will of my Father who is in heaven. Many will tell me in that day, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in your name, in your name cast out demons, and in your name do many mighty works? ’Then I will tell them, ‘I never knew you. Depart from me, you who work iniquity. ’ “Everyone therefore who hears these words of mine and does them, I will compare to a wise man who built his house on a rock. [25] The rain came down, the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat on that house; and it did not fall, for it was founded on the rock. Everyone who hears these words of mine and does not do them is like a foolish man who built his house on the sand. The rain came down, the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat on that house; and it fell — and great was its fall. ” When Jesus had finished saying these things, the multitudes were astonished at his teaching, for he taught them with authority and not like the scribes. 56 Paul ’s Directions Concerning Marriage Paul gives detailed directions about marriage in 1 Corinthians 7. His basic perspective, based mostly on his expectation of the imminent return of Jesus, is that marriage is good but to remain single is better. The idea that singleness is better than marriage gradually became 54speck: Of wood, contrasted with the log of wood in one ’s own eye.55This is the “Golden Rule. ”Expressed in its positive form, it is the essence of self-giving love, and is a wider moral obliga- tion than the negative form of this saying, “Do not do to others what you do not want done to you. ” 56not like the scribes: Jewish scribes taught on the authority of other scribal experts; Jesus teaches on his own authority. 1 Corinthians 7:1 –16, 25 –40. 292 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re influential in the ancient church and continues today in the Roman Catholic Church, which requires celibacy (no sex at all) of almost all priests. Celibacy also continues with Christian monks and nuns. In this passage and the next, the quotations are slogans prominent in the church of Corinth to which Paul is responding. Notice Paul ’s careful distinction between the commands of Jesus and his own teaching and, within his own teaching, the distinction between commands and suggestions. Now concerning the things about which you wrote to me: it is good for a man not to touch a woman. But because of sexual immoralities, let each man have his own wife, and let each woman have her own husband. Let the husband render to his wife the physical affection owed her, and like- wise also the wife to her husband. The wife does not have authority over her own body, but the husband. Likewise also the husband does not have authority over his own body, but the wife. Do not deprive one another, unless it is by con- sent for a season, that you may give yourselves to fasting and prayer. Then be together again, that Satan does not tempt you because of your lack of self-control. But this I say by way of concession, not of commandment. I wish that all men were like me. 57 However each man has his own gift from God, one of this kind and another of that kind. I say to the unmarried and to widows, it is good for them if they remain even as I am. But if they do not have self-control, let them marry. For it is bet- ter to marry than to burn. 58 [10] But to the mar- ried I command — not I, but the Lord — that the wife not leave her husband (but if she departs, let her remain unmarried, or else be reconciled to her husband), and that the husband not leave his wife. But to the rest I say, not the Lord, if any brother has an unbelieving wife, and she is con- tent to live with him, let him not leave her. The woman who has an unbelieving husband, and he is content to live with her, let her not leave her husband. The unbelieving husband is sanctified in the wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified in the husband. Otherwise your children would be unclean, but now they are holy. 59 [15] Yet if the unbeliever departs, let there be separation. The brother or the sister is not under bondage in such cases, but God has called us in peace. How do you know, wife, whether you will save your husband? Or how do you know, husband, whether you will save your wife? … [25] Now concerning virgins, 60 I have no commandment from the Lord, but I give my judg- ment as one who has obtained mercy from the Lord to be trustworthy. I think that it is good, because of the distress that is on us, 61 for a man to stay as he is. Are you bound to a wife? Do not seek to be freed. Are you free from a wife? Do not seek a wife. But if you marry, you have not sinned. If a virgin marries, she has not sinned. Yet such will have difficulties, and I want to spare you. But I say this, brothers: the time is short. From now on, those who have wives may be as though they had none; [30] and those who weep, as though they did not weep; and those who rejoice, as though they did not rejoice; and those who buy, as though they did not possess; and those who use the world, as not using it to the fullest. For the mode of this world is passing away. I desire you to be free from cares. He who is unmarried is concerned for the things of the Lord, how he may please the Lord; but he who is married is concerned about the things of the world, how he may please his wife. There is also a difference between a wife and a virgin. The unmarried woman cares about the things of the Lord, that she may be holy both in body and in spirit. But she who is married cares about the things of the world —how she may please her 57like me: Single. Because Paul had been a strict Pharisee, and Pharisees considered marriage obligatory, it is likely that Paul had been married at one time.58to burn: Be aflame with uncontrollable sexual desire. 59they are holy: They belong to God. 60virgins: Young women of marriageable age; no other impli- cation is made.61distress that is on us: Probably refers to troubles and persecu- tions at the end of the world, which Paul says would be more difficult for married Christians. ETHICS |Paul ’sDirectionsConcerningMarriage 293CopEditorial re husband. This I say for your own profit; not that I may encumber you, but for that which is appro- priate, and that you may attend to the Lord with- out distraction. But if any man thinks that he is behaving inappropriately toward his virgin, and if he needs to marry, let him do what he desires. He does not sin; let them marry. But he who stands steadfast in his heart, having no necessity, but has power over his own heart, keeps his fiancée as a virgin, does well. So then both he who gives his own virgin in marriage does well, and he who does not give her in marriage does better. A wife is bound for as long as her husband lives. But if the husband dies, she is free to be married to whomever she desires, only in the Lord. 62 [40] But she is happier if she stays as she is, in my judgment, and I think that I also have God ’s Spirit. Love This “Hymn to Love ”in 1 Corinthians 13 was perhaps written by Paul or adapted by him for use in this letter. It extols love as the greatest spiritual gift. It has three distinct themes in these three paragraphs: First, it contrasts love with other spiritual gifts; in the second paragraph, it describes love; in the third, it extols the persistence of love. This chapter in 1 Corinthians is heard most often at marriage ceremonies and is one of the most well-known biblical passages, but the scope of love here goes far beyond marriage, covering all aspects of moral life. If I speak with the languages of humans and of angels, 63 but do not have love, I have become sounding brass or a clanging cymbal. If I have the gift of prophecy and know all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have all faith to move mountains, but do not have love, I am nothing. If I dole out all my goods to feed the poor, and if I give my body to be burned, but do not have love, it profits me nothing. Love is patient and is kind; love does not envy. Love does not brag, is not proud, [5] does not behave itself inappropriately, does not seek its own way, is not provoked, takes no account of evil, does not rejoice in unrighteousness but rejoices with the truth. It bears all things, believes all things, hopes all things, and endures all things. Love never ends. But where there are proph- ecies, they will be done away with. Where there are various languages, they will cease. Where there is knowledge, it will be done away with. For we know in part, and we prophesy in part; [10] but when that which is complete has come, then that which is partial will be done away with. When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I felt as a child, I thought as a child. Now that I have become a man, I have put away childish things. For now we see in a mirror dimly, but then face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, even as I was also fully known. Now faith, hope, and love remain — these three. The greatest of these is love. 62only in the Lord: Only to a fellow Christian. People who marry as Christians are expected to marry within the faith. 1 Corinthians 13:1 –13. 63the languages of humans and angels: Ordinary human speech and speaking in tongues, respectively. 294 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re Ethics in the Christian Household This discussion in Ephesians 5:21 –6:9 of ethics in the Christian household contains instruc- tions for wives and husbands, children and parents, and slaves and masters. Note how the passage gives instructions first to the “lower ”person in the relationship, then the “higher. ”It presupposes the legitimacy of the household structure of the times but seeks to transform it with the Christian ethic. Many New Testament scholars view these “tables of household duties ”as a reversion to a more conservative view of social life than that found in the teaching of Jesus and the earlier letters of Paul, but it is still distinctly Christian. Subject yourselves to one another in reverence for Christ. Wives, be subject to your own husbands, as to the Lord. The husband is the head of the wife, and Christ also is the head of the church, being himself the savior of its body. But as the church is subject to Christ, so let the wives also be to their own husbands in everything. [25] Husbands, love your wives 64 even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself up for it so that he might sanc- tify it. He cleansed it by the washing of water with the word, that he might present the church to himself gloriously, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing, but holy and without blemish. Even so husbands also ought to love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself. No man ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, even as the Lord also does the church; [30] because we are members of his body, of his flesh and bones. “For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will be joined to his wife. The two will become one flesh. ”This mystery is great, but I speak concerning Christ and the church. Nevertheless each of you must also love his own wife even as himself, and let the wife see that she respects her husband. [6:1] Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right. “Honor your father and mother, ”which is the first commandment with a promise, “that it may be well with you, and you may live long on the earth. ” You fathers, do not provoke your children to wrath, but nur- ture them in the discipline and instruction of the Lord. [5] Servants, be obedient to those who ac- cording to the flesh are your masters, with fear and trembling, in singleness of your heart, as to Christ; not in the way of service only when eyes are on you, as men pleasers; but as servants of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart, with good will doing service, as to the Lord, and not to men. Know that whatever good thing each one does, he will receive the same again from the Lord, whether he is slave or free. You masters, do the same things to them. Give up threatening, knowing that he who is both their Master and yours is in heaven, and there is no partiality with him. Ephesians 5:21 –6:9. 64Husbands, love your wives: In ancient Greco-Roman society, as in some cultures today where marriage is not based on love, love would not be seen as essential to marriage. ETHICS |Ethics in the Christian Household 295CopEditorial re Two Views on Christians and the Roman State The New Testament presents two different views of Christian life under the Roman Empire. Romans 13:1 –10 is the most important treatment in the New Testament of the relationship of the believer and the government and the most influential throughout the history of the church. It couples specific and positive instructions about being subject to governing authorities with more general instructions about social ethics. Paul speaks in a general and somewhat idealized way here; although he says that government exists to encourage what is good and punish what is evil, he knows from his own experience that often it does the reverse, especially against move- ments like Christianity that oppose the religious underpinnings of Roman claims to power. In the second reading, from Revelation 17:1 –18:5, Rome is depicted symbolically as a “great whore ” who has seduced and corrupted the earth, and the scarlet beast she rides is the Roman Empire. This selection concludes with a funeral song sung over the fallen Rome. This approach encourages quiet opposition to idolatrous and persecuting government, longing for its downfall and the coming of God ’s kingdom. Visions like this one sustained the Christian church during the more than two hundred years in which Rome opposed it, and sometimes persecuted it. [Romans 13:1] Let every person be in subjection to the higher authorities, for there is no author- ity except from God, and those who exist are ordained by God. Therefore one who resists the authority withstands the ordinance of God; and those who withstand will receive judgment. For rulers are not a terror to good work, but to evil. Do you desire to have no fear of the authority? Do that which is good, and you will have praise from him, for he is a servant of God to you for good. But if you do evil, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword in vain; he is a servant of God, an avenger for wrath to him who does evil. [5] Therefore you need to be in subjection, not only because of wrath, but also for the sake of your conscience. For this reason you also pay taxes, for they are servants of God ’s service, attending continually on this very thing. Give therefore to everyone what you owe: taxes to whom taxes are due; customs to whom customs; respect to whom respect; honor to whom honor. Owe no one anything, except to love one an- other, for one who loves one ’s neighbor has ful- filled the law. The commandments, “You shall not commit adultery, ”“ You shall not murder, ”“ You shall not steal, ”“ You shall not give false testi- mony, ”“ You shall not covet, ”and whatever other commandments there are, are all summed up in this saying, “You shall love your neighbor as yourself. ”[10] Love does not harm a neighbor. Love therefore is the fulfillment of the law. [Revelation 17:1] One of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and spoke with me, saying, “Come here. I will show you the judgment of the great prostitute who sits on many waters, with whom the kings of the earth committed sex- ual immorality, and those who dwell in the earth were made drunken with the wine of her sexual immorality. ”He carried me away in the Spirit into a wilderness. I saw a woman sitting on a scarlet- colored animal, full of blasphemous names, having seven heads and ten horns. The woman was dressed in purple and scarlet, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and the impurities of the sexual immorality of the earth. [5] On her forehead a name was written, a mystery, “Babylon the Great, 65 the Mother of Prostitutes and of the Abominations of the Earth. ”I saw the woman drunk with the blood Romans 13:1 –10; Revelation 17:1 –18:5. 65Babylon the Great: A code name for Rome, taken from the name of a great oppressing city-empire in the Jewish Bible. 296 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re of the saints and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus. When I saw her, I wondered with great amazement. The angel said to me, “Why do you wonder? I will tell you the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carries her, which has the seven heads and the ten horns. The beast that you saw was, and is not; and is about to come up out of the abyss and to go into destruction. Those who dwell on the earth and whose names have not been written in the book of life from the foundation of the world will marvel when they see that the beast was, and is not, and shall be. 66 “Here is the mind that has wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sits. [10] They are seven kings. Five have fallen, the one is, and the other has not yet come. When he comes, he must continue a little while. The beast that was, and is not, is himself also an eighth, and is of the seven; and he goes to destruc- tion. The ten horns that you saw are ten kings who have received no kingdom as yet, but they receive authority as kings, with the beast, for one hour. These have one mind, and they give their power and authority to the beast. These will war against the Lamb, 67 and the Lamb will overcome them, for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings. They also will overcome who are with him, called and chosen and faithful. ” [15] He said to me, “The waters which you saw, where the prostitute sits, are peoples, multi- tudes, nations, and languages. The ten horns which you saw and the beast, these will hate the prostitute, and will make her desolate, and will make her naked, and will eat her flesh, and will burn her utterly with fire. For God has put in their hearts to do what he has in mind, and to be of one mind in giving their kingdom to the beast, until the words of God should be accomplished. 68 The woman whom you saw is the great city, which reigns over the kings of the earth. ” [18:1] After these things, I saw another angel coming down out of the sky, having great authority. The earth was illuminated with his glory. He cried with a mighty voice, saying, “Fallen, fallen is Baby- lon the great! She has become a habitation of de- mons, a prison of every unclean spirit, and a prison of every unclean and hateful bird! All the nations have drunk the wine of the wrath of her sexual im- morality. The kings of the earth committed sexual immorality with her, and the merchants of the earth grew rich from the abundance of her luxury. ” I heard another voice from heaven saying, “Come out of her, my people! Have no participa- tion in her sins so that you do not receive her plagues. [5] Her sins have reached to heaven, and God has remembered her iniquities. ” ORGANIZATION The Twelve Apostles and Their Mission The apostles, twelve in number to suggest that the twelve tribes of ancient Israel are fulfilled in the early church, are named and commissioned here in Matthew 10:1 –15. Note how this selection from the Gospel of Matthew sometimes calls them “disciples ”(students) and 66the beast was, and is not, and shall be: The beast will deceive others by imitating Jesus, who lived ( was ), died ( is not ), and rose from death ( shall be ). This probably relates to a contem- porary Roman popular belief about the dead emperor Nero, who was expected to come back to life in some way.67the Lamb: Jesus Christ, the Lamb of God who was sacrificed to redeem the world. 68God has put into their hearts … fulfilled: God is seen as mys- teriously guiding these terrible events to use them for God ’s own purpose. Matthew 10:1 –15. ORGANIZATION |TheTwelveApostlesandTheirMission 297CopEditorial re sometimes “apostles ”(ones sent out with an important task). This passage reflects both the situation of Jesus with his restriction of his mission to the Jews and the situation of the later church with its travelling prophets and evangelists. The work of travelling prophets and evan- gelists was important in the early spread of Christianity through Palestine and Syria. He called to himself his twelve disciples, and gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every disease and every sickness. Now the names of the twelve apostles are these. The first, Simon, who is called Peter; Andrew, his brother; James the son of Zebedee; John, his brother; Philip; Bartholomew; Thomas; Matthew the tax collector; James the son of Alphaeus; Leb- baeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; Simon the Canaanite; and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him. [5] Jesus sent these twelve out, and com- manded them, saying, “Do not go among the Gentiles, and do not enter any city of the Samar- itans. Rather, go to the lost sheep of the house of Israel. As you go, preach, ‘The kingdom of heaven is at hand! ’Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, and cast out demons. Freely you received, so freely give. Do not take any gold, silver, or brass in your money belts. [10] Take no bag for your journey; do not take two coats, two shoes, or staff, because the laborer is worthy of his food. Into whatever city or village you enter, find out who in it is worthy; and stay there until you go on. As you enter into the household, greet it. 69 If the household is worthy, let your peace come on it, but if it is not worthy, let your peace return to you. Whoever does not receive you or hear your words, as you go out of that house or that city, shake off the dust from your feet. 70 [15] Most certainly I tell you, it will be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah 71 in the day of judgment than for that city. ” Church Order in Matthew Matthew is the only gospel with comprehensive instructions for church life, one reason why it soon became the most important gospel in the mainstream church. The instruction on church life in Matthew 18:1 –22 deals much more with the quality of everyday life in the church than with matters of church office and authority. This passage begins with sayings on humility and forgiveness and ends with procedures for dealing with persistent sin among church members. In that hour the disciples came to Jesus, saying, “Who then is greatest in the kingdom of heaven? ” Jesus called a little child to himself, set him in their midst, and said, “Most certainly I tell you, unless you turn and become as little children, you will in no way enter into the kingdom of heaven. Who- ever therefore humbles himself as this little child, the same is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. [5] Whoever receives one such little child in my name receives me, but whoever causes one of 69greet it: Give the inhabitants of the house a blessing, such as, “Peace be to this house. ” 70shake off the dust from your feet: An action symbolizing con- demnation for rejecting the message.71Sodom and Gomorrah: Cities destroyed by God for their wickedness ( Genesis 19:1 –28). Matthew 18:1 –22. 298 CHAPTER 11 |ChristianityCopEditorial re these little ones who believe in me to stumble, 72 it would be better for him that a huge millstone should be hung around his neck, and that he should be sunk in the depths of the sea. “Woe to the world because of occasions of stumbling! For it must be that the occasions come, but woe to that person through whom the occasion comes! If your hand or your foot causes you to stumble, cut it off, and cast it from you. It is better for you to enter into life maimed or crippled, rather than having two hands or two feet to be cast into the eternal fire. If your eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out, and cast it from you. It is better for you to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the Gehenna of fire. [10] See that you do not despise one of these little ones, for I tell you that in heaven their angels always see the face of my Father who is in heaven. 73 … [15] “If your brother 74 sins against you, show him his fault between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained back your brother. But if he does not listen, take one or two more with you, that at the mouth of two or three wit- nesses every word may be established. If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the church. If he refuses to hear the church also, let him be to you as a Gentile or a tax collector. 75 Most certainly I tell you, whatever things you bind on earth will have been bound in heaven, and whatever things you release on earth will have been released in heaven. 76 Again, assuredly I tell you, that if two of you will agree on earth concerning anything that they will ask, it will be done for them by my Father who is in heaven. [20] For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there I am in their midst. ” Then Peter came and said to him, “Lord, how often shall my brother sin against me, and I for- give him? As many as seven times? ” Jesus said to him, “I do not tell you as many as seven times, but seventy-seven times. ”77 Peter as the Rock In Matthew 16:13 –20, Jesus renames Simon as Peter, the rock on which the church is founded. Greek Petros (Peter) is similar to petra (rock), so these two words form a word-play here. Jesus gives Peter “the keys of the kingdom of heaven. ”The Roman Catholic Church officially sees this as establishing the papacy, the bishop of Rome, who is the successor of Peter and who holds universal power over the church by these “keys. ”Protestants, like the Eastern Orthodox churches, dispute this, arguing that other New Testament passages give the power of church leadership to all the apostles. 72stumble: A metaphor for causing someone else to lose faith in God or turn aside from God ’s way. 73their angels: Probably their guardian angels. 74brother: Here in the sense of “fellow follower of Christ, ”not a literal family member. 75a Gentile or a tax collector: That is, a person to be shunned. 76bind … release: Forbid an action as sinful or permit it, respectively.77seventy-seven times: Forgive without limit. Matthew 16:13 –20. ORGANIZATION |PeterastheRock 299CopEditorial re Now when Jesus came into Caesarea Philippi, 78 he asked his disciples, saying, “Who do men say that I, the Son of Man, am? ” They said, “Some say John the Baptizer, some, Elijah, and others, Jeremiah, or one of the prophets. ” [15] He said to them, “But who do you say that I am? ” Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God. ” Jesus answered him, “Blessed are you, Simon Bar Jonah, for flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. I also tell you that you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it. I will give to you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth will have been bound in heaven; and whatever you release on earth will have been released in heaven. ”79 [20] Then he commanded the disciples that they should tell no one that he was the Messiah. 80 Qualifications of Bishops and Deacons In the “Pastoral Letters, ”particularly here in 1 Timothy 3:1 –13, we see the beginning of the threefold office in the church: bishop (overseer), presbyter (an elder or priest), and deacon (assistant). This has been the most common pattern of church office among most Christians even when these particular names are not used. The duties of these offices are not given, but we can infer their duties from the lists of qualifications. Th