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Sustainable development research paper deadline is 3rd of January everything will be discussed in private
How has Palm Oil Production in West Africa Impacted Climate Change? Gases and Emissions Palm oil is generally high carbon sequestration which means that not only does it reduce the overall CO2 emission, it is potential as a fuel substitute means that it can contribute to SDG 7 on affordable and clean energy (Nerini et al. 2019: 678). Indeed, Ricardo Carrere (Carrera 2013: 7) notes that some West African states have been approached with the encouragement to initiate the establishment of large-scale palm oil plantations in line with the World Bank, USAID, and the USDA since 2008 (Nerini et al. 2013: 56). In Ghana, the national government’s EPA, in conjunction with the Ghana Palm Oil Production Company, are in talks over how carbon credits can be generated from the biodiversity plots cultivated (Stenek & Connell 2011: 12-13). In effect, the case with West Africa is that most palm oil cultivation is not as environmentally destructive on peatlands or cleared forests as observed in Malaysia and Indonesia (Meijard et al. 2020: 1422-1423). While palm oil production and cultivation generally lead to higher GHG (green-house gases), VOG (volatile organic gases), and aerosol particles from land clearing that impact on the troposphere (Paterson & Lima 2017: 2-3; Potter 2015: 8), these effects are only observed mainly during the early cultivation period as land is overturned for palm oil production. The effect is more noticeable with West Africa due to less environmentally demanding and destructive industrial processing methods as well as a higher preference among small-scale farmers to limit sourcing to traditional methods such as seeking palm oil fruit from wild plants. That said, data on carbon stock from countries such as Cameroon and the Congo Basin are not reliable (Ordwayet al. 2019: 2) as these two regions comprise a significant portion of plantation land managed by industrial agents (Carrera: 7). Deforestation At the same time, sustainable development goals require understanding that local industries and governments need to place income generation above climate concerns (Sachs 2015: 45-46). Most of Africa relies on agro-based industries that come with their contributions to upsetting climate balance, with many West African countries numbering among the least developed states in the world (Sachs 2015: 48). What makes matters worse is that most of the poorest people in West Africa are densely packed along with the rainforests and wetlands of the region (Sachs 2015: 53). The lack of advanced resources makes reliance on palm oil for income generation exceptionally high, hence contributing to SDG threats. In general, deforestation effects are responsible for a large portion of the reduction in carbon stocks and the increase in particle contaminants in the atmosphere. Deforestation effects from palm oil production in West Africa are relatively low at 3% regionally, but some countries, such as Cameroon, possess most palm oil plantations under industrial management (Mesmin et al., 2021). The point is of interest for SDGs when it comes to West Africa primarily because of the patterns in cultivation observed. In Nigeria, 2.8 million hectares have 2.5 million (Carrere: 9) produced by non-industrial methods such as sourcing from wild plants and using manual methods rather than industrial processing techniques (Carrera: 7). Meijaard et al. note on the trend in small-scale palm oil farmers in South East Asia tending to convert vulnerable forest lands into palm plantations (Meijaard et al. 2020: 1419-1420). The significance of the figure is further impacted when considering the added complication that is afforestation resulting from palm oil tree planting. Palm oil plantations have seen a general increase in land area in the years between 1989 and 2013 (Vijay et al. 2016: 8). Observations on trends in West Africa in Nigeria, Cameroon, Ghana, and Ivory Coast are that while initial plantation ventures resulted in deforestation, afforestation leading to palm oil cultivation in Cameroon, Ghana, and Ivory Coast generally reversed the effect (Vijay et al. 2016.: 8). Furthermore, Paterson and Lima suggest that climate change impact is reduced because cleared forests in West Africa are almost immediately re-cultivated with palm oil (Paterson & Lima 2018: 454). In this regard, significant research is necessary in order to gain a clearer understanding (Meijaard et al.:, 1420). SDG 13 goals in West Africa adopt methods aimed at making production in West African more environmentally friendly through measures aimed at reducing environmental impact. Unlike in Indonesia and Malaysia, the more significant percentage of palm oil production in Africa accrues from small-scale farming practices (Carrere: 7), with Cameroon the main outlier where the vast majority of palm oil production comes from industrial plantations (Carrere: 7). The result of this is that the impact on forestation is not as extreme as observed in South East Asia. Paterson and Lima’s observation on SDG initiatives in Indonesia point out that limiting palm oil cultivation to regions with lower carbon stocks can contribute to reducing GHG and VOG emissions due to deforestation (2017: 4), a strategy that may be employed in West Africa and especially Cameroon. Mono-cultralization and Climate Change Focus on the subject is that the introduction of alien or parasitic plant species non-indigenous to a particular region upsets the ecological balance hence contributing to climate change. Palm oil is a wild plant indigenous to West Africa (Meijard et al.: 1418-1420). This means it grows in its natural habitat; thus, while mono-culturalization may be a danger in terms of reducing biodiversity due to intensified palm oil cultivation, the overall impact on climate change should be minimal to non-existent. Palm oil requires warm and wet climates with high humidity and high radiation from the Sun (Meijard et al.: 1418-1420). This also means that the impact on groundwater is minimal since the ecological impact from cultivating palm oil is non-existent due to its native nature (Meijard et al.:, 1419). In addition, because the species is indigenous to West Africa, Meijaard et al. proceed to imply that forest destruction from pests, diseases, or reduced pollination may not be a contributive factor to eliminating carbon stocks (Meijaard et al.: 1421-1422). Stenek and Connell claim that there are no observable effects accruing from pests or disease impacting on palm oil initiatives in Ghana (2). References Carerre, Ricardo (2013) ‘Oil Palm in Africa: past, present and future scenarios’ World Rainforest Movement. 15(1). Meijaard, Erik, Thomas Brooks and Kimberly Carlson (2020) ‘The environmental impacts of palm oil in context’ Nat. Plants 6(1), 1418–1426. Mesmin, Tchindjang, Ludovic Miaro, Fideline Mboringong, Gilles Etoga, Eric Voundi and Emmanuel Ngom (2021) ‘Environmental Impacts of the Oil Palm Cultivation in Cameroon [Online First]’ IntechOpen. Nerini, Francesco, Benjamin Sovacool and Nick Hughes (2019) ‘Connecting climate action with other Sustainable Development Goals’ Nat Sustain 2(1), 674–680. Ordway, Elsa, Rosamond Naylor and Raymond Nkongho (2019) ‘Oil palm expansion and deforestation in Southwest Cameroon associated with proliferation of informal mills’ Nat Commun 10, 114. Paterson, Russell and Nelson Lima (2017) ‘Climate change affecting oil palm agronomy, and oil palm cultivation increasing climate change, require amelioration’ Ecology and evolution, 8(1), 452–461. Potter, Lesley (2015) ‘Managing oil palm landscapes: A seven-country survey of the modern palm oil industry in Southeast Asia, Latin America and West Africa’ Center for International Forestry Research. Sachs, Jeffrey (2015) The Age of Sustainable Develpoment Columbia University Press. Stenek, Vladimir and Richenda Connell (2011) ‘CLIMATE RISK AND BUSINESS AGRIBUSINESS Ghana Oil Palm Development Company Executive Summary’ International Finance Corporation. Vijay, Varsha, Stuart Pimm, Clinton Jenkins, and Sharon Smith (2016) ‘The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss’ PLoS One. 11(7).
Sustainable development research paper deadline is 3rd of January everything will be discussed in private
In what way(s) has climate change shaped the trajectory of sustainable development of agriculture in Azerbaijan? Introduction Earth’s population is increasing, necessitating an increase in resources. UN reports that the global population will reach 9 .8 billion by 2050, with a need for meal to double in order to meet the exploding demand (UN DESA, 2017) . More than a billion people in the world currently get their livelihood from farming. What is more , population growth is now posing a significant challenge with finite natural resources. In furthermore to this worry, food waste also occurs at each stage of the food chain . Unsustainable agricultural practices reinforce the need for innovation because without the innovation, it will b e harder to conduct sustainable agriculture practices that meet the needs of society while leaving resources for the future . Threat of the climate change to the sustainable agriculture has been an issue of the net negative effect on the crop yields, as well as the one of the water scarcity and food security. This paper examines the effects of climate change and global wa rming on the agricultural sustainability in Azerbaijan, analyzing the increase in global temperature in terms of the negatively affect ed annual yield of crop s , severely affected levels of precipitation as well as the rising threats coupled with the water s carcity . Literature Review Statistics shows, that in comparison with the 20 th century, in the areas where crops are grown, a yearly change in temperature has already increased by 1 °C. According to Seyed Hossein, Mirjalili Mahdis, and Motaghian Fard (2019) , by the year 2100, climate change will mean considerable economic losses for most underdeveloped countries, especially the ones relying on crop yields. In the areas where one expects to see rising temperatures combined its effect with the decreased precip itation climate change would likely expose agriculture to a deeper crisis and cause a significant reduction of food supply. As climate change begins affecting the lives of ordinary citizens and consumers ever more severely, the research into how the increa se in global temperature affects agricultural activity and production becomes more relevant. As the research study conducted by Tokunaga et al (2015) from 1995 through 2006 showed, there is a strong correlation between an increase in temperature by 1 °C an d dwindled rice production by nearly 6% in 8 different regions of Japan. The study results are also replicated in the research studies from other parts of the world. For instance, a study by Seyed Hossein Mirjalili, Mahdis Motaghian Fard (2019) came to the conclusion that in 24 years climate change negatively affected crop yiel d production in 14 different OIC (Organization of Islamic Countries) members . Another study into the effect of climate change on crop yield was conducted by Chuang Zhao (2017) who concluded that ceteris paribus, one unit of rising in worldwide temperature is expected to cut global rice production by an average of 3.2 ± 3.7%. According to Deepak Ray (2021), even though not always temperature change negatively affects crop yields, in the majority of cases, it decreases the production of crops. In the span of 4 years University of Minnesota’s Institute on the Environment, examined almost 20.000 areas of crop production across the globe to research the relationship between the changes in weather and crop production. They found out that climate change has already decreased crop yield production, by reducing the rice harvests worldwide by 0.3% while indicating a 0.9% fall in wheat yields annual ly . Wheat production will decrease by approximately 6% , accordingly . Azerbaijan is located in the region affected largely b y climate change. In a country with four fifths of the territory covered by semi – aridic climate , the great majority of the agricultural land is irrigated given its vulnerable nature and exposure to the climate (Bayramov, 2018) . Among the crucial factors that impact climate change could imbalance the sustainability of the agricultural productivity in the territory of Azerbaijan is highly as sociated with the presence of rising in local temperature strong variability in the patter ns of precipitation and rising patterns of melting in glaciers of smaller and higher Caucasus mountains. As there are two sources of plants getting watered in Azerbaijan: one being irrigation and another being dependent on the rainfed regions; the high lev el of variability in the patterns of precipitation will lead to the increased vulnerability in the regions where rainfed farming is the main source of agricultural activity with precipitation levels expected to decline nationally about 40 mm per year by 20 50 (Ahouissoussi, et al., 2014). One of the studies on the severity of the impact sourced from the climate change on the crop yield in the territory of Azerbaijan was conducted with the funding of the World Bank and the report divided climate change effect s into low, medium, and high impact scenarios. According to the report, if one expects to see the Medium Impact Scenario happening and without going to the extremes, the results for Azerbaijan would be devastating of all with a 77% decrease in the producti on of alfalfa, corn, potato, wheat, and 66% of the decrease in the yield of grape (Ahouissoussi, Neumann, & Srivastava, 2014). As the study found, the main reason would be the high dependence of the local crops in Azerbaijan on irrigation. However, not all crops would be affected the same way. The study estimated that the average decrease in the crop yield resulting from the climate change by 2050 under the medium impact scenario will be 3 – 28 percent in the rainfed agriculture regions while constituting 3 – 1 6 percent in the irrigated system using agricultural regions (Ahouissoussi, Neumann, & Srivastava, Building Resilience to Climate Change in South Caucasus Agriculture, 2014). The problem with the drop in precipitation is just one part of the problem. The o ther part is the expected future growth in water demand levels as the global temperature will increase. Yet another part of the problem is the potential impact of climate change on the water runoff into rivers which is also expected to shrink significantly . Water scarcity and stress on water resources will become a major problem in the region of South Caucasus if no measures are taken. By the year 2040, it is expected that the water runoff will increase the month of February, the lowest indicator of runoff in 2020, while diminishing for the warmer months and especially for August reporting a loss of 200 million cubic meters compared to the levels recorded in 2014 under the premise that climate change would yield medium impact on Azerbaijan (Ahouissoussi, et al., Reducing the Vulnerability of Azerbaijan’s Agricultural Systems to Climate Change, 2014). The vicious cycle of water scarcity and rise in the global temperature constitute yet a major problem of managing the agricultural activity for the sustainabilit y of food supply and the provision of daily water needs of humanity. Considering that there will be a decrease in strategic food supplies of Azerbaijan, the high – level structures such as the A zerbaijani Food Safety A gency (AFSA) and the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences have recently initiated actions for its preparation. The objective is to form a group focused on controlling, governing, monitoring, and reporting on the risks of climate change every year to measure future actions (MENA Report, 2020) . Local Assessment of the Climate Change Impact on Agriculture Heads of departments of the Agrarian Science and Innovation Center Javanshir Talai, Nijat Nasirli and senior specialist of the center Yagub Guliyev held a public briefing at the Press Center of Sputnik Azerbaijan Agency to discuss and explain the implications of the climate change on the agribusiness . The experts provided detailed information on the impact of climate change on agriculture and answered questions. Yagub Guliyev, a senior specialist at the Center for Agrarian Science and Innovation of the Ministry of Agriculture, informed the public abou t the global concern about climate change and its impact on agriculture by quoting it as an inevitable process induced by humans (Agricultural Science and Innovation Center, 2020) . Therefore, Azerbaijani authorities plan to tak e fast measures to ensure that the agricultural sector reduces the negative impact of climate change on agriculture. One of the biggest effects of climate change is the uneven distribution of precipitation. This year we have faced serious problems in the Aran region of Azerbaijan (mainly grain fields) due to the drought. Most of the grain is planted in the fall. If we look at the graph below, we can see that the thunder standard average rainfall over the last 50 years has not been consistent, and Azerbaija n is experiencing droughts like never before, which are being caused by a rise in temperatures compared to the same time last year. Based on the information which was collected and then visualized from the State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Aze rbaijan (2019), w e can observe from F igure 1 and F igure 2, while the annual precipitation levels have dropped almost by 10% (Figure 1), the annual temperature in Azerbaijan has risen by 1.5 – 2 °C (Figure 2). The minimum lowest monthly temperature in the cou ntry 02004006008001961-1990200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182019Fig 1. Average annual rainfall, mm02468101214161961-1990200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182019Fig 2. Average annual temperature, degrees CelciusStatistical Committee of Azerbaijan (2019) Statistical Committee of Azerbaijan (2019) -6.0-4.0-2.00.02.04.0200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182019Fig 3. Minimum (lowest) average monthly temperature, degrees Celcius (Statistical Committee of Azerbaijan, 2019) has risen almost 6 – 7°C from its minimum level over the last 50 years (Figure 3). This sharp rise in the nature of temperature constitutes direct evidence of the effects of global warming on Azerbaijan and, therefore, the need for a sustainable agricul tural framework in the country is on the rise . Climate change is already affecting the agricultural practices in Azerbaijan on a large level. There are mounting evidence of the fat that more and more land needs to be connected to the network of irrigation lands in Azerbaijan every year and the situatio n is expected to get worse in the next decade . Azerbaijani farmers need more water to meet their needs and produce crops. One more problem in this case is that both farmers and Azerbaij an i citizens utilize water from the main rivers of the country called K ura and Araz rivers. As per the statistics, the share of the irrigated land in the country has ascended since 2002 when it made up roughly 82,5% to more than 84% in 2019. While this might seem like a huge change from the previous spot, one cannot ignore th e fact that the subscribers of water supply companies have almost doubled since 2002 by increasing to 71% in 2019 , as depicted in the Figure 4 (State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan, 2019) . 0.00%20.00%40.00%60.00%80.00%100.00%200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182019Share of the irrigated landThe share of the population supplied with water by watersupply companies, (%)Figure 4. Statistical Committee of Azerbaijan (2019)0.0100.0200.0300.0400.0500.0600.0700.0800.0200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182019Total volume of fresh water supplied from water supply area,millions cubic metersWater loss during delivery, millions cubic metersFresh water provided to consumers by water supply companies,millions cubic meters Figure 5. Statistical Committee of Azerbaijan ( 2019 ) A more alarming point worthy of mentioning is that Azerbaijani water resources do not only undergo a huge pressure from several sectors, including the residential, agricultural and others; also , there are huge amounts of water losses in the procedure . T hose facto rs lead to the drop in the freshwater provided to consumers every year even though more and more people are subscribing to such services . As Figure 5 demonstrates, 126 million cubic meters of lost water was quadrupled in 2012 with more than 421 million cub ic meters; these losses during the delivery of water supplies to the residential houses by water delivery companies have decreased by half to 275 million cubic meters in 2019 (State Statistical Committee of the Republic of Azerbaija n, 2019) . Freshwater resources waste is one of the sensitive issues on the global agenda to address climate change. These figures ra is e legitimate concerns about the future of water security in Azerbaij an and, therefore , the state has to take preventive measures and discourage people from wasting water resources. Nijat Nasirli, head of the Agrarian Science and Innovation Center of the Mi nistry of Agriculture, said that farmers have not taken a number of progressive steps (Agricultural Science and Innovation Center, 2020) . He also declared that there are frequent problems once the temperature increases. To manage the situation, preventive measures are being implemented. Here the main problem is education and training about how to use water resources sustainably . Here, the farmer must make sure he is properly educated, and provi de information to the ministry if necessary. Therefore, the responsibility of the transition is through the encouragement of the state towards sustainable farming via awareness – raising events in the districts every week. The transition to water – saving tech nologies is important in combating drought. Javanshir Talai, H ead of the Department of Agrarian Science and Innovation at the Ministry of Agriculture mentions that the situation with crop yield is not good at the global scale, and he contends that given the current situation continues to escalate , food security will be in question in the future (Mammadov, 2020) . The estimates display that by 2050, the world’s populati on is expected to reach 9 billion. According to experts, people’s demand for food will double. Today, as a result of climate change, lands are being degraded and desertification is accelerating. Especially in developed countries, there are national adaptat ion plans to adapt to climate change. The issue of efficient use of climate resources in agricultural production is one of the important tasks to solve the food problem. To implement it, it is necessary to study in depth the features of our area, to identi fy potential opportunities for more efficient and rapid development of agriculture. These plans include many issues such as the issue of insurance of cereals, which is of particular strategic importance which are also applicable to Azerbaijan . Simultaneous ly , the protection of traditional breeding materials, i.e. , traditional plant varieties, seed production have 0500000100000015000002000000250000030000003500000200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182019Production of autumn and spring wheat in the republic, tonsProduction of cereals and legumes in the country, tons Figure 6. Statistical Committee of Azerbaijan (2019) been on a high demand . It’s worth nothing the fact that Azerbaijani farmers are actively engaging in planting harvests in the recent years and statistics have shown that the production of cereals such as autumn and spring wheat, or grains such as legumes are constantly rising which is good news for the food security (Figur e 6). However, when we combine the puzzle with the already established imagination of the effects of climate change on annual harvest, we will understand that during the next decade, rising temperatures will start harming this process and cause crisis with out the needed interventions. Conclusion To sum up, Azerbaijani agriculture is expecting a fierce problem related to the water scarcity and decrease in the harvests due to the climate change . S ustainable agriculture is currently a new field for an economy of Azerbaijan and the policies incentivizing such activities have to be introduced in the shortest time possible . Rising use of water resources both by the farmers and citizens will put high strain on the water management in the absence of sustainable wat er management strategies. Furthermore, rising temperatures promise to be fatal by leading to the lack of food in the next decades amidst the growing demand for crops. As the paper demonstrated, the problem of this nature has taken a global character and un resolved, it will lead to the serious risks and disasters in terms of the future of water and food security globally. Bibliography Abbasov, R. K., & Smakhtin, V. U. (2011). Indexing the Environmental Vulnerability of Mountain Streams in Azerbaijan. Mountai n Research and Development , 73 – 82. Agricultural Science and Innovation Center. (2020, January 30). Climate change poses risks to agricultural production in the world and in our country . Retrieved from Agricultural Science And Innovation Center: http://aeim.gov.az/ru/pages/24/74/news/190 Ahouissoussi, N., Neumann, J. E., & Srivastava, J. 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