Please I need help with this essay, its an analysis of documents relating to special educational needs. QUESTION; In 1994, the UK government endorsed the Salamanca Statement, which states; “We believe

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Please I need help with this essay, its an analysis of documents relating to special educational needs.


QUESTION;

In 1994, the UK government endorsed the Salamanca Statement, which states;

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“We believe and proclaim that.. those with special educational needs must have access to regular schools which should accommodate them within a child centred pedagogy capable of meeting these needs” (UNESCO, 1994, p. viii)

The most recent SEND Code of Practice states;

“Children and young people with SEN have different needs and can be educated effectively in a range of mainstream or special settings” (DfE and DoH, 2015, p17)

Consider the development of inclusive education through national policy, international treaties and theoretical perspectives, and consider how far the SEND Code of Practice represents a shift in priorities for the education of children and young people with SEND in England. Has the shift been towards or away from the idea of full inclusion for all children, in a system of education supposedly based on the social model of disability?

Please I need help with this essay, its an analysis of documents relating to special educational needs. QUESTION; In 1994, the UK government endorsed the Salamanca Statement, which states; “We believe
A principle of inclusive education is that all children belong at their local school, and all children are able to meaningfully participate and learn at their local school. (p1) Kearney, A (2011) Exclusion From and Within School. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers ___________________________________________________________________________ …an ongoing process aimed at offering quality education for all while respecting diversity and the different needs and abilities, characteristics and learning expectations of the students and communities, eliminating all forms of discrimination. (p3) UNESCO (2008) Conclusions and Recommendations of the 48th Session of the International Conference on Education. Geneva: UNESCO ___________________________________________________________________________ Inclusion is about much more than the type of school that children attend; it is about the quality of their experience and how they are helped to learn, achieve and participate fully in the life of the school. (p12) DfES (2004) Removing Barriers to Achievement: Executive Summary. Nottingham: DfES Publications ___________________________________________________________________________ Inclusion is a process that maximises the entitlement of all pupils to a broad, relevant and stimulating curriculum, which is delivered in an environment which will have the greatest impact on their learning. National Association of Head Teachers (2005) Special Schools: A Policy Paper from NAHT. West Sussex: NAHT ___________________________________________________________________________ …a process of addressing and responding to the diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning, cultures and communities, and reducing exclusion within and from education. It involves changes and modifications in content, approaches, structures and strategies, with a common vision which covers all children of the appropriate age range and a conviction that it is the responsibility of the regular system to educate all children. (pp8 – 9) UNESCO (2009) Policy Guidelines on Inclusion in Education. Paris: UNESCO __________________________________________________________________________ Inclusive education is based on the right of all individuals to a quality education with equal opportunity—one that develops their potential and respects their human dignity. Inclusive education means more than physical integration, so that in addition to accessible classrooms and facilities, students with disabilities must be afforded adequate instructional support systems. These supports may include flexible curriculum (for some students), adequately prepared teachers, and a welcoming school community culture that goes beyond tolerance to acceptance. (p3) Peters, S. (2007) “Education for All?” A Historical Analysis of International Inclusive Education Policy and Individuals with Disabilities. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 18:98 _________________________________________________________________________ Inclusion is seeing more pupils with SEN included in mainstream and secondary schools. By inclusion we mean not only that pupils with SEN should wherever possible receive their education in a mainstream school, but also that they should join fully with their peers in the curriculum and the life of the school. For example, we believe that … children with SEN should generally take part in mainstream lessons rather than being isolated in separate units. (p44) DfEE (1997) Excellence for All Children: Meeting Special Educational Needs. London: DfEE __________________________________________________________________________ An educationally inclusive school is one in which the teaching and learning, achievements, attitude and well-being of every young person matters. Effective schools are educationally inclusive schools. This shows not only in their performance, but also in their ethos and their willingness to offer new opportunities to pupils who may have experienced previous difficulties … the most effective schools do not take educational inclusion for granted. They constantly monitor and evaluate the progress each pupil makes. They identify any pupils who may be missing out, difficult to engage, or feeling in some way apart from what the school seeks to provide. (p7) OFSTED (2000) Evaluating Educational Inclusion. London: OFSTED
Please I need help with this essay, its an analysis of documents relating to special educational needs. QUESTION; In 1994, the UK government endorsed the Salamanca Statement, which states; “We believe
TITLE/QUESTION Every essay title contains an explicit or implicit question. Your essay should focus on answering that question. INTRODUCTION: (about 10% of the essay) Explain how you interpret the title What issues/topics are you going to explore? What will be your focus? What will your essay show? MAIN BODY (about 80% of the essay) Use a chain of paragraphs to EXPLORE AND DEVELOP your ideas/argument. You will probably have 4 or 5 main topics. Each topic will need 3 or 4 paragraphs in which you will introduce the topic, and present examples and evidence to show why it is important and how it links to the essay title In each paragraph the reader is asking you to explain: What is this paragraph about? What is your argument on this? What is your evidence? What does it mean? How does it link to the essay title? How does it link to the topic in the next paragraph? CONCLUSION (about 10% of the essay) Do not introduce any NEW material here. Summarise your ideas/argument (you might also have done this in your introduction) Restate what you consider to be the main points Make it clear why those conclusions are important or significant. In your last sentence: link your conclusions or recommendations back to the title.
Please I need help with this essay, its an analysis of documents relating to special educational needs. QUESTION; In 1994, the UK government endorsed the Salamanca Statement, which states; “We believe
In 1994, the UK government endorsed the Salamanca Statement, which states; “We believe and proclaim that.. those with special educational needs must have access to regular schools which should accommodate them within a child centred pedagogy capable of meeting these needs” (UNESCO, 1994, p. viii) The most recent SEND Code of Practice states; “Children and young people with SEN have different needs and can be educated effectively in a range of mainstream or special settings” (DfE and DoH, 2015, p17) Consider the development of inclusive education through national policy, international treaties and theoretical perspectives, and consider how far the SEND Code of Practice represents a shift in priorities for the education of children and young people with SEND in England. Has the shift been towards or away from the idea of full inclusion for all children, in a system of education supposedly based on the social model of disability? (2,500 words) Learning Outcomes Demonstrate a systematic understanding of knowledge and a critical awareness of issues related to inclusion Critically evaluate current research in the area of inclusion Demonstrate originality in the interpretation and application of knowledge and research in the area of inclusion Suggested Structure Word counts are indicative – you could expand or decrease certain sections. Introduction (250 words ish) State the aims of the essay and the main areas of discussion. Defining and discussing inclusion (500 words ish) Outline the difficulties in defining inclusion and show that there is no universal definition. You need to critically evaluate; this means drawing comparisons between definitions, showing overlaps and inconsistencies, and considering the implications of these different definitions. You need to define a social model of disability in this section (this may be something you wish to spend longer exploring) and show how this links to education. Consider what we mean by SEN- is this still appropriate terminology? When writing about definitions, there can be a temptation to quote at length; it is better to paraphrase and just quote key phrases to illustrate what you mean. Avoid dictionary definitions- we are looking for academic definitions. Development of policy (500 words ish) Briefly outline why Warnock’s 1978 report is considered to be so important in the history of inclusive education. You should critically evaluate Warnock – what have other writers said about the report? Was it a step towards a social model of inclusion? (You may wish to explore ideas about labels further in this section) Briefly outline why the Salamanca statement is considered to be so important in the history of inclusive education. Remember to be critical. Consider the UNCRC, the UNCRPD and other rights-based documents here- what was their contribution to our understanding of inclusion? What did the national and international documents contribute to how inclusive education was enacted in England? Is there a link or gap between international documents and national policy? Reasons for the SEN reforms (2014-2015 (500 words ish) Outline some of the issues raised by reports and reviews into SEN and inclusive education (Warnock 2005, Select Committee, Lamb, Ofsted). You may want to focus on one or two main areas of criticism so you can explore them in further detail. Remember to refer to other writers as well (this could include organisations such as IPSEA, NASEN, plus authors such as Ekins). You need to be synthesising all of your reading and showing common threads. The Code of Practice and contemporary understandings of inclusion (500 words ish) Critically consider what the Code of Practice says about inclusion. How has the Code been received? Consider other aspects of the Code at this stage; how does the focus on pupil voice and life outcomes link to inclusion more broadly? How helpful are the categories of SEN and its definition? Does the Code move the education system towards or away from a social model of disability in education? Should we still be striving towards a fully inclusive system of education? Conclusion (250 words ish) You need to draw together all the threads of your assignment, making sure you do not bring in any new ideas. Remember to address the question here.

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