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Summary of 550 words about an article attached “viewing persons with disabilities as a culture”
Summary of 550 words about an article attached viewing persons with disabilities
Dr. Rakesh Mittoo 1 THE UNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA Inter – Departmental Correspondence DATE: May 8, 2021 TO : All Communication Students in GMGT 2010 , Section A01 FROM : Rakesh Mittoo, Instructor SUBJECT: Summary Assignment Dr. Rakesh Mittoo 2 For this assignment, you will be writing a summary of the chapter “Point to the Destination” excerpted from Chip Heath and Dan Heath’s book Switch: How to Change Things When Change is Hard. Your summary should not exceed 550 words. A summary is a brief restatement, in your own words, of the content of a source — a passage, an article, a chapter, or a book. This restatement should focus on the central idea of the source, and, therefore, a summary can be only one or two sentences long. A longer, more complete, summary, which is the kind you will be crafting, will state the central idea of the source and include the main ideas that support or explain the central idea. It may even refer to some important illustrative examples. A summary is hierarchical in structure, for it begins with the most important central idea, followed by the supporting ideas and examples. A good summary will even reflect the order in which the ideas are presented in the source. In this summary, condense the ideas in this chapter as completely as possible and mirror its organization as well. Dr. Rakesh Mittoo 3 To read this chapter (or any article) and produce the draft of your summary, use the following strategies: Reading Write in the margins as you read the article. Jot down brief notes that identify content and summarize or explain ideas. Don’t highlight unimportant details, examples, or redundancies. Locate and underline the thesis or central idea of the article. If you can’t locate an obvious thesis statement, write one that states the central idea. Then , identify the major topic divisions/sections of the article. Subject headings may be useful guides to this organization. Highlight all of the supporting ideas in each section. Dr. Rakesh Mittoo 4 Writing the Draft – Begin your summary by referring to the author and the title, and by writing down the thesis/central idea in your own words . Following this information, give a brief summary of each major section of the article, condensing the supporting ideas. – Select a few significant, illustrative examples or specifics that support the main ideas. Write the summary, imitating the organizational pattern of the article/chapter. Dr. Rakesh Mittoo 5 Editing Strategies – Use vivid and exact language to make your summary clear and interesting. Refer to the thesaurus, if necessary. – Use effective transitional expressions between statements within a paragraph and between paragraphs. – Use present tense in referring to the author and the article. For instance, the “author states” instead of the “author stated”; the “article contains” instead of the “article contained . – In your first reference to the author, use both names; for subsequent references, use only the last name. – Make sure you retain the same tone and emphasis as the writer maintains. – Don’t include your opinions on the issues. – Don’t include direct quotations from the article. Present the information in your own words. – Combine sentences wherever possible and appropriate. – Eliminate wordiness, redundant expressions, or unnecessary details. – Rewrite and edit until this version meets the required length. DUE : See the Course Outline Dr. Rakesh Mittoo 6
Summary of 550 words about an article attached viewing persons with disabilities
Paraphrase and Summary Lecture Dr. Rakesh Mittoo PARAPHRASE • Replaces language of the original with your own • Renders the idea as clearly and accurately as possible • Helps clarify abstract or complex material Dr. Rakesh Mittoo How to Do Paraphrase • Understand the source passage. • Substitute your own words (synonyms) • Change the structures of the sentences. • Do not imitate style or copy the language. • Acknowledge the source. • Do not use quotes in a paraphrase or a summary Dr. Rakesh Mittoo Paraphrase Techniques 1. Change a sentence or part of it from one grammatical form to another: (a) Certainly , life exists on other planets. It is certain that life exists on other planets. That life exists on other planets is certain. (b) Weather conditions being favorable , we shall fly. If the weather conditions are favorable, we shall fly. Weather conditions are favorable, and we shall fly . (c) The girl with dark hair is my sister. The dark haired girl is my sister. The girl who has dark hair is my sister. 2. Use synonyms when you are paraphrasing: A biting wind caused them to shiver. (cutting , piercing, chilling, nipping) Example : It was a beautiful day, and I didn’t want to be inside. Dr. Rakesh Mittoo Similarities and Differences PARAPHRASE Recasts the message into your own language Has roughly the same length as the original/source SUMMARY Same Is a short or compressed version of the source — 1/5 th of the length of the source passage. An abstract or summary is even shorter. Dr. Rakesh Mittoo Similarities and Differences PARAPHRASE Objective: 1) Accurate restatement of the original 2) No expression of personal opinion Doesn’t copy the language of the source. A faulty paraphrase plagiarizes or copies the same language as in the source. SUMMARY Same Same Dr. Rakesh Mittoo Similarities and Differences • PARAPHRASE • Follows the same order of ideas as in the source. • Doesn’t use quotes • SUMMARY • Reflects the order of in which the ideas are presented in the source • Do not use quotes in the summary Dr. Rakesh Mittoo Similarities and Differences PARAPHRASE Maintains the same tone and emphasis as in the source Links ideas Does not follow the hierarchical structure of ideas in the source SUMMARY Same Same Is hierarchical: central idea; main or supporting ideas; and some specifics Dr. Rakesh Mittoo Summary Techniques • A. SELECTION • Underline , circle, and highlight the most important information : thesis/central idea. • Look for key words to identify those that express substantial information or make major statements (main ideas/supporting ideas). • Ask: What is the author’s specific point? What draws the whole together? Dr. Rakesh Mittoo Summary Techniques • B. DELETION • Cross out the less important information/material. • Digressions • Repetitions (similar examples, etc) • Nonessential background information • Wordy or Extended examples unless very central • INSTEAD FOCUS ON THE IMPORT OF THE EXAMPLE • Interest -provoking anecdotes • Minor details Dr. Rakesh Mittoo Summary Techniques • C. NOTE TAKING • In point form of main/key ideas for each section • Follow the logic of ideas and connections between them. • FOCUS ON LARGE CHUNKS/SECTIONS • D . MINIATURING • Notice the shape, flow, and overall impression of the whole. • COMBINE SECTION SUMMARIES Dr. Rakesh Mittoo A Paragraph for Summary Practice Anyone who claims it is impossible to get rid of the random violence of today’s mean streets may be telling the truth, but is also missing the point. Street crime may be normal in the U.S., but it is not inevitable at such levels, and the fact is that there are specific reasons for the nation’s incapacity to keep its crime down. Almost all these reasons can be traced to the American criminal justice system. It is not that there are no mechanisms in place to deal with American crime, merely that the existing ones are impractical, inefficient, anachronistic, uncooperative, and often lead to as much civic destruction as they are meant to curtail. (This is the original paragraph from Rosenblatt’s cover story in Time magazine.) Identify the central idea. Identify the main (supporting) idea. Write one sentence for each. Be selective in word choice, yet convey the complete thought. Dr. Rakesh Mittoo Introductory and Concluding Paragraphs • Introductory paragraph of your summary should include: • 1. The central idea — one or two sentences • 2. Attribution: information about the source (author’s name, title of the article or the chapter, the title of the book, journal, or magazine) • 3. Overview statement about the article or the chapter in a sentence. • • Below is a student’s example of an introductory paragraph: • In the chapter “Knowing Yourself” taken from his book On Becoming a Leader , Warren Bennis states that people become leaders only once they understand themselves and decide on their own what kind of a person they would become. Bennis discusses four lessons of leadership. • After writing the introductory paragraph, write other paragraphs which summarize the entire article or chapter. • Also add a very brief concluding paragraph which summarizes the conclusion that the writer states. Dr. Rakesh Mittoo Overall Comments on Students’ Summaries and Checklist • Incorporate correct name of the author, title of the chapter/article, and the book in your introductory paragraph. Make sure this para also contains the paraphrased central idea and the overview statement. • The introductory paragraph should be two to three sentences long. • Body paragraphs should be at least four to six sentences long. • Maintain paragraph structure — unity, coherence, and development — in your summary. Especially, try to link ideas together so that your paragraphs are connected. • Use effective transitional expressions, such as however, therefore, as a result, according to etc., that help to relate ideas. Also, try to combine sentences where needed. • Do not summarize paragraph by paragraph. For example, you may choose to condense some paragraphs into only one paragraph for your summary. • Focus on summarizing major ideas from the original or source. As well, capture the logic or development of key or main (supporting) ideas. Choose a few specifics which illustrate the idea. • Reflect the structure of the source article/chapter in your summary. • Establish appropriate distance and context for the material you’re summarizing. Do not comment on the article by praising or criticizing the writer. Do not add your opinion to the writer’s ideas in the body of your summary or in the last paragraph. • Maintain the same tone and emphasis as the author’s. Dr. Rakesh Mittoo Overall Comments on Students’ Summaries and Checklist • Be alert to sentence errors: fragments, comma splices, or run -on (fused) sentences. • Use thesaurus and dictionary to ensure effective and correct use of words to communicate the ideas in the source. • Format according to MLA/APA guidelines for academic writing: 1 -inch margins (top, bottom, left, and right), ragged -right margin (not justified margins), double spacing, indentation for a new paragraph, and so on. • Avoid pronoun shifts and the use of “you” pronoun. • Avoid wordiness as well as short, choppy sentences. • Do not construct one -sentence paragraphs for summary assignment or other papers. If you have such a paragraph, attach it to the paragraph where it should belong. • Do not use lists or bullet points for the writer’s ideas or points. • Do not use headings or subheadings even if the writer uses them. • Do not use direct quotes for ideas from the article. Present information in your own words. • Do not omit relevant details that would change the original author’s point of view. • Avoid font size larger or shorter than 12 point font size. • Proofread your summary. Check to see that the message will be just as clear to the reader as it is to you. Check for errors in spelling or typos. • Do not restate the ideas of the article or the chapter in the last paragraph of you summary. The concluding paragraph should not be longer than two lines. Dr. Rakesh Mittoo