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Lab Activity #2: Cardiovascular Responses to Changes in Exercise

Introduction

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Blood pressure is the pressure the blood exerts against the inner blood vessel walls; it is generally measured in arteries. Because the heart alternatively contracts and relaxes, the rhythmic flow of blood into the arteries causes the blood pressure to rise and fall during each beat. Thus, there are two measurements – the systolic pressure, which is the pressure in the arteries at peak of ventricular ejection, and the diastolic pressure, the pressure during ventricular relaxation. Blood pressures are reported in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), with the systolic pressure appearing first; 120/80 translates to 120 over 80, or a systolic pressure of 120 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure of 80 mm Hg. However, normal blood pressure varies considerably from person to person.

Arterial blood pressure (BP) is directly proportional to cardiac output (CO, the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per minute) and peripheral resistance (PR) to blood flow; that is,

Peripheral resistance is increased by blood vessel constriction, by an increase in blood volume or blood viscosity, and by a loss of elasticity of the arteries (as seen in arteriosclerosis). Any factor that increases either cardiac output or the peripheral resistance causes an almost immediate reflex rise in blood pressure. Here we investigate how changes in exercise.

Background

Measuring Pulse

The pulse may be felt easily on any artery close to the body surface when the artery is compressed over a bone or firm tissue. There are several different areas that you can palpate that are generally easy to access and find the pulse:

· Radial pulse: using the radial artery on the lateral aspect of the wrist, just above the thumb

· Carotid pulse: common carotid artery can be used, which is found at the side of the neck

Likewise, measuring pulses can be done with technology that is available in many different smartphones, smartwatches, etc.

Index of Physical Fitness

The index of physical fitness can be calculated by using the following formula:

Interpret scores according to the following scale:

Below 55 poor physical condition

55 to 62 low average

63 to 71 average

72 to 79 high average

80 to 89 good

90 and over excellent

Blood Pressuring Monitoring

Traditionally, a sphygmomanometer, commonly called a blood-pressure cuff, is an instrument used to measure blood pressure by the auscultatory method. It consists of an inflatable cuff with an attached pressure gauge. The cuff is inflated to stop blood flow to the forearm. As cuff pressure is gradually released, the examiner listens with a stethoscope over the brachial artery. To start, the cuff is inflated to a pressure around 160 mm Hg to stop blood flow to the arm. As pressure is slowly released, sounds of blood flow are measured. The pressure at which the first sounds of blood flow are found is the systolic pressure. As pressure continues to drop there is an increase, and then a muffling, of the sound. The pressure at which there is no more sounds of blood flow is the diastolic pressure.

For this lab, you will need to follow the directions for whatever blood pressure monitoring system you have at home. Do note what type of blood pressure monitoring device you have and how it works in your lab report.

Materials

For this lab you will need:

· Blood pressure monitoring device

· Timer

· A step or step-stool of some sort that is between 16 in and 20 in in height

· At least two subjects (yourself can be one)
** anyone with a known heart-problem should NOT be a subject**

· Helpful but not required – someone to be a consistent timer for the experiments

Methods

A.
Determination of Index of Physical Fitness of Each Subject – Harvard Step Test

1. Bench stepping is the following series of movements repeated sequentially:

a. Place one foot on the step

b. Step up with the other foot so that both feet are on the platform. Straighten the legs and back.

c. Step down with the other foot (the one that you put up on the step first)

d. Step down with the foot left on the step

2. The pace for the stepping will be kept by a “timer” who will repeat “up-2-3-4” at such a pace that each “up-2-3-4” takes about 2 seconds, so that there are 30 cycles of stepping per minute.

3. The subject is to bench step as long as possible, up to a maximum of 5 minutes, according to the cadence called by the timer.

4. Watch the subject for crouching (posture must remain upright). If he or she is unable to keep the pace up for 15 seconds, stop the test.

5. When the subject is stopped by the pacer for crouching, stops voluntarily because he/she is unable to continue, or has completed 5 minutes of bench stepping, he/she is to sit down. At this point, record the duration of exercise in seconds.

6. After one-minute of rest, take the pulse immediately and record.

7. Repeat pulse measurements after two and three minutes of rest.

8. Determine the index of physical fitness.

9. Repeat this for each subject that is participating in these experiments.

B.
Cardiovascular Responses to Changes in Exercise Jayden Allen

1. Before you begin, collect the blood pressure of subject 1 at the baseline (rest). Record this value here: __121/62 – Me______142/76 – Dad____________. Take the BP again, and average it with the first. Record the averaged BP in the table below.

2. Have subject 1 complete a high-knee exercise:

a. Have them stand with legs together and arms at their sides; have them lift one knee toward their chest.

b. Have them lower their leg and repeat with the other knee. Continue alternating knees, pumping their arms up and down

3. Time subject 1 to keep a consistent cadence based on fitness level for 10 minutes; if the subject cannot keep pace for 15 seconds, stop the test.

4. After 10 minutes, have subject 1 stop and immediately take their blood pressure and record it in the table. Start a rest-timer.

5. Take the BP of subject 1 at 1-min, 3-min, 5-min, and 15-min post exercise.

6. After 30 full minutes of rest, repeat the entire process with subject 1 again (steps 2-5) and record the data as trial 2.

7. Repeat steps 1-6 for subject 2.

Results

Table 1. Index of Physical Fitness Raw Data

Duration of Steps

Pulse after 1-min rest

Pulse after 2-min rest

Pulse after 3-min rest

Subject 1

5 mins

84

76

80

Subject 2

5 mins

48

58

57

Table 2. Calculated Index of Physical Fitness for Each Subject

Index of Physical Fitness Score

Interpretation

Subject 1

High Average

Fair

Subject 2

Excellent

Above Average

Table 3. Blood Pressure Changes in Response to Exercise

Trial 1

Trial 2

Baseline

Average

Immediately Post Exercise

1 min rest

3 min rest

5 min rest

15 m

rest

Immediately Post Exercise

1 min rest

3 min rest

5 min rest

15 min rest

Subject 1

121/62

150/74

150/74

155/72

155/73

158/75

150/74

155/72

155/73

158/72

158/75

Subject 2

142/76

164/67

164/67

169/66

164/67

160/66

164/67

169/67

169/66

164/67

160/66

Table 4. Averages of Blood Pressure Changes in Response to Exercise

AVERAGE

Baseline

Average

Immediately Post Exercise

1 min rest

3 min rest

5 min rest

15 min

rest

Subject 1

138/82

150/74

155/72

155/73

158/72

158/75

Subject 2

142/ 76

164/67

169/66

164/67

162/68

160/66

Data Analysis and Discussion

For this experiment, you will analyze your results as necessary to determine if your hypothesis was correct or not. Likewise, your discussion will be tailored to your hypothesis as well. Make sure you read through the directions for the lab report to make sure that you’ve answered the minimum requirements.

Title:

Cardiovascular Responses

Problem:

Stress test to see how the cardiovascular systems responds in taking blood pressure

Hypothesis:

This information is applicable to the healthy range of blood pressure measurement for an adult. The shift in exercising and frequency determined the changes in blood flow during the experiment. The experience in this lab did reveal changes in each interval of exercise. As the exercise increased the need for oxygen increased but the blood pressure reading did not significantly change.

Discussion:

There is no discussion about the lab except that it was a time spent to bond with my dad as my lab partner.

Conclusion:

The hypothesis was supported with the interval changes in the blood pressure reading.

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